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WRITTEN A. D. 1684, 








mm. in : 

i M. II. i.ll. I . 



•patron : 


^resilient : 

His Grace the Duke of Leinster, M.R.I. A. 

Council : 

Elected December igth, 1845. 

The Marquis of Kildare, M. R. I. A. 

The Earl of Leitrim, M. R. I. A. 

The Viscount Adare, M. P., M. R. I. A. 

Rev. Samuel Butcher, A. M., M. R. I. A. 

James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

William E. Hudson, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

Captain Larcom, R. E., V. P. R. I. A. 

James Mac Cullagh, Esq., LL. D., M. R. I. A. 

George Petrie, Esq., R. H. A., V. P. R. I. A. 

Aquilla Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 

Joseph H. Smith, Esq., A. M., M. R. I. A., Treasurer. 

Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., Secretary. 


pE following Chorographical Description of the Ter- 
ritory of West or H-Iar Connaught, now first printed, 
was written in A. D. 1684, by Roderic OTlaherty, 
author of the Ogygia, or Chronology of Irish events. 
It is one of many similar treatises, compiled about 
that period by several learned individuals, for the 
purpose, as is said, of illustrating the celebrated Down Survey of 
Ireland, by Sir William Petty. After a general view of the bounda- 
ries, extent, and baronies of H-Iar Connaught, the author, p. 7, defines 
its borders, beginning with Lough Measg (Mask), in the north of 
the barony of Ross, and proceeding, by the eastern limits, towards 
the south, including Lough Orbsen ( Corrib), he turns to the west, 
by the Bay of Galway, and thence continues northward, along the 
shores of the Atlantic, to the Killary harbour, which flows inland, 
in the direction of Lough Mask, where he began. A general descrip- 
tion is then given of the state and appearance of the interior, its 
mountains, mines, woods, soil, rivers, and lakes ; the bays and har- 
bours round the coast ; the productions of the country, as fish, fowl, 
irish arch. soc. 15. b beasts, 


beasts, &c. ; the ruins of ancient churches, chapels, and other religion! 
places ; and, finally, the natural disposition of the natives. After which, 
p. 17, the two great lakes, Mask and Corrib, with some of the islands 
in the latter, are particularly described ; p. 27, the river, town, and 
bay of Gal way; p. 44, the half barony of Ross ; p. 52, the barony 
ofMoycullen; p. 65, the three islands of Aran ; and p. 92, to the 
end, the barony of Ballynahinch (Conamara), which completes the 
district. The boundaries, extent, and remarkable places so described, 
may be traced by their ancient names on the annexed map of Iar- 
Connaught, and of Ui Briuin Seola, the present barony of Clare, in 
the County of Gal way, as they existed in and previous to the six- 
teenth century. 

In this work Mr. O'Flaherty has given additional proofs of his 
discrimination, judgment, and learning. That he has far exceeded 
his contemporary contributors, will appear by a comparison of hi£ 
treatise with the others produced at the same time, and for the 
same purpose. One only of these has been hitherto published, be- 
ing a Description of the County of Westmeath, by Sir Henry Piers, 
printed by Vallancey in the first Number of his Collect'/ n,,i de Rdbm 
Hibemicis, and also in a separate form ; but the puerility, prejudice, 
and irrelevant disquisitions which pervade that " Itinerary,"' render 
its inferiority to this of our author at once manifest. Some of the 
other treatises alluded to still remain in MS. in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Among them is a short description of the County 
of Leitrim, compiled by Thady Eody, which appears deserving of pre- 
servation ; and is, indeed, the only one of the entire, worthy of being 
classed with the following description of "West-Connaught. 

As nearly two hundred years had elapsed since our Author 
collected the information contained in this curious treatise, it was 
found necessary, as soon as its publication had been resolved 
upon by the Irish Archseological Society, to illustrate the text with 

vari< ma 


various explanations, and some additional information. At the re- 
quest of friends, who were pleased to think more favourably of the 
Editor than he is conscious of having merited, he was induced to under- 
take that task, and the result of his labours will be found in the Notes 
and Appendix which follow. Among those are interspersed several 
original documents, never before published, which have been carefully 
transcribed by the Editor, from various public repositories and private 
collections ; and these original papers may now be considered as so 
many authentic additions to the materials of Irish history. Most of 
them have been introduced as illustrative of the territory treated of, 
and others as connected with the province at large. Many will be 
found of curious import, containing interesting information ; particu- 
larly those relating to the Provincial Composition of A. D. 1585; a 
proceeding with which our historical writers for the two last centu- 
ries appear to have been but little, if at all, acquainted. A conside- 
ration of the imperfect state of Irish history in general, and of that of 
this western province in particular, has led to the insertion of many of 
those documents ; and the opportunity was considered favourable, as a 
means for their preservation. Some of them may prove useful to 
future writers ; and the correctness and authenticity of the entire may 
be safely relied upon. The humble, but laborious duty which de- 
volved on the Editor, he has thus endeavoured to perform, " et com- 
muni ductus officio, et amore quodam operis." No pains have been 
spared to render the publication in some degree worthy of the repu- 
tation of the author of the Ogygia, and the high character of our 
Archseological Society, which is silently achieving so much good for 
the history of Ireland. How far the Editor may have succeeded is 
not for himself to determine. But if this work shall be found to 
have promoted, even in the slightest degree, any of the objects of the 
Society, he will feel, as expressed on a former occasion, amply requited 
for all his labour. " Ex hoc quocunque labore, si utilitatem aliquam per- 

b 2 cipias, 


cipias, me operae non pcenitebit, imd horas succisivas ita impensas, me 
bene collocasse existimabo." — Waraeus noster, lectori Antiq. Htbernia 

To the natives of H-Iar Connaught, or the descendants of its old 
families, the Editor is not indebted for much information, written or 
otherwise, except some few traditional narratives ; and of the latter, 
such as could not be verified from other sources have been rejected. 
Several extracts relating to the islands of Aran, the Civil Distribu- 
tion, temp. Car. II., and other subjects connected with the district, 
have been omitted, rather than trespass on the indulgence of the 
Society, which has liberally permitted this volume to be increased 
far beyond its intended limits. It is hoped, however, that sufficient 
has been given to illustrate our author's description, and to diffuse a 
knowledge of this part of Ireland, which may eventually lead to the 
moral and social improvement of its population. This work may. 
moreover, indicate what might be expected, in the way of documen- 
tary history, from other parts of the kingdom, when even so much 
could be elicited from so unpromising a locality as II-Iar Connaught. 
A series of publications on a similar plan, from each provino 
county, accompanied with original documents, would add considera- 
bly to our national lore, and, probably, form an important part of the 
true " Materia Historica" of the country. 

To his erudite friend, John O'Donovan, the Editor stands obliged 
for several judicious observations, together with the map which 
accompanies this work ; and to Dr. Todd, of Trinity College, and 
Dr. Aquilla Smith, of Dublin, he is likewise indebted for many faci- 
lities of obtaining information", and for much useful assistance-, to 
which particularly may be attributed the general correctness with 
which the entire has passed through the press. The untiring zeal 
of these learned members of the Irish Archaeological Society, on the 
present and every other occasion, to promote its interests, entitles 
them to the warmest acknowledgments of that body. 



The Right Honourable the Earl of Leitrim, always anxious to 
forward the objects of the Society, has been kindly pleased to com- 
municate some original papers written by Mr. O'Flaherty, which will 
be found printed in the Appendix. From one of these is given a fac- 
simile of a letter (see p. 431), which may prove serviceable in identi- 
fying any of his writings that may hereafter be discovered. The " Ogy- 
gia Christiana," said to remain in manuscript among his relations in 
Connaught, was considered by the venerable Charles O'Conor as the 
most valuable of our author's works. 

To the Right Rev. Doctor O'Donnell, Roman Catholic Bishop of 
Galway, and Michael J. Browne, Esq., of Moyne, in that county, the 
Editor has to return his grateful thanks for the use of several ancient 
documents. He has also to express his obligations to Captain Larcom, 
of the Royal Engineers ; and to Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., of Middle- 
hill, Broadway, Worcestershire, for the kindness and liberality with 
which that gentleman has permitted access to his valuable collection 
of manuscripts, among which is preserved our author's autograph copy 
of the following treatise. 

J. H. 


3. Notes, col. 2, last line, read " O'Dowda." 

10. Notes, col. 1, 1. 13, read maopaocpoinn 1. 14, enpor. 

44. Notes, col. 1, 1. 21, read « Ballynahineh." 
185. Line 31, read "Connac." 
217. Line 32, read " Mereiy." 
369. Notes, col. 2, 1. 5, read 70. 
377. Line 24, for " Ca-" read " Cathal." 
399. Notes, col. 2. 1. 13, read " poefe Tin 




1. Narrative of an extraordinary Cure at St. Augustine's Well, near Galvvay, A. D. 

1673, ' . . . 88 

2. List of the Christian Kings of Connaught, by Peter O'Connell, 128 

3. Account of the Regal Family of O'Conor of Connaught, by Charles O'Conor, . 134 

4. Rights, Privileges, and Revenues of the Kings of Connaught, from Leabhar nu 

g-ceart, 142 

5. The Chieftains and Territories of Connaught in the twelfth Century, from O'Du- 

gan's " Triallam timceall na Fodhla" 144 

6. The Battle of Knock-tow (Cnoc d-tuadh), A. D. 1504, from the Book of Howth, . 149 

7. Bulla pro Par. de Gnowceg {Gnobeg) A. D. 1487 15(5 

8. Skryne et Muchulin, A. D. 1492, 159 

9. Serine et Clonbirn, A. D. 1495, 161 

10. Ecclesia de Meculyn, A. D. 1496, 163 

11. Furanmor et Meray, A. D. 1496, 165 

12. Excommunicato contra Malefactores in Collegium (Galviw), A. D. 1501, . . . 167 

13. Bulla pro Rectoria de Tiraglas, et Vicariis de Kynmara et Ballinclare, A. D. 1502, 168 
14. Ricardo De Burgo, Canonico Duacensi, A. D. 1511, 171 

15. Processus de Gnobegge, &c, A. D. 1497, 174 

16. Ecclesiastical Division of West Connaught, A. D. 1615, 179 

17. Declaration against Transporting of Wolfe Dogges, A. D. 1652, 180 

18. Declaration touchinge the Poore, A. D. 1653, 181 

19. Declaration touching Wolves, A. D. 1653, ib. 

20. Order touching poore Vagrants, A. D. 1653 182 

21. Letter of King Edw. VI. that the Irish may eat fleshe at all times forbidden, A.D. 

1551, 184 



22. Placita apud Tristeldermot — Ricardus de Burgo Comes Ultonie, A. D. 1305, . . I*' 1 

23. Peticon of John Blake, alias Caddie, A. D. 1640, 192 

24. Report on the Petition of John Blake, alias Caddie, A. D. 1640, ...... 194 

25. Carta Thome de Hebrigge, facta Ricardo Cadel, A. D. 1315, 195 

26. Carta Philippi filii Willielmi Erla, facta Joh. f. Waited Blak, A. D. 1391, . . . 196 

27. Carta Kating Hannyn, A. D. 1394, 19/ 

28. Inventarium Bonorum et Debitorum Johannis oge Blake, et ejus Testamentum, 

A. D. 1420, l!'s 

29. Laudum Wil. de Burgo sue Nacionis Capitanei, &c. A. D. 1424, 201 

30. Dede of delyveraunc of vi. marc x s to Sandere lynche, & al. A. D. 1430, . . . _ 

31. Betwyxt Wil. Blake, f. Gefferey and hary Blake fz. John for the devittion of all 

ther lands, A. D. 1445, ib. 

32. Arbitryrnent inter William fy. Geffray et Johan, fy. Henry Blake, A. I). 1445, . 204 

33. Mayst Manes M'Donkyth ys dede, A. D. 1449, - ' 

34. Testamentum Johannis f. Hen. Blak, A. D. 1468 ib. 

35. Sententia lata inter Ric. et Nico. Blake, &c. A. D. 1543 210 

36. The Order taken betywxt Job. Wak Wlleg & f Blaks, by y« lord Chaunseler, 

A. D. 1553, ".' 211 

37. Pettegree of John Blake, alias Caddie 212 

38. Regal Visitation of the College of Gahvay, A. D. 1615, 214 

39. Concessio iv. Marcar. in puram Elemosinam, Parochiali Ecclesie S. Nicolai, A. I). 

1435, 215 

40. Dispensacio Maritagii pro Valtero Blake et Juliana Lynch, A. D. 1472, . . . 21 'I 

41. Colacio Archiepiscopi super Rectoriam et Vicariam do Furanmor, et Vicariam de 

Mevay, A. D. 1487 217 

42. Colacio Archiepiscopi super Rectoriam de Rawyn, A. D. 1488 21 •* 

43. Resignatio Vicarie de Moculyn, A. D. 1488, 21!' 

44. Conventum inter Gul. de Burgo et Majorem Gahvy, A. D. 1488 2_'(> 

45. Unio Ecclesiarum de Kyllcommyn et Killruyn Collegio, A. D. 1488, .... 222 

46. Littere inhibitorie contra Richardum de Burgo, A. D. 1492, ib. 

47. Unio Ecclesiarum de Shruther et Kenlagh, pro Collegio, A. D. 1501, .... 224 

48. Confirmacio Walteri Episcopi Cluanensis, pro Collegio, A. D. 1506, .... ib. 

49. Receptio Sandari Lynche et Anastacie ejus uxoris, in Confraternitatem Fratnim 

minorum, A. D. 1521 

50. Conventum inter Donaldum O'Flaherty et Vardianum Galvie, A. D. 1527, • • ib. 

51. Confirmacio Beneficiorum pro Collegio, A. D. 1541, 22," 

52. An Ordre in the behalfe of the Colledge, A. D. 1542 22E 

53. Morgadg of the juelles of y e Chyrche,A. D. 1546 230 

54. Ad excellentissimum Principem Henricum Octavum [Petitio], ib. 

55. Dispensacio pro Nicholao Blake, et Sescilia Uxore ejus, A. D. 1556, .... 233 

56. Confirmacion by Richard Blake, of his Auncestors Gifts to the Colledge, A. D. 155S, ib. 




57. Order touching Srowher [Shrule] etc. A. D. 1569, 235 

58. Inquisittio of the Duties and Rights of S< Nicholas his Churche, A. D. 1609, . . 236 

59. Order of Hermits of S l Augustine, — Deed of Endowment, A. D. 1517, • • . . 243 

60. State Letter for Favor, A. D. 1656 244 

61. Genealogia Domini Gregorii Joyes 248 

62. Carta Dermicii O'Halloran, A. D. 1594, 255 

63. Carta Joh. O'Halloran, A. D. 1594, 256 

64. Morrertagh O'Hallurane and Teig is Dede, A. D. 1606, 257 

65. Deede of the Clagann, A. D. 1612, 258 

66. Donoghe M c Moyller et al. is dede, A. D. 1614 259 

67. Erevan O'Halloraine his deede of Mullaghglasse, A. D. 1645, ib. 

68. Letter to Dr. Molineaux, on Ratts, A. D. 1708, 263 

69. Murage Charter of Athenry, A. D. 1310, 2C6 

70. Letter from the Earl of Clanricarde, A. D. 1596, 270 

71. Letter from the Mayor of Galway, A. D. 1596, 271 

72. Petition of the Porlriffe, &c, of Athenry to Parliament, A. D. 1634, 272 

73. Indenture and Returne relating to S' Dominick's Abbey, and Our Lady's Churche, 

A. D. 1651, 274 

74. Letter of Q. Elizabeth for Conly Mac Geoghegan, A. D. 1567, 276 

75. Indenture between Morroghe ne Moyer O'Fflaherty, and Knohor (Connor) 

M l Conry, A. D. 1615, 281 

76. Will of Bryan M c Enry, A. D. 1691, 282 

77. abpdn an piiuca 283 

78. 6ainip piieji ni h-6ajpa 287 

79. 66jan Coip, 292 

80. Trial of Robert Martin, A. D. 1735 295 

81. Q. Elizabeth's letter respecting the Civil Reformation of Connaught, A. D. 1579, 

(note), 304 

82. Indenture of Composition for the Country of the O'Fflaherty es, called Eyre-Co- 

naght, A. D. 1585, 309 

83. ■ Many O'Kelle's Country, 318 

84. ■ O'Madden's Country, 321 

85. ■ that part of Connaught called Clanrickard, 323 

86. Mac Davye's Countreye, 327 

87. ■ Brymegham's Country, or Barony of Donemore, 329 

88. Countie of Mayoe, 331 

89. Boundaries of Mayo (note), A. D. 1607, ib. 

90. Bellahawnes Baronye, commonly called Mac Costilo his Country, A. D. 1587, . 339 

91. Indenture of Composition for Sligo, A. D. 1585 340 

92. Boundaries of Sly go (Moze), A. D. 1607 341 

93. Indenture of Composition for O'Royrk's Country, A. D. 1585, 346 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 15. C 94. 



94. The County of Leitrim, limitted and appointed, A. D. 1583 (note) 346 

95. Boundaries of Leitrim, A. D. 1607 (note), 347 

96. Indenture of Composition for Moylurge alias Mac Dermott's Countrye, O'Connor 

Roe's Countrye, and O'Connor Dune's Country [Roscommon], A. D. 1585, . . 352 

97. Boundaries of Roscommon, A. D. 1607 (note), 353 

98. Lords Spirituall and temporal], chieftanes, gent. &c, of Thomond, A. D. 1585, . 35s 

99. Letter of Q. Elizabeth for Connoher Earl of Thomond, A. D. 1577, 359 

100. Territories of the hereditary Proprietors of Muintir Murchadha, of Clanfergail and 

Meadruidhe, and Hy-Briuin Seola, and Hy-Briuin Ratha, and Muintir Fahy; 

their chieftains, and Mac Oglachs, and Ollaves, A. D. 1098, 368 

101. First invasion of Connaught by the Anglo-Normans, from the Book ofLeinster, 

A. D. 1177, 376 

102. Letters of Henry III. in favour of Morogh and Roderic O'Flaherty, A. O. 1244, . 381 

103. Submission of Hugh O'Flaherty to King Henry VIII., A. D. 1538 3s3 

104. Letters patent of Q. Eliz. appointing Morrougli of the Battle-axes Chief of the 

O'Flaherties, A. D. 1569, 385 

105. Complaint of Roger Fflahertie to Sir John Perrot, Lo. Deputy, against Morogh of 

the Battle-axes, A. D. 1584, 3s7 

106. Aunswere of Moroghe na doe thereunto, 

107. Depositions taken between them, ad perpetuam rei memoriam, A. D. J585, . . 391 

108. Surrender of Sir Morough ne doe, A. D. 1585, 395 

109. Submission of Sir Moroughe ne doe and other Chiefs to the Queen, A. D. 1589, 396 

110. Will of Sir Moroghe ne doe, A. D. 1593 99 

111. Murrough ne Moyre O'Fflahertie, A. D. 1626, 404 

112. Extracts from Depositions of A. D. 1641 (note) 406 

113. Examination of Colonel Edmond O'Flahertie, A. D. 1653, 

114. Deposition of John Ward (note), A. D. 1643, 409 

115. Protection for Persons in Arms (except Priests, &*'), A. D. 1651 413 

116. Places in Connaught excluded from Protection, A. D. 1651, ib. 

117. Rewards for bringing in the heads of Rebells, A. D. 1G52, 414 

118. Order for Transplanting into Connaught, A. D. 1655, ib. 

119. Order to Lycense Peter Walsh, a Priest, to come out of Flanders into Ireland, 

A. D. 1653, 423 

Tracts by Roderic O'Flaherty, now first printed. 

I. Observations on Dr. Borlace's Reduction of Ireland, A. D. 168J, 431 

II. Confutation of the Chinese Chronology, A. D. 1696, 434 

III. Animadversions on Dr. Chamberlain's Subjection of the Bishops of Ireland to the 

Archbishop of Canterbury, A. D. 1709 437 




>HE territory of West Connaught", the antient seig- 
niory of the O'Flaherties, was extended of old be- 
yond Lough Orbsen c , and the river and town of 
Gallway, to the barronies of Kilmain, Clare, and 
Dunkellin d . 

Its cathedrall (as every Irish seigniory had its 
own, whose diocess runned with the seigniory's bounds) was Enagh- 


a Roderic C? Flaherty. — For a biographi- 
cal notice of this learned individual see 
the genealogical and historical account of 
the O'Flaherties, compiled from original 
documents, in Appendix III. 

b West Connaught — Accurately so call- 
ed, says De Burgo in his Hibernia Domi- 
nicana, for it is like a peninsula forming 

the West of Connaught, nay, even of all 
Ireland. "Et merito quidem, est enim 
ad instar Peninsula? in Occiduo Conacice, 
immo totius Hibernias." — p. 308. It is 
in Irish called lap or laprap Connacc, 
but by our author, in his Ogygia, p. 386, 
latinized " West-connactia ;" and was one 
of the great divisions of the cuijeao, fifth 

dun e , dedicated to St. Brendan, the 16th of May, Anno Christi, 577, 
there deceased, in the barony of Clare, on the brink of Lough Orb- 

or province of Connaught, which was it- 
self, anciently, the most extensive of the 
five provinces, or cuijeaoa, into which 
Ireland was originally divided. 

c Lough Orbsen. — OrOirb, now corrupt- 
ly Corrib. For an account of this lake, 
and of the river and town of Gal way, men- 
tioned immediately after in the text, see 
further on in this treatise. 

d Kilmain, Clare, and Dunkellin. — Kil- 
main, in Irish, CiU mhea6oin, a barony in 
the south of the county of Mayo ; of which 
that part lying south of the River Robe was 
the ancient territory of Conmhaicne cuile 
toladh, one of the five Conmhaicnes of Con- 
naught, for which see our author's Ogygia, 
P. iii. ch. xlvi. p. 276. This was the ancient 
seignory of O'Talcarain. Qp Conrhaicne- 
cuile ac clop, O Calcupain. — CDu- 
gan's Topogr. Poem, Stanz. 55. See also 
Lynch'sCambr.Evers. p. 27 ; and O'Brien's 
Diet., in voce Conmhaicne. The race of 
O'Talcarain has long since become extinct. 
After them theO'Conors, of the Siol-Muir- 
eadhoigh race, seem to have acquired power 
and possessions in this distinct. In A. D. 
1 155, the church of Kilmain was burned. 
— Four Masters. The O' Flaherties at an 
early period acquired some small portions 
of the southern part of this rich district, 
which bordered on their own territory of 
Ui bpuin peola; but the entire was after- 
wards possessed by the Anglo-Norman ad- 
venturers, chiefly the Burkes and their 

sen ; 

descendants, who built the castles men- 
tioned in the text. In the thirteenth cen- 
tury, this territory was the scene of great 
warring and contention, between those 
adventurers and the native tribes, the 

O'Conors and the O'Flaherties See the 

Annals of the Four Masters, particularly 
at A. D. 1225, et sequent. In A. D. 1265. 
a conference took place at Kilmain, be- 
tween Tomaltach O'Conor, Archbishop of 
Tuam, and the Prendergasts. at which 
many of the Archbishop's people t 
slain. — Id. See Ware's account of this de- 
pute, where he incorrectly calls this ; 
Kilmethau. In A. D. 1585, the ancient 
district of Conmhaicne cuile toladh 
created the barony of Kilmain, so called 
from the ancient church then-. Archdall 
was unacquainted with the site or name of 
this foundation — See Monast. p. 503. In 
A. D. 1789, Sir John Browne, Bart., 
created Baron Kilmain of the Neale, in the 
county of Mayo. — Ir. Peerage. 

Clare. — This was the ancient terri: 
of Ui 6pum Seola. the original inheri- 
tance of the O'Flaherties, or Muintir Mur- 
chada (from Morogh. the son of Maonaeh. 
who died A. D. 891. — F vr#). 

which included the districts of Ui Bruin 
Ratha and Claim Fcargaile, in the latter 
of which Galway was situate. It wa~ 
called Muintir Murchadha, from the tribe 
name of the possessors. Rickard Earl of 
Clanrickard. who died 24th July. A. D. 

sen; which, besides the cathedrall, had an abbey of Chanon Regulars, 
and a nunnery. 

But f since the year of Christ, 1238, wherein the baronies of 
Clare, Kilmain and Kera g were planted with castles 11 by the English, 


1582, was seized of a chief rent of twenty- 
marks out of the cantred called Moynter- 
moroghou Inq. Rolls Off. Dub. This ter- 
ritory, excepting a small portion to the 
south, was created the barony of Clare, in 
A. D. 1585 ; and it was so named from the 
castle of Baile an Chlaire, now Clare-Gal- 
way, which lies aboiit five miles N. E. of 
that town. The O'Flaherties possessed this 
territory from the fifth to the thirteenth 
century, when they were driven out by the 
Anglo-Norman Burkes. They then crossed 
Lough Orbsen (Corrib) and dispossessed 
the more ancient owners of the territories 
of Gnomore, Gnobegg, and Conmhaicne- 
mara, the present baronies of Moycullen 
and Balinahinch lying west of that lake, 
as will appear in the sequel. 

Dunkellin In Irish, t)un Caillin. 

This barony was created in A. D. 1585, 
and named from an ancient dun or cas- 
tle within its boundaries. It formed 
part of the territory of Ui Fiachrach 
Aidhne, in the south of the present 
county of Galway ; and, with the barony 
of Clare before mentioned, was included 
in the more modern territory of Clanrick- 
ard in that county, acquired by the fa- 
milies of De Burgo after the English in- 
vasion. See Appendix I. for a particular 
account of that territory, in A. D. 1585. 

e Enaghdun. — Now Annaghdown. We 
learn above from our author that the 
diocese of Enaghdun was conterminate 
with the " seignory" or territory of the 
O'Flaherties. The extent of both might, 
therefore, be satisfactorily ascertained 
from the ecclesiastical survey and taxa- 
tion of Ireland, made in the time of Pope 
Nicholas, A. D. 1291; but that curious 
record is kept in London, in the de- 
partment of the Queen's Remembrancer 
there. The extent of the diocese of Enagh- 
dun, at a subsequent period, may be learned 
from the MS. E. 3, 1 3, in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, which contains, 
" the state of the dioceses of Tuam, Enagh- 
dun, and Kilmacduach," in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and in the time of Christopher 
Bodkin, who succeeded archbishop Lally, 
A. D. 1536. — Ware. See also the Regal 
Visitation of A. D. 1615. 

f But — This paragraph seems misplaced. 
Half of it, viz., as far as the word " Ar- 
ran," properly belongs to the first, and the 
remainder to the second paragraph. 

g Kera. — In Irish Ceapa. The barony 
of Carra, or Burriscarra, in the county of 
Mayo, bordering on the barony of Kilmain, 
in the same county, was part of the terri- 
tory of Hy-Fiachrach, the ancient princi- 
pality of the O'Dowde family. Although 


the same [ West Connaught] is confined to the limits of Moycullin 
and Balynahinsy barony's, and of the half baronies of Ross and 

Aran : 

this is one of the richest baronies of Ire- 
land, in point of soil, its present dense po- 
pulation may be classed among the poorest 
of the kingdom in point of circumstances. 
But it was not always so. The rich plains 
of Carra are noticed at an early period of 
our history ; and the inhabitants, emphati- 
cally called the "Men of Carra,' : were for- 
merly distinguished for their bravery, af- 
fluence, and hospitality. " ^ap pao calma 
pip Ceapa" (a brave race, the men of 
Carra). M c Firbis describes these " Men 
of Carra" and their possessions, in his Book 
of Hy-Fiachrach, preserved in MS. in the 
Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dub- 
lin. This is one of the most interesting 
fragments of Irish history now remain- 
ing, and has recently been published by 
the Irish Archaeological Society. From 
it we learn that several of the kings of 
Connaught formerly resided in Carra, and 
that O'Murry, O'Gormog, and O'Tier- 
ney, were its lords under the O'Dowdes, 
kings of Hy-Fiachrach. In A. D. 1273, 
Flann O'Tierney, lord of Carra, was slain 
by the O'Murrys in a contest about the 

lordship Four Masters. The English 

De Burgos immediately after dispossessed 
these old proprietors, and established them- 
selves in the territory. Some of the de- 
scendants of the former lords of Carra, 
particularly the O'Tierneys, may yet be 
traced within the barony, but most of 
them reduced to extreme poverty. Robert 

Downing, in his Description of Mayo, writ- 
ten about A. D. 1684, and preserved in the 
MS. Library of Trinity College, Dublin, I. 
1, 3, states, that " The barony of Scarra 
{rede Carra) or Burriscarra, lyeth next to 
Kilmaine, which standeth upon the brink 
of a great lough, called Lough Carra, by 
the ancients Fionn lough Carra, which is 
said to have been one of the three loughs 
of Ireland that first sprung. On it is a 
small abbey, or rather nunnery, called 
Annagh or Any. It was founded and given 
by Thomas Burke, the chief of the Burk*- 
of Mayo, to the abbot of Cong, upon con- 
dition, that if any woman oi'lii- posterity 
would vow chastity, the abbot of < 
should maintain her during her li: 
appears by the several inquisitions after 
the dissolution of Cong." — See Archdall's 
Monast. p. 500, Abbey of Cong. In 
A. D. 1585, Carra was created a barony, 
retaining its ancient name. For further 
particulars concerning it, see Mayo Com- 
position, Appendix I. 

h Planted rcith castles This is recorded 

by the Four Masters as follows : A. D. 
1238, " Cai plena 00 oenavh hi TTluinrip 
niupchaoa hi c-Conmatcne Cuile ajup 
ac-Ceapa, lapna bapunaiB pempuire." — 
" Castles were built in Muiutir Murcha- 
dha [the barony of Clare], in Conmaicne 
Cuile [the barony of Kilmain] and Ceara, 
by the aforesaid barons ;"" i. e. by the Eng- 
lish adventurers in Ireland. Ti. 

Aran 1 ; and in the time of Malachias Mac Aodha of West Connaught 
extraction^ archbishope of Tuam \ab. A . 13 13, ad. Ann. 1348], after 

principally, the Burkes, many of whom 
afterwards took the surnames of Mac Phil- 
bin, Gibbons, Jonine or Jennings, Mac 
Huberts, Mac Tibbotts, Mac Meylers, &c. 
The adjoining districts were possessed 
by the Berminghams (afterwards called 
Mac Feorais), the Jordans, Costellos, Pren- 
dergasts, Mac Morrises, Stauntons (after- 
wards called M c Evillys), Fitzsimonses (af- 
terwards called Mac Eudderys, recently 
Knights), Fitzstephens, &c. All these fa- 
milies are descended from the Anglo-Nor- 
man adventurers or soldiers who came to 
Ireland in the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies ; but having afterwards became 
" more Irish that even the Irish them- 
selves," their possessions were nearly all 
confiscated in the seventeenth century. 
Their descendants are consequently much 
reduced from the opulence of the original 
founders ; but many of them yet preserve 
rank and respectability in the country. 
The Annals of the Four Masters contain, 
in great part, the history of these fami- 

'Aran These baronies of Moycullin and 

Ballynahinsy, and the half baronies of Ross 
and Aran will be found described further 
on. The extent of Iar- Connaught, viz., of 
Eoss, Moycullin, and Ballinahinch, is es- 
timated in Irish acres, by the able engi- 
neer, Mr. Nimmo, in his valuable " Re- 
port on the Bogs to the west of Lough 
Corrib" (printed as an Appendix, No. 1 2, 

to the Fourth Report of the Commissioners 
on the Bogs of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 187, by 
order of the House of Commons, A. D. 
1 8 14), as follows: 

Arable, 25,000 acres. 

Bog, 120,000 „ 

Mountain and upland 

pasture, .... 200,000 ,, 

Rock, much of it lime- 
stone, 5,000 „ 

350,000 „ 
The extent and population of these three 
baronies and the islands of Aran, given in 
the " Report of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed to take the Census of Ireland for 
the year 1841" (the extent taken from 
the Ordnance Survey of Ireland), are as 
follows : 




Balinahinch, . . 
Moycullen, . . . 

Aran Isles, . . . 














From these tables it appears that the 
population has increased in Iar-Connaught 
more than one-half in twenty years ; but 
nothing is more certain than that the 
means of any thing like comfortable exis- 
tence have not at all increased. In the 
days of our author, as he relates, the 

a long debate for many years before and in his time, the cathedrall of 
Enaghdun was, Anno 1321, united to the see of Tuam, by the finall 
decision of Pope John the twenty-second. 

The half barony of Kosse lies furthest to the north, the barony 
of Moycullin to the east, the half barony of Aran to the south, and 
the barony of Balynahinsy to the west. 

It is thirty-two miles long from Galway to Slhnhead k ; and 

I setting 

people of tins district had plenty of corn 
for their own consumption after paying 
their landlords. Potatoes, which were then 
unknown, are now, generally speaking, the 
principal food ; and even they sometimes 
fail, of which there have been, in latter 
years, some awful instances. 

J West Connaught extraction Our au- 
thor's meaning seems to be that Malachias 
Mac Aodha, i. e. Malachy Mac Hugh, or 
Hughes, was of the same extraction as the 
O'Flaherties of West Connaught. This 
ancient and respectably descended family 
of Hughes, is now pretty generally spread 
over this province. For its pedigree down 
to the archbishop, see Mac Firbis's great 
Book of Genealogies, preserved in the Li- 
brary of the Eoyal Irish Academy, p. 201. 
It is also given by O'Ferrall (who here 
agrees with Mac Firbis), in his curious 
Book of Irish Pedigrees, preserved in the 
Herald's Office, Dublin, as follows: "Mac 
Hugh of Mon teach; 96. Canfaola, son of Col- 
gan, the thirteenth Christian king of Con- 
naught (see No. 1 1 in the O 'Flaherty Pedi- 
gree, Appendix II.); 97. Dungal or Toole 
(second son of Canfaola, Amalgadh, the 
ancestor of O'Flaherty, being the oldest) ; 

98. Cumscragh ; 99. Donn ; 100. Cos- _■ 
ioi.Murias; 102. Conang; 103. Gownan: 
104. Cosgrach (some call him Flann abrad) 
a quo Clann Coscry ; 1 05. Eory ; 1 06. 
Hugh, a quo the surname Mac Hugh ; 
107. Muredach ; 108. Teige: 109. Hugh; 
1 10. Donogh ; ill. Mc-laghlin : 112. Do- 
nald ; 113. Melaghlin M c Hugh, a canon 
in Elphin, and made bishop there, 1309 ; 
archbishop of Tuam, 1 3 1 3 : and (as also 
elsewhere stated by our author) governor 
of Connaught, jointly with EdmondBurke, 
son to the red Earl of Ulster, in 1333; 
died 1348. He was a learned antiquary, 
and writ the book called leubcrp lTlhic 
Qoou, now [1709] extant." — Or in. m loc. 
citat. See Ware's Account of Archbishop 
Mac Hugh, vol. i. p. 610. 

k Slimhcad. — Ceann lei me ; in Mac- 
kenzie's " Maritim Survey." and other 
modern maps and charts, improperly called 
Sline, or Slyne, head. This is the most 
western point of Conamara, and our author 
must have calculated its distance from 
Galway, according to the " long I 
naught miles" (" magnis milliaribus Co- 
naciensibus," de Burgo, Hib. Dom. p. 308, 
n. (e) ), for it is at least fifty miles, modern 

(setting aside the Isles of Aran) sixteen miles broad, from Killin 1 , 
opposite to Aran, to the Salmon Leap of Easroe. 

It is surrounded on the east with Loughmeasg m , the isthmus 
and river of Cong", Lough Orbsen, and the river of Gal way ; on the 


English measure, from that town to the 
lighthouse atSlimhead. Harris incorrectly 
says : " I judge the name Slime-Head 
should be written Slin-Head, Slin signify- 
ing a shoulder." — Harris's Ware, vol. ii. 
p. 202. This is one of the numerous er- 
rors which should be corrected in a new 
edition of that work. 

1 Killin — Easroe. — At Killin (C ill in) 
are the ruins of an old church, near the 
south-west point of Casla Bay. Easroe, 
Gappuao, lies at the head of the Killery, 
Caol paile puao, near the mearing of 
the counties of Mayo and Galway. 

m Loughmeasg. — IDear-jct, now called 
Lough Mask. This lake will be found 
mentioned again in the sequel. 

n Cong In Irish, Conjct and Conja 

pecin, a border town between Mayo and 
Galway counties, formerly celebrated for 
a richly endowed monastery, founded by 
St. Fechin (but, according to Ware, by 
Donal Mac Aodha mhic Ainmhire, mo- 
narch of Ireland) in the seventh century. 
Cong is situated upon an island or isthmus 
formed by the openings of the subter- 
raneous river flowing from Lough Mask 
into Lough Corrib. The plain of Moytura, 
Irish fflaj Uuipeao, famous for a decisive 
battle fought there at an early period, be- 
tween the Firbolgs and Tuatha de Danans, 

early invaders of Ireland (see Four Mas- 
ters at A. M. 3303) lies within the parish 
of Cong, to the right of the road leading 
from the town of Cong to the village of 
the Neale. Here were to be seen the re- 
mains of an ancient fort, called Carcnp 
mhic Uuipe ; lately demolished in order 
to erect the glebe house of Nymphsfield 
on its site. 

The Annals of the Four Masters inform 
us, that in A. D. 1 198, Roderick O'Conor, 
king of Connaught and monarch of Ire- 
land, died at Cong, and that his remains 
were conveyed to Clonmacnoise, and in- 
tombed at the north side of the altar of 
the great church there. Cathal Crovdearg 
{the red-handed), king of Connaught, having 
leagued with William Fitz-Adelm de Bur- 
go, or Burke (the first of the Burkes who 
came to Ireland), they marched to Cong, 
where they spent the Easter. While there, 
this William Burke, and the sons of Rode- 
rick O'Flaherty, entered into a conspiracy 
to murder Cathal, but it was providentially 
discovered and defeated. A. D. 1226, Nu- 
ala, queen of Ulster, and daughter of Ro- 
derick O'Conor the monarch, died at Cong, 
and was interred in the canon's church 

The remnant of a splendid cross, which 
formerly belonged to the monastery of 

south with the bay of Gall way and western ocean ; on the west and 
north with the same ocean, and with the mountaines of Formna more 
further on the north. 

The country is generally coarse, moorish, and mountanous p , full 
of high rocky hills, large valleys, great bogs, some wood< q , whereof 
it had abundance before they were cut. 


Cong, was lately purchased, and muni- 
ficently presented to the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, by James Mac Cullagh, Esq., the 
distinguished Professor and Fellow of Tri- 
nity College, Dublin. 

° Galwoy. — For an account of the river 
and bay mentioned here see further on. 
Mr. Nimmo, in his valuable Eeport before 
referred to (note '), says : " The district 
oflar-Connaught is nearly surrounded by 
the sea on the south and west, and the 
great lakes, Mask and Corrib, on the east ; 
the latter navigable into the town of Gal- 
way, and could easily be made so to the 
sea." — Report, p. 188. 

p Mountanous. — "Although Conamara 
be mountainous, it is by no means an up- 
land country like Wicklow ; at least three- 
fourths of Conamara proper is lower than 
i oo feet over the sea. Great part of Iar- 
Connaught rises from the shore of Gahvay 
Bay, in a gently sloping plain, to about 
300 feet ; at the upper edge of which there 
are some hills of about 700 feet, and be- 
yond them a low limestone country ex- 
tends to the edge of Lough Corrib, and 
but little elevated above its level, which 
is only fourteen feet higher than the sea ; 
but Joyce's country, on the other hand, 

is an elevated tract with flat-topped hills 
of 1,300 feet to 2,000, interi-persed with 
deep and narrow vallies." — Id. 

q Woods See Boate's Natural Hifil 

of Ireland, 8vo. London, 1652, ch. 15, 
which accounts for the diminution of tim- 
ber in Ireland by the " incredible quan- 
tity" consumed in the ironworks erected 
before that time, and by the exportation 
of pipe staves, in "whole ship Loads." I 
find that on the 18th March. A. D. 1616, 
King James I. granted license to Richard 
Milton, " to cut timber in Ireland (except 
such as has been marked by the K 
officers for ship timber) fur pipe-el 
hogshead staves, cloppboards, or other 
cloven ware, and to export the same for 
twenty-one years." — Rot. Pot. 14 Jac. I. 3. 
p. f. No. 8. The same a 1 to have 

continued to and after the time of our au- 
thor. On this subject the Irish have an 
ancient saying — 

Ceopa h-uaipe oocuip Pipe, 
Ueopa monju, 7 ceopa maola 61. 

Ireland was thrice beneath the plough-share. 

Thrice it was wood, and thrice it was bare. 

Mr. Nimmo, in his Report, says: "Cona- 
mara is very destitute of wood, a few 

It is replenished with rivers, brooks, lakes'", and standing 
waters, even on the tops of the highest mountains. On the sea 
side there are many excellent large and safe harbours $ for ships to 
ride on anchor ; the climate 1 is wholesome, soe as divers attain to 
the age of ninety years, a hundred and upwards. The land produces 
wild beasts", as wolves v , deere, foxes, badgers, hedgehogs, hares, rab- 

scrubby patches only being thinly scat- 
tered through it. The country, however, 
possesses an extensive stool of timber, for 
in almost every dry knole or cliff, the oak, 
birch, and hazel, appear shooting in abun- 
dance, and require only a little care to rise 
into valuable forests. Several bloomeries, 
which were erected about a century ago, 
consumed much of the timber, and copsing 
was afterwards neglected. The sheltered 
vales, navigations, and abundant water- 
power, would form great advantages in the 
cultivation of timber." — Report, p. 188. 

r Rivers, brooks, lakes " There are 

about twenty-five navigable lakes in the in- 
terior of Iar-Connaught, of a mile or more 
in length, besides hundreds smaller ; the 
sea coast and all these lakes abound with 
fish. The district, with its islands, pos- 
sesses no less than 400 miles of sea shore. 
On Lough Corrib it has fifty miles of 
shore, so that with Lough Mask, &c, there 
are, perhaps, as many miles of shore of the 
sea, or navigable lakes, as there are-square 
miles of surface." — Id. p. 188. 

s Harbours — " There are upwards of 
twenty safe and capacious harbours, fit for 
vessels of any burthen.'''' — Id. It is ques- 
tionable whether the same can be said of 

any equal portion of sea coast in any other 
part of the globe. The late Mr. Nimmo, 
from whose Keport on Iar-Connaught the 
few foregoing illustrations of so much of 
our author's text have been taken, was 
well acquainted with the natural advan- 
tages and capabilities of Iar-Connaught. 
That great engineer was employed by Go- 
vernment in this district, and he did more 
towards the ultimate improvement of the 
place than any other man that ever lived. 

1 Climate. — " The climate is mild, snow 
being little known during the winter ; the 
mountains on the north, and general va- 
riety of surface, afford considerable shel- 
ter. The summers, however, are wet, and 
it is exposed to heavy westerly winds." — 
Id. But even this humidity might be 
corrected ; and there can be no doubt, 
that by the common and ordinary processes 
of reclaiming, planting, and extending agri- 
culture throughout this great district, it 
would, at no very distant period, become, 
in the language of Boate, "one of the sweet- 
est and pleasautest in the whole world, and 
very few countries could be named that 
might be compared with it for agreeable 
temperateness." — Nat. Hist. ch. xxi. sec. vi. 

u Beasts — Our author not having given 


bets, squirrells, martins, weesles, and the amphibious otter, of which 
kind the white-faced otter w is very rare. It is never killed, the v 
but with loss of man or dog, and its skin is mighty precious. It ad- 
mits no rats x to live any where within it, except the Isles of Aran, 
and the district of the west liberties of Galway. 


the scientific names of the various objects 
of natural history which he has mentioned, 
they will be found inserted in the notes, 
from the best modern authorities, together 
with the general or local names in Irish. 
The above mentioned are, the wolf, canis 
lupus, mac cipe ; deer, cervus elephas, 
piaj ; fox, vulpes vulgaris, pionnac; bad- 
ger, melestaxus, bpoc ; hedgehog, erinaceus 
Europceus, jpainneoj ; hare, lepus varia- 
bilis, jeapppiaij ; rabbit, lepus cuniculus, 
coinln ; squirrel, sciurus vulgaris, lopa ; 
marten, martes abietum, maopaocpoinn ; 
weasel, mustela erminea, capoj ; otter, 
lutra vulgaris, maopao uipge ; rat, mus 
rattus, luc ppctncac. 

v Wolves. — When our author wrote, 
and for some years after, wolves were to 
be found in Iar-Connaught, but not in 
such numbers as in the early part of that 
century. The last wolf which I have 
been able to trace here was killed in the 
mountains of Joyce-country, in the year 
1700. After the wars of 164 1, the ra- 
vages of the wolves were so great through- 
out Ireland, as to excite the attention 
of the State. " Wolf hunters" were ap- 
pointed in various districts, and amongst 
others in Iar-Connaught^ who helped to 
rid the country of these ferocious animals. 

w White-faced otter. — Called by the 
Irish Dobhar-chu. Martin, in his : 
resting description of the Western Islands 
of Scotland, London, 1703, 8vo. p. 159. 
tells us, that in the Isle of Skie, " the 
hunters say there is a big otter above the 
ordinary size, with a white spot on its 
breast, and this they call the king c I 
ters ; it is rarely seen, and very hard to be 
killed. Seamen ascribe great virtue to 
the skin, for they say that it is fortunate 
in battle, and that victory is always on its 

* It admits no rats This is not the case 

at present. The Norway rat every where 
prevails, having nearly extirpated the little 
black Irish rat. The latter was the species 
mentioned by Cambrensis in the following 
passage : "Est et aliud ibi (i. e. in insula 
Aren in occidentali Connactia? solo p. 
notubile : quia cum per totam Hiberniam 
copiose nimis mures abundent, ha?c tamen 
insula mure caret. Mus enim nee na 
tur hie, nee vivit invectus." — Top. D. 1 . «.-. 
6. See the description of these islands 
further on in this treatise. A similar story 
was told of the " towne of Armagh." See 
Standi urst in Holinshed, vol. vi. p. 41. 
Lond. 1808. In the well-known Book of 
Lecan, preserved in the Library of the 

1 1 

The water streames, besides lampreys y , roches, and the like of 
no value, breed salmons (where is recourse to the sea), eels, and 
divers sorts of trouts. There was never a pike or bream as yet en- 
gendered in all this countrey, nor in the adjacent parts of Mayo or 
Galway counteys. The sea here is plentifully stored with fish 2 , as 


Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, the follow- 
ing curious passage occurs in prefatory re- 
marks to a treatise on the early history of 
Ireland: " Sicut absque bestia Paradisus 
erat, ita Hibernia pariter. Hibernia nee 
leonem, nee draconem, nee ranam, nee 
Afurem nocentum, nee Draconem, nee Scor- 
pium, nee unum noxium animal nisi lupum 
alit. Hibernia autem proxima Britannise 
insula?, spatio terrarum angustior sed situ 

y Lampreys. — The scientific names of 
the fishes, &c., mentioned in this and the 
following paragraphs are: lamprey, pelro- 
myzon marinus, laimppe ; roche (i. e. 
rud), leuciscus erytkropthalmus, poipceac; 
salmon, salmo salar, bpaodn; eel, anguilla 
acutirostris, apecann; trout, salmo trutta, 
bpeac; pike, esox fec«<s, jailliapj; bream, 
cyprinusbrama, bpemn ; cod, gadus morhua, 
cpopg; ling, lota molva, lunja; hawkefish, 

punnac ppameac; coale-fish, 

merlangus carbonarius, mon^uc ; turbot, 
pleuronectes maximus, caipbepc ; plaice, 
platessa vulgaris, learoj jupb, or leucoj 
bpeac; haddock, gadus ceglefinus, cudoj; 
whiting, merlangus vulgaris, monjac ; 
gurnard, trigla gurnardus, cnuoun ; mac- 
kerel, scomber, punnac ; herring, clupea 
harengus, p5abdn ; pilchard, clupea pil- 

chardus, pilpeip ; oyster, ostrea edidis, 
oppib ; scallop, pecten maximus, plio^dn 
mapa ; cockle, cardium edule, pucan ; 
muscle, mytilus edulis, ouilfcin; razure, 
solen siliqua, pjian mapa ; lobster, homa- 
rus vulgaris, jliomac; crab, cancer pagu- 
rus, papedn ; shrimp, palatmon serratus, 
pibepobep; whale, balcena mysticetus, miol 

mo]i ; grampus, phocozna orca, ; 

porpoise, phoco?na communis, mucmapu ; 
thunny, thynnus vulgaris, cuinnfn; eagle, 
aquila chrysaetos ? piolap ; ganet, sula bas- 

sana, ; soland goose, sula bas- 

sana? ; puffin, alea torda, cpup- 

pun ; barnacle, anser brenta, caoan ; 
wild goose, anser fer us, jeao piaodin ; 
swan, cygnus ferus, eala ; cock of the 
wood, tetrao urogallus ? coileuc-collle ; 
woodcock, scolopax ruslicola, coileac pea- 
6a; chough, fregilusgraculus, cuoog; rook, 
corvus frugilegus, cnairhpiac ; cormorant, 
pelecanus carbo, bpoijeal. The bird 
which never flies but over the sea is locally 
called mapnn, and is probably the guille- 
mot, uria troile. Ambergris will be found 
noticed in a future page. 

z Fish. — See the last parliamentary Re- 
port on the Fisheries of Ireland ; an impor- 
tant document, which enters minutely into 
most of the particulars relating to this great 


cods, lings, hawkfish, coalefish, turbets, plaises, hadogs, whitings, gur- 
nards, macrells, herrings, pilchards, &c. ; and no less liberall of shell 
fish, as oysters, scollops, cokles, muscles, razures, together with lob- 
sters, crabs, shromps, &c. 

It now and then casts ashore great whales 1 , gramps, porcu- 
pisses, thunies. Both sea and land have their severall kinds of birds. 
Here is a kind of black eagle b , which kills the deere by grappling him 
with his claw, and forcing him to run headlong into precipices. 

Here the ganet soares high into the sky to espy his prey in 
the sea under him, at which he casts himself headlong into the 
and swallows up whole herrings in a morsell. This bird flya through 
the ship's sailes, piercing them with his beak. 

Here is the bird engendered by the sea out of timber 1 
lying in sea. Some call them clakes and soland-geese, some puffins, 


but neglected source of national wealth. 

a Whales. — an interesting extract from 
a communication made by Lieutenant 
Boroughs, commander of the coast guard 
in the West of Ireland, taken from the va- 
luable Fishery Eeport alluded to in the 
last note, will be found in the Additional 
Notes, p. 183. 

" Black eagle. — "The black eagle fixes 
his talons between the deer's horns, and 
beats its wings constantly about its eyes, 
which puts the deer to run continually, 
till it falls into a ditch, or over a preci- 
pice, where it dies, and so becomes a prey 
to this cunning hunter. There are at the 
same time several other eagles of this kind, 
which flye on both sides of the deer, which 
frights it extremely, and contributes much 
to its more sudden destruction." — Mar- 

tin's Western Islands, Ide of Ling 

c Clakes "Clack gooses" (Phil! 

barnacles, or soland geese, Iri^h, Caoan 
(^ipplnna, the local name. " Thi 
the deck goose; tin- shells in which this 
fowl is said to be produced are found in 
i ; 1 1 isles sticking to trei - by the bill; 
of this kind I have seen many, the fowl 
was covered by a shell, and the head stuck 
to tin' tree by the bill, but never san 
of them with life in them upon the tree 
but the natives told me that they had ob- 
served 'em to move with the heat of the 
sun." — Martin, Isle of Orkney, p. : .--. S 
also "H this point of nattiral history, Cam- 
brensis in Top. Hibernia\ "sunt et 
hie multse, qme bernacae," Sue Also Stani- 
hurst's Description of Ireland in Holin- 
shed, vol. vi. p. 18. Ed. uts i 1 his 

x 3 

others bernacles, because they resemble them. We call them girrinn. 
I omit other ordinary fowl and birds, as bernacles, wild geese, swans, 
cocks of the wood, and woodcocks, choughs, rooks, Cornish choughs 
with red legs and bills, &c. 

Here is fowle that custom allowed to eat on fasting days d , as 
cormorant feeding only on fish ; as alsoe birds found in the high 
cliffts and rocks of Aran, which never fly but over the sea, which, 
with all other numerous sea birds, yield a great store of feathers. 

Besides all these, the mountains here have store of Iron mines 6 , 
the boggs give turf sufficiently for fuell, and along with the turf, great 
trees of oak and firr many times are digged, which lay for ages under- 

treatise, "De Rebus in Hibernia gestis," 
Antwerp, 1584, Appendix, p. 230. After 
perusing, if possible, those profound discus- 
sions,adding, moreover, Gerard; Gratianus 
Lucius, p. 342 ; Ware's Ant. c. xiv., and 
Harris's Ed. c. xxxiv., the reader may, 
perhaps, be inclined to exclaim, with the 
learned Stanihurst, " thus farre of bar- 

d Fasting days. — See Ledwich's "An- 
tiquities,'' p. 369, for characteristic ob- 
servations on this subject, as connected 
with barnacles, quoted by the learned doc- 
tor from another learned doctor, Rutty, 
"the honest Quaker," as the "antiquary" 
so complacently called the "naturalist." 
But such observations were usual during 
the memorable eighteenth century, among 
a certain class of writers ; one of whom, Sir 
Richard Cox, thus triumphs, in another 
strain. "Their," i.e. the Irish, "youth and 
gentry (are) destroyed in the rebellion or 
gone to France. Those that are left are des- 

titude of horses, arms, and money, capacity, 
and courage. Five in six of the Irish are 
poor, insignificant slaves, fit for nothing 
but to hew wood and draw water." — Ex- 
tract from his Orig. Letter, z^th Oct. 1 705 ; 
for which see Thorpe's curious catalogue 
of the Southwell Papers, Lond. 1 834, p. 94. 
e Iron mines. — These mines are rich, 
but have never been adequately worked, 
for want of capital. The same observation 
may be extended to the valuable marble 
quarries in this district. Our author, in 
his above general description, not having 
noticed any of the substances, except iron 
ore, of which the mountains of Iar-Con- 
naught are composed ; the reader will find 
noticed in the Additional Notes, p. 185, 
the Report of the late eminent geologist, 
Sir Charles Giesecke, made in A.D. 1825, 
to the Royal Dublin Society, on the geo- 
logical structure of this region. See also, 
on this neglected subject, Mr. Nimmo's 
Report, before referred to, p. 5 (note '). 


ground. Here are rivers which breed pearles, and the sea shoars 
have ambergreese often cast into them. 

Lastly, here are several miraculous wells and holy places f , de- 
dicated in memory of saints ; among which I find, in severall places, 
the memory of the seven daughters ; some call them by tradition the 
daughters of a Brittish King, others of a King of Leinster. 

Here are alsoe, besides parish churches 2 dispersed every where 


his time ; but that opinion now appears 
to have been hastily formed from imper- 
fect data, and cannot be relied upon. From 
our author we learn, that in the secluded 
district of West Connaught alone, parish 
churches and chapels were di - 
where," "even in waste islands," th 
in islands waste in his time; and it has 
been pertinently asked, what should men 
have built these edifices for, if there had 
not been people to fill them? It lias been 
calculated from Archdall. that in the 
teenth century there were 742 religious 
houses in Ireland; but it is well km 
that among the other errors of that writer 
— and it would require a book nearlv a? 
large as his own to correct those errors — 
he Avas much under the real numb 1 
those religious foundations. Besides 1 1 
there were the cathedrals, parish churches, 
and chapels mentioned by Lombard. S 
also Colgan and De Burgo. Alth 
the primitive Irish churches were l 
large as those of succeeding time-, 
were sufficiently ample and numero 
indicate a far greater population than that 
estimated by Sir "William Petty as t 
ing in the twelfth century. Many other 

f Holy "places. — Many of these will be 
found noticed in the sequel. 

g Churches — chappells. — Doctor Lom- 
bard, in his treatise, " De regno Hibernian," 
thus describes those ecclesiastical ruins. 
' ' In primis igitur, praster ruinas manifestas 
tot monasteriorum et templorum, in qui- 
bus aliquando in spiritu et veritate adora- 
batur Deus ; Qua; longe lateque patet hsc 
regio, in montibus et vallibus, in sylvis 
et solitudinibus, in insulis et lacubus, 
cernere est adhuc vestigia et monumenta 
sacellorum et cellarum, specuuni et aUo- 
rum locorum, ubi olim sancti consueverant 
commorari, orare, contemplari, concentus 
facere, poenitentias agere." — Cap. xx. p. 
275. The multitude of religious edifices 
spread over Ireland, as their ruins testify, 
would be sufficient to induce one to con- 
clude, that the population of this island 
was greater, during its early ages of Chris- 
tianity, than is now generally supposed. 
See Gratianus Lucius, p. 138, "NecScio," 
&c. Sir William Petty's computation or 
opinion that its population, at the arri- 
val of the English in the twelfth century, 
was only 300,000 (see his Political Arith- 
metic, p. 3 1 7), has been acquiesced in since 

J S 

in the country, as alsoe in wast islands, diverse litle chappells of lime 
and stone ; the remaining monuments of the multitude of saints an- 
tiently in Ireland in St. Patrick's days and long after, whereof Joceli- 
nus (Cap. 174, Vitce S. Patricii): "Nulla eremus, nullus pene terras 
angulus, aut locus in insula tam remotus, qui perfectis monachis aut 
monialibus non repleretur, ita ut Hibernia speciali nomine, Insula 
Sanctorum, ubique terrarum nominaretur." 

The h greatest number of cattle in this countrey is of cows', 
the soil being for the most part good only for pasture and grasing, 
and very fertile of all kinde of herbs. The chiefest product therefore, 
and greatest commodity is beefe, butter, tallow, hides, and of late 
cheese out of the Isles of Aran ; yet it yields as much corn, of wheat, 
barly, oats, and ry, as is enough to sustaine the inhabitants^ and fur- 
nishes the market besides. 


facts might be adduced to the same effect, 
but here they would be quite irrelevant. 
The subject is merely noticed with a hope 
that some of our learned associates may be 
induced to investigate it fully. 

h The — This paragraph seems out of 
place here. It would be more in order 
immediately before the three paragraphs 
which precede it. 

1 Cows. — Cows and small sized ponies 
form the staple stock of Conamara, but 
sheep are now become numerous. To this 
day, cows and sheep compose the best part 
of the marriage portion of most females 
here. O'Halloran, in his History of Ire- 
land, vol. ii. p. 146, calls this portion "callp 
an spre, or the marriage cattle." On 15 th 
November, 1648, Silye O'Flaherty, alias 
Burke, wife of Colonel Moragh na doe (na 

d-tuagh) O'Flaherty bequeathed by her 
last will as follows : " to my daughter Mar- 
garet, forty cows of English and Irish breed, 
and four skore sheep ; to my second 
daughter, Onora, twentie cows and forty 
sheep ; to my third daughter, Bridget, 
twentie cows and forty sheep ; and to my 
fourth daughter, Mary, twenty cows and 
forty sheep." — Orig. in the Registry of 
Tuam. The "Conamara ponies" are much 
in request; they were a useful and hardy 
breed, admirably adapted to the mountain 
districts ; but it is said that they are 
now deteriorated, in consequence of the 
introduction of English sires, by the late 
Eichard Martin. 

J Enough to sustaine the inhabitants 

From this account it appears, that the 
people of Iar- Connaught were much bet- 


The inhabitants are so observant of law, that now for above 
thirty years of peace, there was not one body executed out of the 
whole territories for any transgression ; and scarce any brought to 
the bar for misdemeanour 14 . They dwell for the most part next the 


ter off towards the close of the seventeenth 
century, than they were at the beginning 
of it; for our author's friend, Gratianus 
Lucius, in Vita Kirovani, relates that about 
A.D. 1620, "Quamvisillaeregionesannona? 
difficultate semper elaboraverint, et raris 
humilibusque tuguriolis se invicem longo 
intervallo dissitis habitarentur et saxe- 
tis glabrae; uliginibus sic humectates fue- 
rint, vt humus aratro findi non potuerit, 
licet tumulos aliquot solidiores ad parum 
avense, vel hordei ferendum, incolae sarculo 
subinde sciderint; qua? agricultura ne suf- 
ficientem quidem panis (quem pro maiori 
anni parte non viderunt) copiam ipsis sup- 
peditabat." — p. 17. From the productions 
above enumerated, as articles of food, po- 
tatoes do not appear to have been known 
here in the time of our author. 

k Misdemeanour. — This was not the cha- 
racter of the " inhabitants" of West Con- 
naught in more ancient times, when the 
very names of the O'Flaherties, the Clan 
Donoughs, and the gigantic Joyces, used 
to strike such terror into the hearts of the 
good people of Galway, that they had in- 
scribed over the western gate of that town, 
" From the ferocious O'Flaherties, good 
Lord deliver us." It is curious to observe 
how naturally the old Galweygians, who 
were mostly of English origin, afterwards 

coalesced with the Joyces, who were of 
Welsh descent, and even admitted thi 
all the priviliges of citizens ; but the " mere 
Irish" the O'Flaherties, &c. they always 
treated as aliens and enemies. Thus in 
A. D. 1484, they represented the latter to 
Pope Innocent VIII. as ''mountainous and 
wild people" (montani et sylvestres ho- 
mines), by whom " they were sometimes 
robbed and killed" (nonnunquam bonis 
- 1 11 1! iabantur et interficiebantur). See that 
Pope's Bull, A.D. 1484, in Dutl 
tistical Survey of the County of Galwav, 
Appendix, 26. In the 17th century, 
these mere Irish were at length subdued, 
and their forfeited inheritances, 560.000 
acres, were granted, for the n: 
to the "English" merchants of Galwav. 
the Brownes, Blakes, Dai 
Lynches, Fren* bi - &i ., - en- 

dants these inheritances are held to this 
day. But the descendants of the old in- 
heritors were reduced to a state of poverty, 
in which most of them still continue. Our 
author, however, bears testimony, that in 
his time they were" observant of law," and 
the observation may be extended even to 
the present time, although the county gaol 
is some fifty miles distant from the extre- 
mities of the district. It is a well known 
fact, that a late respectable and popular 


borders of the countrey where commonly is the best land ; and in 
Summer time they drive their cattle to the mountaines 1 , where such 
as looke to the cattle live in small cabbins for that season. 

Thus far of the countrey in generall ; whence I will descend to 
particulars, and first of all describe the borders. 

Lough Measg m lake, besides the arms stretched out of it, is 
six miles long from Partry" in the county of Mayo and barony of 
Keara, to Balyndeonagh in the west, and four miles broad from Par- 
try mountain in Keara, to Lough Measg Castle in the barony of Kil- 

mayn ; 

magistrate of Iar-Connaught, when obliged 
to commit offenders to prison, usually ac- 
companied his mittimus with a hint to give 
the "poor fellows" an opportunity of es- 
caping by the way ; so that in his time it 
might be truly said, " scarcely any one was 
brought to the bar for misdemeanor." 

1 Cattle to the mountaines See note at p. 

42, Statute of Kilkenny, Volume of Tracts 
published by the Archaeological Society, 
Dublin, A. D. 1843. 

m Lough Measg Now always called 

Lough Mask. It is popularly said to have 
been so named, because its waters flow 
into, meascadh, mix or mingle, with those 
of the neighbouring lakes, Carra and Cor- 
rib. Our author has not given the de- 
rivation of the name of Lough Measg. He 
does not appear to have indulged to any 
great extent in tracing the derivation of 
these names, which, considering the pue- 
rility and error displayed by Irish antiqua- 
ries in that way since his time, is to be re- 
gretted, from his profound knowledge of 
our history, language, and antiquities. This 

fine lake lies almost wholly in the ancient 
territory of Partry, now comprehended 
within the barony of Kilmain, Co. Mayo ; 
but two arms from it stretch into the ba- 
rony of Eoss, Co. Galway. It is noticed 
at an early period of Irish history. See 
the Annals of the Four Masters, A. M. 
2533, for its origin, which is above alluded 
to by the phrase " broken up ;" or, as bet- 
ter expressed elsewhere by our author, 
" Loch Measg e terrse visceribus eructa- 
vitr—Ogyg. p. 167. 

n Party. — papepaije, latinized Par- 
trigia. Mac Firbis, in his book of Hy- 
Fiachrach, states that there were several 
districts of this name. See our author's 
Ogyg. pp. 1 74-5, for these, and their an- 
cient possessors. Also, Harris's Ware, ii. 
p. 53. The Partry above alluded to was 
Partry of Carra, which Mac Firbis has de- 
scribed in the book already referred to. 

Lough Measg Castle This castle, si- 
tuate on the townland of Ballyloughmask, 
on the eastern margin of the lake, was one 
of those fortresses built by the " English 


mayn ; having on the north a piece of the half barony of Ross and 
Partry mountain ; on the east Partry, by which the lake hath con- 
veyance to Lough Keara lake ; on the south, Kilmayn barony (as 
being part of the county of Mayo— in margine), where I omit Hag- 
Castle", an impregnable castle on the lake, Lough Measg Castle, Cong 
Abbey, dedicated to St. Fechin, and the field of Moytury, where the 
Danann nation, from the north of Great Brittain, invading Ireland, m 
a memorable battle overthrew the Belgians' 1 , who then swayed Ire- 
land, and slew their king Achay, last Belgian king of Ireland ; 325 
years after the general floud this lake is said to have broke up. 

The salmon hath no access thereunto, because under ground 
only r it hath recourse to Lough Orbsen ; but it breeds eels and seve- 

barons" about A. D. 1238. It was burned 
in A. D. 1 41 3 by 0"Conor ; and here Mac 
Feorais Birmingham was imprisoned in 
A. D. 141 6, by Edmund Burke. — Four 
Musters. In 1584, this castle was confinm <1 
to Sir Eichard Bourke, Mac William Eigh- 
ter. See Appendix I. It is now in ruins. 

p Hag-Castle In Irish, Caislen na Cail- 

lighe. This castle, built before the Eng- 
lish entered Connaught, on a small island 
towards the eastern border of Lough Mask, 
was for a long time after deemed " impreg- 
nable." See the note at the word omsna, 
p. 135, of Mr. Petrie's valuable Essay on 
the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill, 
Trans. Eoyal Irish Academy, vol. xviii. 
part ii. 

1 Belgians See our author's Ogygia, 

p. 174 ; also Mac Firbis's History of the 
Firbolgs, for an interesting account of 
these ancient colonists of Ireland; their 

several defeats at southern Mi y tury. above 
alluded to, and at Traigh Eothuile and 
northern Moytury, in the present county 
of Sligo. This curious treatise of Mac Fir- 
bis, which yet remains in MS., has been 
overlooked by modern on Irish 

history, or perhaps it was altogether un- 
known to them. It- value, however, was 
duly appreciated by the venerable Charles 
O'Conor, whose curious extracts from it, 
concerning the inhabitants of Ireland, 
about the commencement of the Christian 
era, may be seen in Yalkneey's Collec- 

f Underground only. — Lough Mask has 
no visibleoutlet tor its waters. It commuui- 
cates with Lough Corrib by subterraneous 
channels, which appear in several large ca- 
verns near Cong. It has been observed, that 
but for the barrierof granite whiehexte-nds 
from Lough Mask to Lough Corrib. the 

l 9 

rail kinds of good trouts, specially that which they call the lough 
trout, which hath very fair red and azure spots ; it is as big as any 
salmon, and far more dainty. There are alsoe medicinall leeches s on 
the south side of the lake. Here is one rarity more, which we may 
terme the Irish crocodir, whereof one as yet living, about ten years 
ago, had sad experience. The man was passing the shore just by the 
waterside, and spyed far off the head of a beast swimming, which he 
tooke to have been an otter, and tooke no more notice of it ; but the 
beast it seems there lifted up his head, to discern whereabouts the 
man was ; then diving, sworn under water till he struck ground ; 
whereupon he runned out of the water suddenly, and tooke the man 
by the elbow, whereby the man stooped down, and the beast fastened 


waters of both lakes had long since, like 
kindred drops, been mingled into one. If 
these two lakes were connected by means 
of a canal, it would tend considerably to 
the improvement of the west of Ireland. 
" To open a communication between Kil- 
lala and Galway, by means of the Moy, 
Lough Mask, and Lough Corrib, was one 
of the practicable projects of those who were 
employed to survey the navigable rivers 
of Ireland in the early part of the eigh- 
teenth century, and, if carried into effect 
would have proved a most important ad- 
dition to the internal navigation of this 
country.'' — Hist. Galway, p. 4. 

s Medicinall leeches Ir. Dallog. The 

leeches found here are stated to be of a 
good kind, but whether they are used or 
approved of by medical men, for topical 
bleeding, I have not ascertained. The 
country people in the neighbourhood use 

them with good effect. 

c Crocodil. — This was rather a for- 
midable class of animals, wherewith to 
rank a beast " of the pitch of an ordinary 
greyhound." But the story seems to have 
been introduced by our author, to enliven 
his subject, as painters introduce a tree 
or a ruin to give variety or effect to a 
barren landscape. That animals, such as 
that above described, or somewhat similar, 
inhabit the lakes of Ireland, is believed by 
the people in their vicinity. All have 
heard of them, and believe in their ex- 
istence, but none can be found who have 
ever seen them. In these western parts, 
this animal is generally called Each Uisge, 
which means a water horse, and he is de- 
scribed as having " a black shining skin," 
and a switch tail " without hair.'' The 
story related by our author is yet told in 
the neighbourhood of Lough Mask. 



his teeth in his pate, and dragged him into the water ; where the man 
tooke hold on a stone by chance in his way, and calling to minde he 
had a knife in his pocket, tooke it out and gave a thrust of it to the 
beast, which thereupon got away from him into the lake. The water 
about him was all bloody, whether from the beast's bloud, or his own, 
or from both, he knows not. It was of the pitch of an ordinary grey- 
hound, of a black slimy skin, without hair, as he immagined. Old 
men acquainted with the lake do tell there is such a bea>t in it, and 
that a stout fellow with a wolf dog along with him met the like there 
once ; which after a long strugling went away in spite of the man and 
dog, and was a long time after found rotten in a rocky cave of the 
lake, as the water decreased. The like, they say, ie seen in other 
lakes of Ireland ; they call it Dovarchu, i. e. a water dog, or Anchu, 
which is the same. 

Lough Orbsen 11 , so called from Orbsen Mac Allod, one of the 


"Lovgh Orbsen.— Lough Oirb, or, as now 
always corruptly called Lough Corrib. For 
the derivation of the name from the mer- 
chant Orbsen, commonly called Manannan, 
and surnamed Mac Lir, i. e. the son of 
the sea, see our author's Ogygia, p. 180. 
This Manannan was one of those Cartha- 
ginian merchants who are said to have 
visited this part of the world at an early 
period, and he is stated to have made the 
Isle of Man his principal residence and de- 
posit. Our learned countryman, Cormac 
Mac Cuilenaiu (whom Caradoc of Lhan- 
carvan, at A. D. 905, Evans's Ed. Lond. 
1774, p. 44, calls, " Carmot, king and bi- 
shop of Ireland"), notices Manannan, in his 
Glossary, as follows : " fflananoan mac 
lip .1. Cenoaioe arhpa boi 1 n-inip TTlu- 

nano. ba he luamuipe ip oec boi 1 n-iap- 
cap oomain, po phinoao cpia neihznacc 
in oipeo nobeir in rpointno atop in 001- 
neno acap in can nop elueclobub cec cap 
oe ap pe, Lade >eotici Britonesque eum 
Deum vocaverunt maris, eumque filium 
maris esse dixerunt .1. Mac lip de nomine 
niunanoain insola Manandan dicta 
Thus translated : •'Manannan Mac Lir. a 
famous merchant who dwelt in the Lie of 
Man. He was th -• navigator of 

this western part of the world, and used 
to presage good or bad weather from his 
observations of the heavens, and from the 
changes of the moon, wherefore th S 
i. e. the Irish, and the Brit' - _ him 
the title of ' God of the sea.' They also 
called him Mac Lir, that is, tht • 


Dannann nation, a very spacious and large lake, hath its source at 
Bonbanann, in the halfe barony of Rosse, and thence extends eight 
miles eastward to the river of Cong, having the half barony of Rosse 
partly on each side, partly dividing Rosse from Moycullin barony, 
and partly having Ross on the north side ; it extends southward 
twelve miles in length, till it discharges itself into the river of Gal- 
way, having the baronys of Kilmayn and Clare on the east, and the 
barony of Moycullin on the west ; somewhere four miles in breadth, 
and somewhere less than a quarter of a mile v . 

It is said to have as many islands as are days in the year w , 
all of them belonging to the west x , as far as where a boat can pass be- 

sea ; and from him the Isle of Man had 
its name." 

William Sacheverell, Esq., "late gover- 
nour of Man," in his "Short Survey" of 
that isle, 8vo. London, 1 702, p. 20, states, 
that the " the Mank's Nation believe Man- 
nan-Mac-Lir, the father, founder, and le- 
gislator of their country, and place him 
about the beginning of the fifth century !". 

v Mile. — Our author here, as in the 
whole of this treatise, uses the great Con- 
naught miles, one of which contained, at 
least, two modern British miles. This long 
measure was probably adopted in this pro- 
vince from the Spaniards, between whom 
and the western part of Ireland, there for- 
merly subsisted much commercial inter- 

w Days in the year It is curious to ob- 
serve that our author, though so exact in 
every other respect, has, in the present in- 
stance, adopted this popular belief. Mons. 
Latocnaye, the lively French traveller be- 

fore referred to, passing through this dis- 
trict, observed: "The prospect of Lough- 
Corrib is very fine; it is covered with 
islands, the majority of which are culti- 
vated. If you ask the number of these 
islands you will be told three hundred and 
sixty-five, one for every day in the year. 
I saw three lakes in Ireland, where there 
was the same number, or rather to avoid 
the trouble of counting them, the peasants 
mention this number in preference to any 
other." — Vol. ii. p. 25. In like manner 
they tell that there are three hundred and 
sixty-five islands in Clew Bay (anciently 
Cuan Modh), in the Co. Mayo. 

x West It is probable, that when the 

O'Flaherties were obliged to emigrate from 
their ancient territory of Magh Seola (the 
present barony of Clare) to Iar-Connaught, 
as will appear in the sequel, they claimed 
or retained the islands of Lough Corrib. 
Some of those islands, however, now be- 
long to the barony of Clare. 


tween them, and the east side. Of these, Insequin y and Insimictrir 
contain a quarter of land each ; some half a quarter, some a cartron, 
some an acre, and most of them but few acres. On that island of 
Insequin St. Brendan (ejus Vit. 16 May, cap. 59) built a chappell 
and worked divers miracles 2 . In the same island St. Meldan*, whose 
festivall day is on the 7th of February, was abbot of a fameous abby 
about the year 580. He was spiritual father to [the] great St. Furse b 
of Perone in France ; who carried the relicques of this saint along 
with him, and inshrined them at Perone. 

The isles of Lough Orbsen were pillaged, Anno 927, by the 
Danes of Limerick. 


y Insequin. — Now called Inis ui chuinn. 
This is one of the most remarkable of the 
Lough Corrib islands. It was anciently 
so celebrated that the entire lake was 
sometimes called Inre ui Chuinn from it. 

' L Miracles. — See Colgan, in vita S. 
Moeni. That saint accompanied St. Bren- 
dan in his seven years' voyage, and after- 
wards remained with him in this island of 
Inis mac Hy Chuinn, where one of the 
miracles alluded to was performed. " Ubi 
meritis utriusque, legitur quidam istarum 
partium princeps (probably one of the 
" ferocious" O'Flaherties) viris Dei ex- 
itium minitans, miraculo perculsus, ab 
intentato flagitio destitisse, et ad pacem 
et pcenitentiarn reductus." — Acta, SS. p. 

a St. Meldan. — This saint was descended 
from Con Cedchathach (i. e. Con centum 
praeliorum, monarch of Ireland in the 
second century), whose descendants were 
called Hui Cuinn ; and, from the saint 

and his kinsmen, the island of Inis ui 
Chuinn is said to have taken its name, 
Inis mac Hua Cuinn, i. e. the island of the 
descendants of Con. See Colgan, in Vita 
S. Meldani, p. 269. His festival, as above, 
was for many ages, celebrated in this island. 

b St. Furse The patron saint of the 

O'Flaherties. See his life in Colgan, ui 
supra, p. 75. St. Meldan was his spiritual 
father and director. "S. Meldanus filius 
Hua Cuind de Loch-Oirbsean in Conacia 
fuit sinedrus seu Pater spiritualis S. Fur- 
soei." — Id. p. 90, n. 19. See his life in Von. 
Bede's Eccl. History, b. iii ; given also in 
Colgan, p. 87. 

c By the Danes — Thus related by the 
Four Masters, at A. D. 927 (common era, 
A. D. 929). ^jabcut pop loc Oipbpen 
00 5 a ^ a '^ Cuimni£, ajur- inpi an loca 
do opjain 001B. " The Danes of Limerick 
took possession of Lough Orbsen, and pil- 
laged its islands." From this period the 
history of the lake and its islands is brief. 

2 3 

Echinis d , i. e. Horse Island, now Inis Gearain, or Garon Island, 
the same in sense as Horse Island, lyes very near Enagh-Coelain con- 
tinent, but nearer Ard, part of Aghnenure e . In this island St. Enna 
of Arann visited St. Coelan, priest on Lough Orbsen. This St. 
Coelan is worshipped f the 25th of April, ( Vita S. Ertdei, 21 Mar. 


A. D. 1 06 1, the Muintir Murcha (i. e. the 
O'Flaherties of Magh Seola, or the country 
of Hy Briuin Seola, now the barony of 
Clare, in the county of Gal way), took pos- 
session of Lough Orbsen, and expelled or 
deposed Aodh (Hugh)O'Conor Id. Dur- 
ing the violent contentions which took 
place between the O'Conors of Connaught 
for the sovereignty of the province after 
the death of Cathal Crovdearg, in A. D. 
1224, Hugh, the son of Cathal, and his 
English allies, in A. D. 1225, marched 
with an army towards Lough Orbsen, and 
compelled Hugh O'Flaherty, lord of the 
lake and its islands, to deliver up to him 
the islands of Inis-creawa and Oilen na 

Circe, with all the vessels on the lake 

Id. In A. D. 1256, Walter de Burgo, 
lord of Connaught, and first Earl of Uls- 
ter, marched against Roderick O'Flaherty, 
plundered the territories of Gnomore and 
Gnobeg, west of Lough Orbsen, and took 
possession of the lake, its islands and cas- 
tles. These he fortified, and by that means 
considerably increased the power of the 
English in Connaught. 

Echinis. — Now Inisgerraun, near the 
castle of Aghnenure. For this castle see 
the note next following. Echinis, and the 
other islands above mentioned, lie towards 

the western margin of the lake. Inisgear- 
rann and Ard-island are still known by the 
same names. Enagh Coelain is now called 
Annagh Keelaun. For the visit of St. 
Enna to Echinis, see Colgan, Acta SS. 
p. 709, n. 26. 

e Aghnenure. — A celebrated castle on 
the west side of Lough Orbsen, originally 
built by the De Burgo's, but considera- 
bly enlarged and fortified in the sixteenth 
century byMorogh nad-tuagh O'Flaherty, 
as will appear in the sequel. The learned 
De Burgo, in his Hib. Dominicana, p. 309, 
has fallen into some mistakes respecting 
this castle, which it may be necessary to 
allude to in another place. 

f Worshipped. — i. e. his memory cele- 
brated, as our author further on expresses 
it, when speaking of St. Coelain, in the ac- 
count of Balinahinch barony, viz., that 
his memory was celebrated, that is, res- 
pected, honoured, or treated with reve- 
rence, which was the ancient sense of the 
term " worship," as still used in the Office 
of Matrimony of the Church of England, 
and by our author. So Ussher, passim, viz. 
of St. Mocteus, " ejusque ad hunc usque 
diem celebratur memorial — Primord. 855. 
" S. Patricii Hiberniye Apostoli honoratur 
memoria.' 1 '' — Id., 897. " Duo Finiani quo- 

2 4 

cap. 2:5:). Of him likely Enagh-Coelan, nigh Aghnenure, is named 
Inis-flanann s ,an island which retains the memory of St. Flanann, pa- 
tron of Balynduin parish. 

Inis an Ghoill h , so called of a certain holy person who there 
lived of old, known only' 1 by the name of An Gall Craibhtheach, i. e. 
the devout forreigner: for Gall (i. e. of the Gallick nation )\ they call 
every foreigner. So Inis an Ghoill, or the foreigner's island, between 
Ross and Moycullin barony on Lough Orbsen, containes half a quar- 
ter of pleasant land belonging to Cong Abbey, and hath a fine chap- 
pell therein which is not for the buriall of any body. On this island 
dyed Anno 11 28, Murgess O'Nioc, archbishop of Tuam. 

Inis an Ghoill hath two chappells", the one dedicated to Si 
Patrick, the other to the saint of whom the island is named, which ad- 
mits not the buriall of any body, but in the first it is usuall to bury. 

Kirke Isle 1 , or the Hen's Island, lyes in that part of Lough 

rum unius die Februarii, xxm . alterius 
die Septembris x°. celebratur memorial — 
Id. 954, et Index Citron., 1086. 

8 Inis-flanann Nowlnisflananorlni^h- 

lannaun. It belongs to the neighbouring 
townland of Gortnashingan. See the ac- 
count of St. Flannan, in the parish of 

h Inis an Ghoill. — Or Inchagoill. This 
island is situated about midway between 
the towns of Oughterard and Cong, and 
belongs to Cong parish. It is celebrated 
for its ancient ecclesiastical remains, for 
which see the Additional Notes. 

' Known only. — i. e. The only name he 
was known by. 

J The Gallick nation. — The ancient Irish 

called every foreigner Gall, viz., an alii-n 
or Btranger. See Ware, De Hib. cap. vii. 
and Harris's Edit. ii. p. 59. 

k Tiro chappells. — For these and other 
particulars relating to this remarkable 
island, see the Additional >" 

1 Kirke Isle. — Some Scotch P 
rians visited this small i?land on ac< 
of its name, and were disappointed at not 
finding a kirk in it. It lies in thi \. W 
part of Lough Corrib, in that arm which 
receives the river of Belanabrack, and be- 
longs to the parish of Cong. This island 
was anciently celebrated for its castle, 
which, according to tradition, was built 
by the O'Conor, king of Connaught. S 
ante, p. 22, note ( c )- 

2 5 

Orbsen which is within Ross half barony ; and had a castell till bro- 
ken in Cromwell's time. Iniscreawa m , or Wild-garlick Isle, is near 
Cargin in the barony of Clare, a small island, where the walls and 
high ditch of a well fortified place are still extant, and encompass 
almost the whole island. Of this isle, Macamh Insicreawa, a memora- 
ble antient magician, as they say, had his denomination. Anno 1225, 
the Lord Justice of Ireland coming to the port of Iniscreawa, caused 
Odo n O'Flaherty, lord of West Connaught, to deliver that island, 
Kirke Island, and all the boats of Lough Orbsen, into the hands of 
Odo O'Connor, king of Connaught (Cathald Redfist's son), for as- 
surance of his fidelity. Anno 1233, Fedlim, king of Connaught, bro- 
ther to the former, demolished the castles of Kirke Island, Galway p , 
Hag Island, and Donoman". 


m Iniscreawa In Irish, Imp Cpeurha, 

(cpeavh, wild garlic). It lies in Lough 
Corrib, opposite the castle of Cargins, 
and belongs to the barony of Clare. See 
note ( c ). In it are the remains of an an- 
cient circular Cyclopean wall. See Map to 
Tribes and Customs of Hy-many. 

n Odo — In Irish, Aodh, now Anglicised 
" Hugh." 

Deliver. — See ante, p. 22, note ( c ). 

p Galway In Irish, Ccnplen na ^ail- 

tirh. This castle was built by O'Flaherty in 
A. D. 11 24. See the Annals of the Four 
Masters at that year, where Dr. O' Conor 
translates " la conaceaib," the Conna- 
cians, by " a Conach tense, i. e. Tordelvacho 
O'Conor." But in a note to the Annals 
of Ulster, p. 389, he renders it correctly. 
The erection of these and other castles 
(which may yet be alluded to), before the 

arrival of the English, shews with what 
caution the 22nd chapter of Ware's An- 
tiquities should be read, and the asser- 
tions of other writers received on this 
point. They lay much stress on the Cas- 
trum mirificum, stated to have been built 
in Tuam by king Eoderic, A. D. 1161. 
But we here see that castles were not, at 
that time, either so new or so uncommon 
as Ware has ventured to assert. It would, 
therefore, seem more reasonable to con- 
clude, that the castle of Tuam was called 
mirificum, wonderful, from its strength, 
than for the reasons which he alleged ; 
seeing that it was strongly built for de- 
fence of the sacred edifices there, which 
we know, from the Annals of Inisfallen, 
were stormed and despoiled some time 
before, by the Dalgais of Munster. 

q Donoman Irish, Dun lomjuin, the 



Anno 1 65 1, among the many strange and rare vicissitudes of 
our own present age, the Marquis of Clanrickard r , Lord Deputy of 
Ireland, the Earl of Castlehaven, and Earl of Clancarty, driven out 
of the rest of Ireland, were entertained, as they landed on the 
shore of this lake, for a night's lodging, under the mean roof of 
Murtagh Boy Branhagh, an honest farmer's house, the same year 
wherein the most potent Monarch 5 of Great Brittain, our present so- 
vereign, bowed his imperial triple crown under the boughs of an oak 
tree, where his life depended on the shade of the tree leav( 

This lake breeds salmons, eels, and severall sorts of trouts, 
especially the delicate lough trout, of which kind there were two by 
chance catched, which had fair golden spots. It distributes the salnu ms 

Dun or fortress of Iomghuin, the pagan 
name of a man. Part of the Dun is still 
remaining. The castle is now called Duna- 
mon, and is situate on the River Suck, on the 
borders of the counties of Gal way and Ros- 
common. According to tradition, this was 
anciently the residence of the chief of the old 
Irish septofO'Finaghty, whose territory lay 
to the west of the river ; but they were 
dispossessed by the Burkes, soon after the 
arrival of the English. For a curious ac- 
count of the O'Finaghties, see Mac Firbis's 
great Book of Genealogies, of which a va- 
luable transcript is preserved in the Li- 
brary of the Royal Irish Academy. See 
also Hy-Fiachrach, p. 108. 

r Clanrickard. — This incident is not 
mentioned in the " Memoirs of the Mar- 
quiss of Clanricarde," fo. London, 1757; 
but it pi-obably occurred about the be- 
ginning of October, A. D. 1651, for his 


Lordship dates a letter from the castle of 
Aghnenure, on the 8 th of that month. 
See Addenda to the Memoirs, p. 48. 

* Most patent, Monarch. — Charles II. Our 
author, here, and in other parts of his 
writings, seems to have been an ardent ad- 
mirer of royalty, in the person of I 
perfidious and ungrateful Monarch ; from 
whom, to the last, the simple man vainly 
expected a restitution of his hereditary 
possessions in Iar-ConnaugL" S 
dicatory epistle to the Duke of York, after- 
wards James II., prefixed to th« 
for such expressions as the following : "sed 
me a coeptis," the intended dedication of 
that work to Charles, " deterruit summa 
in regem meum observantia, detinuit pu- 
dor, nietusque, Oculorum aciem per- 
strinxit sumrua? majestatis comtemplatio. 
Intercessore niiki opus esse judicavi.*' ft 
But these abject expressions were of no 

2 7 

among divers surrounding rivers, which mutually contribute their fish 
and water to it ; and every salmon, if not hindered, will be sure to go 
to that river where first it was ingendred, and after spawning there, 
returns in due season to the sea. Here, some old seales' come along 
from the sea in pursuit of the salmons. Here is another kind of fish 
which hath recourse to the sea as the salmon, yearly to and fro, they 
are called chops, and in Irish, trascain, very like herrings, only that 
herrings come not on fresh water. 

The river of Galway, whose channell is the conveyance of 
Lough Orbsen for four miles into the sea, slides with some meander 
windings in a slow and deep stream, till it comes near the town of 
Galway. But as it passes by the townes side it falls into the sea with 
a loud noise, in a shallow vehement stream of fair christalline water". 
The right name of the river is Galliv, from the oblique whereof 


distant period of time, several of the Clan 
Coneelys (lTlac Con^aile), an old family of 
Iar-Connaught, were, by " Art magick," 
metamorphosed into seals ! In some places 
the story has its believers, who would 
no more kill a seal, or eat of a slaughtered 
one, than they would of a human Coneely. 
It is related as a fact, that this ridiculous 
story has caused several of the clan to 
change their name to Conolly. 

u Christalline water The redundant wa- 
ters of Lough Corrib, which flow unpro- 
fitably through the populous town of 
Galway, have been estimated as equal to 
10,000 horse power in machinery. It is 
asserted, that with a moderate and ju- 
dicious outlay of capital, that great natural 
supply might be made highly profitable to 
the undertaker, and beneficial to the public. 

avail ; our author, notwithstanding all his 
loyalty, died a plundered and disappointed 

c Seales. — The coasts of Iar-Connaught 
and its islands abound with seals. The 
curious account given of these animals by 
Martin in his description of the west- 
ern islands of Scotland, p. 62, et seq., 
would, in most respects, answer for our 
western islands and coast; the only dif- 
ference, perhaps, being, that with us seals 
are seldom slaughtered or used as food. 
See the affecting story of the domesticated 
seal, told by the ingenious author of 
" Wild Sports of the West." Many tra- 
ditions, connecting these harmless animals 
with the marvellous, are related along our 
western shores. Among these there is 
one of a curious nature, viz., that at some 



Gaillve, is formed Gallway v and Galvia, whereby the town is now de- 
noted. The occasion of the name a very antient Irish distick ex- 
presses thus, translated : 

" Ludit aquis mersam deluserat amnis 
Bressalii prolis, funere nomen habet w . 

The name of Jordan 31 Island on this river, gave occasion to the Ana- 
baptists of the town, in Cromwell's days, to goe thither and dip them- 
selves by the island's side, as alluding to the river of Jordan. 

There is an island, where the river issues from the lake, now 
called Olen-na-mbra-har or the Fryar's Isle, but antiently Olen-na 
g-clereagh, i. e. the Clergy's Isle ; for the Irish Anals mention that, 
anno 1178, from midnight to noon Galway river became dry' from 

CL - 

v Gallway. — This town was formerly so 
celebrated in foreign parts, that an English 
author, Heylin, writes of it, — " Galloway, 
a noted emporie, and lately of so great 
fame with foreign merchants, that an out- 
landish merchant meeting with an Irish- 
man, demanded in what part of Galloway 
Ireland stood ; as if Galloway had been the 
name of the islfcnd, and Ireland only the 
name of some town." 

w Nomen habet — The " antient Irish 
distick" is given in the "Dinn Seanchus," 
as follows : 

^yziillectrh injean 6peapait buain 
Rup puchpaic 'p a ^ ,nD tan-uaip, 
Qnn po butoeao in ^ejr, jeal: 
Ucnce ainmnijreap ^aillearh. 

Thus in English: 
Gailleamk, daughter of lasting (prosperous) 

Bathed in the full cool stream, 

Where the bright branch was drowned : 
From her the (river) Gailhatnh is named. 

The original proceeds to state that the 
monument of this lady. G } i- was to 

be seen on the brink of the river, where a 
large rock near it- western bank is still 
pointed out as tin- site. Here it is intended, 
by some of the spirited inhabitants of th<- 
town, to restore that remarkable monu- 
ment, by erecting a column on the - 
with the above inscription ; in order to dis- 
tinguish the place from which so large a 
portion of that part of Ireland has 

x Jordan. — The fanatics of the time 
found their way even to this " distant 
angle" of the dominions of the common- 
weal th, after its reduction by Crom- 
well's forces. But they soon began to 
persecute one another ; of which see some 
curious instances in the Additional N 

2 9 

Clergy Isle to the sea ; and much fish and goods long afore drowned 
therein, found by the people of the town. It became dry the second 
time, anno 1190, wherein was found the head of a spear z , one cubit 
long ( Ware, Ant. Hib., c. 12, pag. 65). It became suddenly dry in 
our own memory twice, first on Tuesday the 7th of September, anno 
1647 ; the second time there was mighty great frost from the 28 th of 
November, 1683, to the 3rd of February, whereby the river was all 
congealed, only the rapid streame from the wood-key of the town to 
the sea. This stream suddenly stoped on Wednesday, the 23rd of 
January, from the night before to the night after ; so as the channell 
was all along dry during that time, and though the frost continued 
as much after as before, yet the stream runned the day after and 
filled its channell, so continuing as usually before ; soe alsoe it did 
after the 7th day of September the first time a . 

This river hath the same fish with the lake whence it springs ; 
and in the mouth thereof, where the sea flowes, abundance of yelvers 
or eele frey is yearly taken in Lent time, till they wax black and stifle 
about May. On the bridge, over the river from the town to the 
west, salmons are taken up by casting trident spears" at them, with 
long ropes to draw up the spears again. 


y Became dry — This is related in the z A spear See Ware's Ant. Hibernica?, 

Annals of the Four Masters as follows : c. xii. " In Annalibus Roscomanensibus, 
"O. C. 1 1 78, abann nu ^adlrhe oo ad annum mcxc, fit mentio capitis Hastee, 
cpacchaoh ppi cpi laicne aiceanca ; na ad longitudinem unius cubiti, reperti in 
h-uile aiohme po baiohio innce 6 chen, fluvio Galivee turn desiccato." 

co n-a b-iapcc, oo chionol la luclic an a The first time I do not find these oc- 

oum, ajup an cipi 15-coiccinne." "The currences elsewhere related. Although 
river Gaillimh became dried for the space the river has frequently become shallow 
of three natural days, and all the accoutre- since the above was written, yet no one, at 
ments that had lain in it from the earliest present living, remembers to have seen it 
period, with its fish, were gathered by entirely "dry." 
the people of the fortress and country." b Trident spears This curious method 


On the west side, it is mearing with the barony of Moycullin and 
west liberties of the town ; on the east with the east liberties, and 
baronys of Clare and Dunkellin. 

Galway, the chiefe town of the province of Connaught, fameous 
for its handsome contrivement and fortification, its antient great traf- 
fick and dealings with forreigners, and the worthy parts and qualities 
of its cittizens, ly's on the east side where the river meets with the 
sea on high water about the bridge. This bridge was built anno 
1442, by Edmond Lynch Fitz Thomas. It borrowes its name from 
the river, and was called Dunbo na Gaillve, that is dun of Galway 
river's mouth. Dun is a fortified town, both with the ancient Gaules, 
Welsh, and Irish ; and is the same that the antient Saxons called 
Burough, as Edenburow in English is Dun-Eden in Irish. It hath 
nothing to doe with the sense of hill or height, as Camden (Camd. 
Brit, titulo Wil shi.) and Sir Ja. Ware ( Ware, Antiq. Hib. cap. 10, 
t p. 51) thought; only that such as were so called were usually 
situated on heights. 

Galway, therefore, was in antient times a burough d , and soe con- 

of taking salmon was much practised in natural advantages; and probably in pro- 
former times. The handle of the spear cess of time, it may become one of the prin- 
was about five feet in length, and was se- cipal emporiums for trade between these 
cured at the top by a rope of sufficient countries and America. In such an event, 
extent. The spearman generally took his Iar-Connaught would nece»arily partiei- 
stand on the battlement of the bridge (see pate in its prosperity. 
Hist. Galway, p. 30, and the old mapof the d Bwrough. — This town, or " burough." 
towntheregiven),andhavingespiedthefish appears to have existed before the arrival 
he seldom missed his aim; but the prac- of the Anglo-Normans, and even to have 
tice has of late years been discontinued. been ^fortified town : though it never was 
c Chiefe town. — This was formerly the built or inhabited by Ostmen, as "Ware 
chief commercial town of Ireland. It is has boldly asserted of all the fortified 
remarkable for its noble harbour, and other towns of Ireland. See his Antiq. c. xxii 

3 1 

tinued after tlie English invasion, being one of the Earles of Ulster 
their mannours, as appears by the ensuing annals and records. 

Anno ii24 e , the castles of Dun-leo f (now Belanaslow), Galway, 
and Kulmaile g (now Killoony, in the county of Sligoe), were built. 

Anno 1 132, the castle of Galway demolished by Monstermen in- 
vading it by sea, and Conor OTlaherty, Lord of West Connaught, 
slain by them. 

Anno 1 149, Tordelvac O'Bryan, king of Munster, invaded Con- 
naught, and dismantled Galway Dun. 

Anno 1 1 54, the ships of Galway Dun, and of Conmacnymara, 
sent upon an expedition to the north. 

Anno 1 1 6 1 , fantastical ships' 1 were seen in the harbour of Gal- 

This assertion of Ware, in support of which 
he has not adduced any authority, will, it 
is hoped, attract the attention of some of 
the learned members of the Irish Archae- 
ological Society. 

e Anno 1 1 24 This, and most of the 

facts related in the text to A. D., 1271, 
inclusive, will be found detailed in the 
Annals of the Four Masters, at the respec- 
tive years mentioned above. For that at 
A. D. 1230,' see the Annals of Inisfallen. 

f Dun-leo. — Irish, tDunleooa, the dun or 
habitation of Leodha, now anglicised Dun- 
loe, which gives name to a street in Bal- 
linasloe. There is an old Irish family of 
the name of Low, still highly respectable, 
the head of which, I believe, resides at 
Low-ville, near Ballinasloe, in the Co. of 
Galway, but whether they descend from 
the Leodh, after whom this fortress was 
named, does not appear. 

8 Kulmaile. — Ir. Cul fflaoile, now Co- 
loony, a small town about five miles south 
of Sligo. Another castle was erected there 
by Morogh, son of Cormac Mac Donogh, 
in A. D. 1408. — Four Masters. 

h Fantastical ships Our annalists, in 

recording this occurrence, call these ships 
loinjep oemnacoa, which Dr. O'Conor 
translates, " Naves bellies," Four Masters, 
p. 807. This does not, however, convey the 
meaning of oemnacoa, which literally sig- 
nifies devilish or diabolical, from oeaman 
(demon), the evil spirit. But our author's 
phrase, "fantastical ships" (viz., visionary, 
or having the appearance of a phantom, 
not real), was happily chosen to express 
this instance of atmospherical refraction. 
The writer remembers to have seen, when 
a boy, a well-defined aerial phenomenon 
of this kind, from a rising ground near 
the mountain of Cruach-Patrick, in Mayo. 

3 2 

way Dun to saile against the wind, and the next day Galway Dun 
tooke fire. 

Anno 1230, Richard de Burgo, Lord of Connaught and Lord 
Justice of Ireland, constituting Fedlim O'Connor King of Connaught, 
besieged Odo O'Flaherty, Lord of West Connaught, in the castle of 
Galway, on the east side of the river ; and he being relieved on the 
west side by Odo, King of Connaught (son of Roderick, last King of 
Ireland), the besiegers quitted the siege. 

Anno 1232, the same lord, Richard Burk, built a castle in Gal- 
way, having restored Odo O'Connor, and confined Fedlim ( ^Connor. 

Anno 1233, Fedlim, set at liberty, became King of Connaught, 
by the death of Odo, and broke down Galway, Kirke, Hag. and Duno- 
man castles. 

Anno 1 247, the town and castle of Galway burnt. 

Anno 1 271, Walter de Burgo, Earle of Ulster, and Lord of Con- 
naught, dyed in the castle of Galway. 

Anno 13 1 2, Richard Cadell, sirnamed Black, of whom the Blake> 
of Galway are dessended, was bailifle of Galway under Richard de 
Burgo, the Red Earl"' of Ulster. 

Anno 1313, the Lord John Burk, son and heir of Richard tin- 
Red Earle of Ulster, dyed at Galway. 

Anno 1333, in an office found upon William, Earl of Ulster (son 
to the said Lord John), his death, which begins, " Inquisitio capta 
apud Clare coram Johanne Morice, Escaetore Domini Regis in 1 li- 

It was on a serene evening in the autumn west coast of Ireland, 
of 1 798. Hundreds who also witnessed the ~> The Red Eari—Yor some curious do- 
scene believed it supernatural ; but it was cumeuts concerning the " Red Earl" and 
soon afterwards found to have been caused the " Blakes of Galway," see tl 
by the fleet of Admiral "Warren, then in ditional Notes, 
pursuit of a French squadron, off the 


bernia, 8° die Decemb. anno regni Edwardi III, septimo, there is 
the ensuing mention of Gal way, 1 1' 6*- tribus villatis 
terras cum dimidio in Burgagio del Galliv, quas Burgagii ibidem 
tenent libere in feodo. Est ibidem quedam domus lapidea quas 
solebat dimitti per ann. pro 66 s - 8 d ' et modo nihil inde percipitur, quia 
prostrata venit ad terram et est ibidem alia domus quam comes emit 
de Wellielmo Marescallo (the eldest branch of the Linches of Gal- 
way were called Marshall s, till that branch was extinguished in the 
male line) quae n s- reddit per ann. Item placita et perquisita hun- 
dredas ibidem, solebat valere per ann. 5'- The ruines of the earle's 
house called Clogh-an-hiarla, or the earl's stone, are still extant in 
Galway nigh the key, where there is a well dedicated to St. Brendan, 
patron of Enagh-duin diocess, wherein was Galway, whose feast, 16th 
May, usually kept holy by the key-street dwellers of old. 

Anno 1369, upon the death of Lyonell Duke of Clarence, the 
ensuing office was found. Inquisitio apud Dublin die Veneris prox- 
imo post assumptionem B. Mariaa, anno 43 Edwardi III. Regis 
Angliae et Franciaa 30™° Leonellus Dux Clarencias tenuit de domino 
rege in capite, die quo obiit, et de jure Elizabethaa uxoris suas filite 
Willielmi Comitis Ultonias, manneria de Logh-reagh, Tobarbride, 
Toyloghoban j , Loghmesg, Sligoe k , Galway et Portdempne 1 , quae va- 
luerunt ei 200'- per ann. -p 

Toyloghoban. — Now Tuluban, in the fought there, in which Eogan Bel, fourth 
county of Galway. See Gratianus Lucius, Christian king of Connaught, was slain, 
p. 263, for a remarkable occurrence which An historical account of Sligo, from that 
took place there in the time of that writer; period to the present, would prove an inl- 
and which may serve to shew the mise- portant addition to the history of Ireland, 
rable state to which the people of Ireland It would necessarily include the transac- 
were reduced at that period. tions of the great family of O'Donnell ; 
k Sligoe — This place is first mentioned which of themselves would form a most 
in our Annals, at A. D. 537 (Tigernach, eventful narrative. For such a work ample 
A. D. 543), when a great battle was and interesting materials are extant. 



By process of time after this Gahvay had its annual magistr; 
called portriffs. Portriffe in the old Saxon tongue is the magistrate 
of a sea-port as the sherriffe is of a shire. I find that James Develyn 
was, Anno 1431™, portriffe of Galway. This family is since extinct, 
and the Darcys of Galway are their generall heirs. 

The DevehVs arms", still extant, carved in stone in James Reagfa 
Darcy's house in Abby-gate street, is the same with the Dillon's arms. 

After portriffes their annual magistrates were a sovereign and 
portriffe under him, for every year, till by the concession of King 
Richard III. ( Ware, Henry VII. ad ann. 1500), Anno 1485. the last 
year of his reigne, they exchanged them for mayors and two bay- 
liffes ; who were elected on Lammas-day, and tooke their places on 
Michaelmas-day the 29th September. 

About the same time as aforementioned, Donagh O'Murry, Arch 
Bishope of Tuam, instituted a colledge [ibid, ad ann. 1 501 ) f 


1 Portdempne. — Irish popcomna, still 
well known as the town and manor of 
Portumna, situate on the west bank of 
the Shannon, in the county of Galway. 
Here anciently stood the great castle of 
O'Madden, which, with the surrounding 
territory, is said to have passed to the De 
Burgos of Clanrickard, by marriage with 
one of the O'Maddens. In the Connaught 
" Composition" with Queen Elizabeth, 
A. D. 1585, it was specially provided, 
that theEarle of Clanrickard " shall have 
the castle or manor of Portumny, and 
lower quarters of land there, free, wherof 
he is now said to be seized as of his in- 
heritance, fully discharged of all rents and 
demands of O'Madden." — See Appendix I. 

m Anno 143 1 — During the above inter- 

val, several occurrences have been omitted 
by our author. Among others, in A. I). 
1399, "Gahvay was taken and plunder- 
ed byUlick Burke, and innumerable v 
the spoils taken from it, both gold and 
silver, and all kinds of good?." — MS. in 
Trin. Col. Lib. II. 35. p. 320. J 
Masters record, that in A. D. 1424. 
William of Clanrickard. Le. Uliek Burke. 
died, after having subdued the devil and 
the world. 

n DevdinsArms — These arms may - 
be seen on an elaborately carved chin 
piece, in the old house, or rather c 
above alluded to. 

A colledge. — Several bulls and other 
original documents oi ancient date, re- 
lating to this once celebrated institution. 


Nicholas' church in Galway, of a wardian and eight chorall vicars, 
whereunto where appropriated nine parishes of the diocess ; which had 
as many parish vicars, all under the wardian, as well as the eight chorall 
vicars which served the high church and the town. The wardian is 
yearly elected by the common vote of the citizens, as the mayor is ; 
but continued in one person for many years, during the pleasure of 
the electors. Dominick Duffe Linch Fitz-John, second mayor, and 
brother to the first, was chief founder of the colledge. There was 
but a small chappell soon before in this place. The church was de- 
dicated to St. Nicholas Bishope of Myra, in Licia, worshipped the 
6th of December : on which day Galway men invited to their table 
such as they would have to keep Christmas p next with them. 

Anno i486 q , 29th September, Pierce Lynch Fitz-John Boy, took 


are inserted in the Addenda hereto. This 
is done with a view of saving them from 
oblivion, and of aiding, even by a little, the 
future ecclesiastical historian of Ireland. 

p To keep Christmas. — " Galway men" 
were formerly noted for their hospitality, 
which they carried to such excess, that the 
civic authority was often obliged to inter- 
fere, in order to check or regulate it. Thus 
in A. D. 15 1 8, it was enacted, "that no 
man of this town shall oste or receive into 
ther housses at Christmas, Easter, nor no 
feaste elles, any of the Burkes, M 'Wil- 
liams, the Kellies, nor no cepte elles, 
withoute license of the mayor and councill, 
on payn to forfeit £5 : that neither O ne 
Mac shall strutte ne swaggere thro' the 
streets of Gallway." — Orig. Corporation 
Book. After this law, the good people 
here gradually grew more thrifty, inso- 

much, that their hospitality at length 
often required a spur to stimulate it. 
Thus, whenever a stranger, viz., " any 
of the Burkes, M'Williams, or Kellies," 
found himself uninvited to dinner, he had 
only to appear abroad in his boots and 
spurs, and they seldom failed to insure 
him an invitation. But even this pleasant 
expedient is now of no avail, so far have 
we departed from the good old customs of 
former times. 

q Anno i486. — The well-known story 
of the mayor of Galway, who, about this 
time, is said to have condemned and exe- 
cuted his only son, " for killing and break- 
ing faith with strangers," is not noticed 
by our author. As he possessed the best 
means of information, it is not probable 
that he would have passed over so singu- 
lar an occurrence in silence, if he had con- 


his place as first mayor of Galway, of whose family was the last 
mayor of Galway, Thomas Lynch Fitz- Ambrose, deposed, anno 1654, 
by the usurped power, together with his two sheriffes, Richard Lynch r 
Fitz-James and Anthony French Fitz-Peter, contrary to the publick 
faith, upon rendition of the town past. Most of the mayors of Gal- 
way were of the same family; the ancestor of whom was William 
Lacy, son of Hugh de Lacy, first Lord Justice of Ireland, and of the 
daughter of Roderick O'Connor, last King of L'eland. 

Anno 161 1, in the mayoralty time of Richard Bodkin, the corpora- 
tion of Galway was erected by King James into a county of the town of 
Galway, different from the county of Galway abroad, to be governed 
by a mayor and two sheriffs. The King's sword given to be carried 
before the mayor ; and the liberties of the town to be enlarged two 
miles of each side. Patrick Martin and Christopher Bodkin were 
the first sheriffs. The same time, the company of the young men, 
which was instituted Anno 1521, in the mayoralty time of William 
Martin, had their patent from the mayor and corporation, to make 
by-laws for the well governing of their company; and that their 

captain should sit next after the sheriffs. 


sidered it to be true. The omission cer- trustees -hall seem meete : to which pur- 

tainly renders the truth of the story pose my will is, that they procure i 

somewhat suspicious. ter of ino irp .ration, by the name of ' 

r Lynch.— This was formerly the lead- Guardians of the poore Maydens of bal- 
ing family here, and many splendid acts of way,' with licence to purchase land to 
its munificence remain on record. Among that use. And that in preferri) 
others, Sir Henry Linck, Bart., by his will maydens, those thai shall be of the Ianches 
dated 15th Nov. 1633, bequeathed as shall be first provyded, and next them of 
follows : "Item. £500 out of the profits the Martinea," — Orig. WiB in the P 
of my lands, to thintent that such porre gative Office, Dublin. See the Miscellany 
maydens of the birth of Galway, shalbe of the Irish Archaeological Society, vol. i. 
from tyme to tyme, for ever, be preferred for further particulars of the Lynch ia- 
with such competent portions, as to my mily. 


Anno 1628, in the mayoralty time of Sir Richard Blake, King 
Charles the First granted the mayors to be of the king's counsell for 
the government of the town and county at large ; and in commission 
joined with the governours of Galway to execute marshall law. They 
were alsoe chief in commission for the assizes kept in the county of 
the town, and admiralls of all the ports and creeks within the Bay 
of Galway to the Isles of Aran : whereupon it happened, Anno 1629, 
John Lynch Fitz.-Richard being mayor, that the judge of assizes 
fined the mayor in a ioo'' for not attending him at court; whereof 
the mayor, having notice, came to court, and fined the judge 8 200'- for 
presuming beyond his commission. 

The mayor's court had the decision of any sum unlimited ; and 
his warrant of attachment went over the whole province of Con- 
naught. Four of them died the year of their mayoralty, viz., Andrew 
Brown, Anno 1574; James Darcy, Anno 1603; Robert Martin, 
Anno 1622; and Marcus Blake, Anno 1629; and four of them were 
deprived of their mayoralty for recusancy, inasmuch as their con- 
sciences did not lead them to take the oath of the King's absolute 
supremacy over the Church, viz., Oliver Brown, deposed the 8th of 
January, 16^-}, Sir Valentine Blake, Baronet (with his two sheriffs, 
Andrew Lynch and Thomas Blake), the 13th of Nov. 161 1; Sir 
Peter French, Anno 1616, being fined' in a hundred pounds ster. ; 


s Fined the judge — The petulance of the were Jacob and Sparke, see Gratianus 

judge has often been known to lessen the Lucius, p. 252. 

dignity of the bench. At the time alluded c Fined. — These fines for recusancy 

to, " Assizes" were of recent introduction must be considered severe, when com- 

in the west of Ireland ; and our doughty pared with those imposed on the citizens 

mayor considered himself fully on an of Dublin at that period. InA.D. 161 3, 

equality with the petulant judge. For the commissioners appointed to inquire 

ludicrous anecdotes of two of these old- into " general grievances," in their report 

going " judges of assize," whose names to the King (a curious historical document, 


and Oliver Martin deposed after his election, the 27th September. 

The aldermen were chosen at evening, the last of Julv. bv the 
mayor, recorder, and aldermen who bore office only, at which time 
one or two were supplyed for election yearly, in place of the mayor 
afore elected, and aldermen deceased. The next day they went to 
election by the major vote of the mayor, aldermen, and burg' 
only; until in the year 1624, all freemen were made capable to vote ; 
whereby Robert Blake Fitz-Walter was chosen, who was the first 
mayor not questioned for recusancy for thirty years before. Their 
order of precedency was, — 1, the mayor; 2, recorders; 3, baronets 
and knights ; 4, aldermen who were mayors ; 5, sheriffes ; 6. the 
captain of the young men ; 7, aldermen in election ; 8, chamberlain ; 
9, esquires and counsellors at law ; 1 o, burgesses that did underg< >e 
office ; 11, the rest according to their age and calling. 

Saint Francis' Abbey by the river on the north side of the town, 
was founded, Anno 1296, by Sir William Bourk" (Lord Warden of 


never published) stated, that " the laws and, instead of idle and scandalous ruinis- 

in force for maintenance of God's true re- ters, to place those that are learned and 

ligion are in very few places put in due painful." — Rot. Pat. 1 6 Jac. I. p. 3, N 
execution, in regard that, in the country u Sir William Bowk — Roger (J'Ff rrall, 

and corporate townes, with great difficulty in his curious Book of Genealogies, pre- 

is to be found any jury that will present served in the Office of Anns. Dublin, 

recusants; and in the city ofWaterford, gives the following account of the founder:- 

the laws for religion cannot be executed :" of this family: "Richard D'Buri: 

and they recommended " a constant course elder, son of William Fitz-Adelm. called 

to be held in execution of the laws, for by the Irish (for a distinction between 

compelling his Majesty's subjects to at- him and his younger brother, Richard the 

tend the preaching of the word, and hear- younger, ancestor to the Earls of Clan- 

ing of divine service — for suppressing of rickard), lilac na Cunoaoipe Saranajie 

Popish schools — establishment of school- — the English countesse's son. was Lord 

masters — weeding out Popish priests — Justice of Ireland, A. D. 1227, and Lord of 


Ireland, Anno 1308), there interred, Anno 1324. He was brother's 
son to the above Walter Earl of Ulster, and ancestor of the Bourks 
of Mayo v county. 

Our Lady's Church, on the west side of the river, was a small 
chappell of old belonging to the Premonstratences' Abbey of Tuam ; 
wherein stood a statue of our blessed Lady, much frequented by the 
devotion of the people. The Premonstratences granted the place to 
St. Dominick's Order of Athenry ; who founded there a convent of 


Connaught; which last title (some say) he 
acquired in right of his wife Una, or 
Agnes, daughter of Hu. O'Connor, King 
of Connaught (by Ranalt his wife, daugh- 
ter of Awley O'Ferrall, King of Con- 
macny,) son of Cathal Crovdhearg, King 
of Connaught, and of TTlop, or Maud 
O' Bryan, his Queen. He had by his said 
wife Agnes, two sons, Walter and William. 
The latter was ancestor to the Lord Vis- 
count Mayo, and the rest of the Burkes of 
the Co. Mayo, whose chiefs were, after 
him, called M' William Eighter." The 
son of this last named William, was " Sir 
William Burke, Lord Warden," mentioned 
in the text. See also Lodge, vol. ii. p. 1 26. 

v Bourkes of Mayo.— John Smyth "De 
Burgh," eleventh Earl of Clanricarde, in 
the " Pedigree of De Burgh," prefixed to 
his edition of the Memoirs and Letters of 
(his " dead ancestor," as he called him) 
Ulick, Marquiss of Clanricarde, fol. Lond. 
1757, states that Sir William Burke, 
" Lord Warden," had seven sons, viz., 
" Ulick, his successor, Sir Edmond, ances- 
tor to the Lord Viscount Mayo, Richard, 

Sir Redmond, Sir Thomas, made Lord 
Treasurer of Ireland the 17 th of July, 
1 3 3 1 , John de Burgo, made Archbishop 
of Tuam in 1341, who died in 1350, and 
Henry." — Pedigree, p. x. For all this the 
noble editor has adduced no authority, 
possibly considering his own assertion 
sufficient. What relates to John, how- 
ever, is evidently incorrect (see Harris's 
Ware, vol. i. p. 612), and much of the re- 
mainder is very doubtful. Lodge, who 
has merely copied the Memoir, pretends 
to correct the error as to John, by making 
him father of the Archbishop. O'Ferrall, 
in his book before quoted, omits "Ulick 
his successor," and says that Sir Edmond 
{called Albanagh) was the first son, and 
then names Richard, John, and Philip 
only : but O'Ferrall does not refer to any 
authority. I mention these discrepancies 
here merely to direct attention to them, 
and to refer the reader to Mac Firbis's Irish 
Pedigrees, as, perhaps, superior authority 
on these subjects. History requires that 
the descent of so important a family should 
be rendered as clear and perfect as possible. 


St. Dominick's Order". Fa. Daniel Nolan, Pryor of this convent, 
Anno 1672, deceased; Anno 1669, built there a large chappell, and 
covered it with brick. 

Margaret Athy, the wife of Stephen Lynch (Fitz-Dominick Duffe), 
mayor of Galway, Anno 1506, in the absence of her husband on a 
voyage beyond sea, built the Abbey of St. Augustin's Order of 
Hermits x , on the hill the south side of the town. 

St. Bridget's Hospitall on the east side of the town, was built by 
the corporation, Anno 1542. Thomas Lynch Fitz-Stephen being a 
mayor, and a maid servant of one of the burgesses, by their turns, 
handsomly attired, with a plate cup in her hand, every Sunday about 
dinner time, visited all the houses in town to collect almes y for it. 

Among the founders of pious works, Margaret Joyce Fitz-John. 
the wife of alderman Oliver Og French, 159$, mayor, is not to be 

omitted : 

w St. Dominick's Order For an ac- 
count of this convent, see Hilernica Do- 
minicana, p. 322. 

* Order of Hermits The clergy, both 

regular and secular, were formerly well 
endowed and supported, and at all times 
obeyed and respected by the community, as 
well here as in every other part of Ireland. 
" Sacerdotes apud illos magnam obtinent 
dignitatem," says Stanihurst, De Rebus 
Hib. p. 49, A. D. 1584. See also Roth's 
Analecta, p. 160; and O'Sullivan's Hist 
Cathol. fol. 227. Of this we have the 
following further unequivocal testimony, 
in " The Image of Ireland" by John Der- 
rick, London, 1581 ; reprinted, in Scott's 
valuable edition of " Sowers' Tracts" 
4to. Lond. 1 809 : " Friers have cheefest 
and hiest roomes at feastes amongst the 

Irishrie, and why should not we _ 
them like honour at the gallon es." — vuL i. 
p. 589. 

y Almes. — Soon after this period it be- 
came necessary to obtain the royal li< 
to "collect almes." In the reign of Jan.- - 1. 
the learned antiquary Stowe, at the ag 
eight)- years, obtained license, by l< I 
patent, to ask alms for the space of twelve 
months, for his subsist en % '. In Ireland 
such licenses were frequent. On 20th 
August, A. D. 161 8, Ellin Daniel, of 
Yousrhall, obtained license under the 
King's letters, to a~k charitable ben 
lence for two years, to relieve herself, and 
to redeem her husband who was taken by 
pirates at sea, and sold to the Turk^ — 
Rot. Pat. 16 Jac. I. p. 3, Xo. 20. 


omitted : who for charity and good commonwealth's sake built se- 
verall stone bridges 2 through all Connaught, from Galway to Sligoe. 
One day as she sat by the work of a bridge, an eagle let fall a golden 
ring with a precious stone (not known to any lapidary) into her 
bosom, preserved still by her posterity 3 . 

The town of Gallway was besieged the 8th of July, 1 651, by the 
forces of the Parliament of the Commonwealth of England, under 
the conduct of Sir Charles Coot b , Earl of Montrath. The siege con- 

z Bridges The bridges of Ireland, as 

well before as since the arrival of the Eng- 
lish, their materials and form, when and 
by whom erected, and the historic facts 
connected with them, would form an in- 
teresting subject of antiquarian research. 
Those ancient structures have been alto- 
gether overlooked by our published wri- 
ters ; for, the few imperfect remarks con- 
tained in the publications of the Royal 
Dublin Society, called " Statistical Sur- 
veys," are undeserving of notice. The 
Annals, however, would furnish some an- 
cient information ; and much, of a more 
recent date, would be found among our 
state and legal records. It is therefore 
hoped, that the subject may be considered 
worthy the attention of some of the learned 
members of the Irish Archa3ological So- 
ciety. See Lynch, in Vita Kirovani, 
pp. 43, 4 : beginning, " In multa laude 
quondam pontium extructio posita fuit, 
nee ultima pontificum cura fuisse videtur 
iis condendis incumbere, cum a pontibus 
faciendis Varro Pontificis nomen deducat." 
After which the author mentions, that 

Bishop Kirwan built several bridges in 
Connaught at his own expense ; and re- 
lates a circumstance which occurred be- 
tween him and William Daniel, Arch- 
bishop of Tuam (the translator of the New 
Testament into Irish), no way discreditable 
to the memory of that learned prelate. 

a Posterity This story may, in all pro- 
bability, be attributed to some inventive 
genius of the Joyce family. That such 
an exemplary lady, however, did exist, 
and that she was humane and charitable, 
and even that she did build bridges in her 
day, are all very probable ; but " the eagle," 
and the " golden ring," and the " precious 
stone not known to any lapidary" may 
safely be left to be " preserved still by her 
posterity." Stanihurst, A. D. 1576, has 
handed down a similarly fabulous account 
of another " chast widow, a politike dame, 
a bountifull gentlewoman, called Rose of 
Rosse ;" for which see Holinshed, vol. vi. 
Lond. ed. 1808, p. 30. See also note to 
the Statute of Kilkenny, p. 58. 

b Sir Charles Coot.— On the 1 2 th May, 
1 645, he was appointed Lord President of 

4 2 

tinued 40 weeks, till the 15th day after the solar eclipse, it was 
surrendred c by consent of the King's Lord Deputy of Ireland, the 
1 2th of Aprill, 1652, next day after Palm Sunday, on certain articles ; 
by which they were to enjoy their estates in town and liberties with- 
out diminution, and two-thirds of their estates abroad, with as full 
liberty to trade at home and abroad as other English subjects had, 
and not pay taxes but in proportion with their neighbours. 

The Bay d of Galway whereunto the rivers fall, was called of old 


Connaught, " by consent of Parliament." 
See his patent, with the sanguinary in- 
structions (which, though acted upon, 
were never, I believe, published), inrolled 
on "Cromwell's Rolls," No. i, Menib. 7, 
in the Rolls Office, Dublin. 

c Surrendred. — "Many were amazed to 
see upon what easie terms they parted 
with their last important town, a place of 
great strength, and had they been re- 
solute, invincible." — Borlace, 301. This 
writer, if any thing related by him can 
be believed, adds,that it was surrendered 
" without so much as consulting the Lord 
Deputy, or asking his leave, though he 
was within less than half a day's journey." 
Our author above contradicts this state- 
ment; but that there were traitors within 
the walls, appears from a state letter 
which will be found in the Additional 
Notes hereto. 

d Bay. — This bay is remarkable for one 
of the most considerable fishing colonies 
in Ireland, whose village, the Claddagh, is 
situate near the town, on the west bank 
of the river. The spot is supposed, witli 

every probability, to have been occupied as 
a fishing station, since the first peopling 
of this island. That it was so in the jift/t 
century of Christianity, appears from the 
life of St. Endeus, compiled from ancient 
authorities, by A. Mac Raiden, about A. I). 
1390, and published by Colgan in A. D. 
1645. See Acta S. S. p. 709. s. xxiv. 
" Post hajc venit S. Endeus in terram, quae 
Medraighe dicitur." Thi< place i^ now 
called Madree. It is a peninsula running 
about five miles in a direct line into the 
bay of Galway, to the south of the town : 
s. xxv. " Veniens post ha;c S. Endeus ad 
mare, videns ibi p'srotores, (jua^sivit ab 
eis prose et suis, pisces, Qui respond 
dixerunt : pisces ad nos a mari d A 
venerunt, et tibi concedimus ill - 
Aram/ capere, et habere, ct tu nos hie 
permitte maris nostri habere pisces. Au- 
diens hoc responsum malorum. unus puer 
motus spiritu Dei, dixit; unum habeo 
piscem, quem mihi Deus ministravit, et 

tibi eum concedo Exiens hide 

S. Pater Endeus, pervenit ad portttn 
dirigit ad stagnum nomine Orl>sen, et ro- 


Lough Lurgan ; and Lough Lurgan was counted one of the three 
most ancient lakes of Ireland. Lough-fordremon in Kerry, and Lough 
Kera in Mayo County, being the two other. • It is seaven leagues from 
Galway to the lies of Aran, westward, and a league eastward on 
the south side of Galway. It divides the county of Clare on the 
south, from Moycullin Barony on the north of it, three leagues 
asunder. In this haven, Lugad Mac-con, with a fleet of forreigners, 
arrived, Anno D. 250 ; and became King of Ireland, by killing of 
Art, King of Ireland in battle 6 , about Athenry, eight miles from 

Eastward from the lies of Aran to Slimhead, are seaven leagues 
of sea on the south side of the barony of Balinahinsy, and on the 
north side of Kerry, and the bay of Lymerick in a spacious distance. 
On all this western coast from Galway to Slimhead, the 4th of Febr. 
i68|, upon breaking of the long continued frosty weather, the night 
before being Sunday, there was such a deale of eels, congers, and 


gavit Deum, ut propter merita istius pu- imhe. For an account of this famous 
eri ibi nati, qui piscern sibi dederat, copia battle, see our author's Ogggia, p. 327. 
piscium ibi esset." The harbour which The plain on which it was fought, and on 
directs to the lake named Orbsen, accu- which as on Aghrim, a kingdom was lost 
rately points out the site of the Claddagh and won, is well known. Even the par- 
fishing village, where the boy who gave ticular place where Art was killed, be- 
his fish to Endeus, was born, — ibi nati. tween the castles of Moyveola and Kilcor- 
This is the oldest known reference to it nan, is still pointed out by the same name, 
extant. The language, and most probably Turloch Airt, as in the days of our author, 
the manners, of this singular colony, have It would be creditable to the proprietor 
undergone no change since the days of St. of the soil here, whoever he may be, to 
Endeus, now nearly 1400 years ago. mark this classic spot with a suitable ino- 

For " Lough Lurgan" and the " county nument. It might, moreover, afford a few 

of Clare" mentioned above, see the Addi- days' employment and food to some of the 

tional Notes hereto. starving inhabitants of the neighbour- 

e Battle The battle of Magh Mucru- hood. 


gurnards, some quick, some dead, cast ashore every where for seve- 
rall days, so as the like was not seen in the memory of any man 
before ; yet the sea was not frose. The ocean towards the west hath 
no limits nearer than America. 

From Slimehead seven leagues to Bofin f , northward ; and thence 
to Koelshaly Roe, the western ocean flows between the Owles in the 
county of Mayo, and the north side of the barony of Ballynahinsy. 
Full moon at four o'clock thirty minutes, causes high water in all 
these western coasts. So much of the borders of West C'onnaught, 
whence now to the continent. 

The half barony of Rosse g , commonly called Joyce Countrey from 

a Welsh 

f Bofin Koelshaly-roe. — The Owles. — 

Bonn island will be found noticed further 
on. Koelshaly-roe, in Irish, Caol fade 
puao, means the narrow reddish brine ; 
but now corruptly pronounced Caol f aipe 
puao, which has no meaning. This was 
occasioned by substituting the letter p for 
I, in the word paile ; and from the Irish 
mal-pronunciation, the place has been 
called in English the " Killary." This is 
a well known strait, or inlet of the ocean, 
much celebrated by modern tourists, which 
divides the barony of Ballinahinch, or Co- 
namara, in the county of Gal way, from the 
barony of Murrisk, in the county of Mayo. 
It is again alluded to towards the end of 
this treatise. The Owles are the present 
baronies of Murrisk and Borrishoole, in 
the county of Mayo. They are again 
mentioned further on, in our author's de- 
scription of the barony of Ballinahich. 

s Rosse. — Joyce Countrey Shoyes 

T2op, translated promontorium by Colgan, 

Acta SS. p. 603, n. 1 1 ; and nemus by 

O'Sullevan, Hist. Cathol. fol. 188. The 
former meanim rally bears in the 

north, and the latter in the south of Ire- 
land. My learned friend Mr. O' Donovan 
informs me, that in a note from Wi 
MSS. in Nomenclat Ilik MS. by Arch - 
dall, it is translated bosau, a-'R'f oa Ion, 
i. e. nemus duarum merularum ; and that 
in Cormac's Glossary it is interpr 
piobuioe, a wood. It enter? largely intu 
the names of places in Ireland. Our ba- 
r< my was named from the old castle of 1 - 
which was itself so called from the land 
on which it stood, on tb 
Lough Measg. It was originally a bai 
but before our author's time was reduced to 
a half barony. See Appendix L A docu- 
ment entitled the " Division ofConnaught," 
dated A. D. 1586, preserved in the Cotton 
Lib.. British Museum, places the barony of 
Rosse in the county of Mayo, and states it to 
contain " the Joyes. Walshes and Partrish 


a Welsh family of Yoes, Joas, or Shoyes, which held that land from 
the O'Flaherties (formerly part of Partry-an-tslevy", which extended 
from St. Patrick's Hill in the Owles, to Lough Orbsen), hath the 
barony of Balynahinsy, Koelshaly Roe, and the Owles on the west of 
it, and by a high ridge of mountaines called Formna-mor, is divided 
on the north from the same Owles. From that mountain, Bruin 
River, falling into Lough Measg, separates Partry mountain in the 
barony of Kera, from Kilbridy' townland, the north side of Lough 


(Partry) lands, xii myles long and viii 
broad. M c . Thomas and M c . Tybod chief 
in the same ;" and it then enumerates the 
following " Gent, and their castles, viz., 
Mac Thomas, Castlekirke ; Murrogh ne 
dow, Ballynonagh ; M c . Envile, Ballene- 
sleo ; Abbe M c . Envile, Cloynlaghell ; . 
Richard M c . Moyler Joy, Castlenew." — 
Titus, B. xiii. fo. 399. Seethe Additional 
Notes for further particulars of Joyce 
Country and the Shoyes. 

Partry-an-tslevy pcipcpaije an 

c-r-leibe, Partrigia de monte. See Harris's 
Ware, vol. ii. p. 53. In this district of 
Partry of the mountain, the Joyces settled 
under the O'Flaherties in the thirteenth 
century ; and here, as we are told in the In- 
denture of Composition, A. D. 1585, the 
O'Flaherties, at some former time, got 
" eighteen quarters of land in Ballynenagh 
(Baile Inneonagk), from some of the Boorks, 
as is said, for an Kricke." — See Appendix. 
Before the O'Flaherties, or their tributa- 
ries the Joyces, settled here, O'Caocnn, 
O'Kyne ; O'Dopcuioe, anglicized Dorcey 
and Darcey ; and O'^opmog, O'Gormog, 

were the ancient chiefs of Partry of the 
Mountain. St. Patrick's Hill. — A remark- 
able conical mountain (within view of 
which this is written) in the barony of 
Murrisk and county of Mayo ; called in 
Irish Cpuac phuopaic, i.e. the "rick" 
(here pronounced reek) or " stack" of Pa- 
trick ; and Cpuacan aijli, translated by 
Colgan in Trias Thaum. p. 138, col. i, 
" Mons Aquilse," Mounteagle. 

1 Kilbridy Kilbride, so called from 

the chapel of St. Bridget, mentioned im- 
mediately after. By letters patent of King 
James I., dated 30th May, A. D. 1619, 
Rot. Pat. an. 16 . pars 2, numerous lands 
in this half barony of Ross, were granted 
to Edward Grana Joyce, of Kilbride, 
Gent., and to several others of the clan. 
This grant, although many other per- 
sons were included in it, may yet be con- 
sidered the great charter of the Joyces, 
after the Indenture of Composition, A. D. 
1585, contained in the Appendix I. Of the 
other places mentioned in the above para- 
graph, the parish of Balynchala, is now 
called Ballinacalla, or Ballincholla, 6uile 

4 6 

Measg, in the half barony of Rosse, and yet belonging to the parish 
of Balynchala on the south side. In Kilbridy there is a chappell 
and well dedicated to St. Bridget. There is on the south of it an 
arm of Lough Measg, which shoots into the countrev westward 
about four miles to Glenntre[s]ky. On the west of Kilbridy townland 
is Lough-na-fohy Lake, out of which the river of Gairge comes into 
that arme of Lough Measg. 

Within that arm of Lough Measg is the Earl's Island j , where 
Edmond Burk\ second son of Richard the Red Earl of Ulster, Anno 
D. 1338, was put to death; which should be therefore rather called 


an Chala, the townland of the Callow, 
anciently Cala Coca TTIeapja. The cha- 
pel dedicated to St. Bridget is now in 
ruins. It gave name to the townland of 
Kilbride, on which it stands. The well, 
called Cpo bni joe, is near it ; and also 
another "holy" well called Cobap TTIhuipe. 
Glenntreshy, ^jleann Cpeipje, is named 
Glantrague in Larkin's map of the county 
of Galway. Lough nafohy, Goc na Peo- 
raio, is now called Lough na feoy, and is 
in the parish of Ross. Gairge, ^aipje, 
river is now called the Finney. 

i The Earl's Island. — It is still known 
by the same name, Oilean an lapla. It 
lies in that arm of Lough Mask which 
runs up to Toorluggach, in the parish of 

k Edmond Burk i. e. De Burgo, De 

Burgh, Bourke, Burke, but seldom Burk, 
as written by our author. The Earl of 
Clanricarde, in the " Pedigree of De 
Burgh" before referred to, p. 39, note v , 
has omitted the above historical fact of 

the murder of this unfortunate nobleman. 
In Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, the man- 
ner in which it was perpetrated is told 
correctly enough ; but, as often occurs in 
that work, an error is committed 1 ij stat- 
ing, that " the stone was fixed about his 
neck by his kinsman, Edward Buurk .V 
William." — See vol. i. p. 121. By this 
" kinsman" was probably meant Sir Ed- 
mond Albaruich, for whom see p. 39. n<. 
but that he did not immediately per- 
petrate the deed, appears from the above 
narrative, which carries with it all the 
marks of truth. I find no trace on record 
of any commission appointing this Edmond 
Burke, conjointly with the Archbishop of 
Tuam, to the government of Con naught, 
as mentioned by our author; but d 
of our records have been lost since their 
time. For further particulars of him, 
and his father, the Red Earl, and al- 
the family of Xolan, for many years lo- 
cated at Balinrobe mentioned abov... 
the Additional Notes. 


the Earl's Son's Island. But the male line of that house being, all 
to him, extinct, most likely he was reputed and commonly called 
Earl of Ulster; there being but one girle, then about seven years 
old, his nephew William, Earl of Ulster's daughter, after Dutchess 
of Clarence, apparent heir generall. During whose nonage, Edmond 
was joyned in commission with Malachias, Arch-Bishoppe of Tuam, 
for the government of Connaught ; until he was seized upon by Sir 
William Bourk, aforementioned, his sons, on Low Sunday, the 19th 
of Aprill, in the Fryer's house of Balinrobe ; Roger de Flet, Senes- 
chall of Connaught, and Nicholas Lienot 1 , and other nobles of his 
company, being killed on the place. He was that night carried to 
Lough Measg Castle, the next night to Ballyndeonagh m Castle, and 
the third night to that island on Lough Measg ; whither the Arch- 
Bishope of Tuam came to bring him and his kinsmen to a reconcili- 
ation : and as they were on points of agreements, the villains who 
had the custody of his body, a certain family of the Stantons", dis- 


1 Lienot. — Mac Firbis, in his account of Wales, book vi. 
the Welsh tribes contained in the Book of m Ballyndeonagh. — Called Ballynonagh 
Hy Fiachrach, states that the Lienots, or in the document of A. D. 1586, before 
Lynotts, a family long settled in Tirawly quoted, p. 44, note E . This castle still 
in Mayo, came to Ireland with the de- retains its ancient name. It stands, in 
scendants or followers of the Red Earl of ruins, on the townland of Cappagh na 
Ulster: "Gionoioij 00 ceucc 1 n-Gpinn gapple, alias Petersburgh, near the de- 
le r-tioce an lapla piiaio." That part of mesne of Eoss. 

the book alluded to concludes with the n The Stantons. — Among the "Engly she 

narrative of a barbarous occurrence which greate rebelles of Connaught," A. D. 15x5, 

took place between the Barretts of Ti- were " Syr Myles Stauntons sonnes," i. e. 

rawly and those Lynotts, which strongly his descendants. — S tate Papers, vol. ii. part 

marks the ferocity of these Welsh adven- Hi., p. 26. A branch of this family of Staun- 

turers, as well as the uncivilized state of ton, in Irish Stondun, settled in Mayo 

the times. For barbarity similar to that County, under the " Red Earl;" chiefly in 

there recorded, see Wynne's History of the territory afterwards called the barony 


pairing their own safety if he were set at liberty, miserably turned him 
into a bag, and cast him out of the island into the lake, with stones 
tyed to the bag; for which fact they were called Clan Ulcin ever since. 
Hence followed great combustions and wars in Connaught after. 
Of this Edmond and his wife Slany, daughter of Tordellvac O'Bryan, 
L. of Tuomond, lineally descended the lords of Castleconnell and 
Bretas, with the rest of the county of Limerick Burks. 

From that arm of Lough Measg, towards Cong p and Lough Orb- 
sen, for three miles in length, and three half miles breadth, there is 


of Crossbohine, or Clanmorris. After the 
murder of Edmond Burke, most of them 
changed their name to M'Evilly, TTDac a 
mhilio, the son of the knight. In A. D. 
1585, "MylyM c .EvilyofKinturk, other- 
wise M c . Evilly," was "chief of his name." 
See the Mayo Indenture of Composition, 
in Appendix, p. 331. Several of the M'Evil- 
lys are now beginning to re-assume the 
original name. There are at present in 
Mayo several families of the name of 
Culkin, who may be descended from 
the Clan Ulcin branch of the Stauntons 
mentioned above ; but this is mere conjec- 

Combustions and wars See the Annals 

of the Four Masters, at A. D. 1338. The 
Annals of Clonmacnoise, as translated by 
Conly Mac Geoghegan, give the following 
account of these "combustions and wars:" 
" Edmond, the earle of Ulster's son, was 
taken by the other Edmond Burke, and did 
putt a stone about his neck, and afterwards 
did throw him into the poole of Lough- 
measka ; whereof ensued the confusion and 

destruction of the English of Connought, 
and of their own family of Burk's : which 
did enable Terlogh O'Connor to take 
the power and superiority of Connought, 
and banished Edmond M c . William Burk 
from out of all Connought, destroyed the 
spirituall and temporall lands of all tin- 
West parts of Connought. Edmond Burke 
assembled a fleet of shipps, barkes and 
boats; betook himself with them to the 
islands of the seas, a loner time, in exile." 
This last passage explains a subsequent one 
in the Additional Notes, which states, that 
this Edmond was twenty-two years in 
Scotland ; whence he was called Albanach. 
or the Scot. 

p Cong. — See p. 7, note n . And for 
further historical notices of this ancient 
place, see the Annals of the Four Masters 
at the years 1114,27, a8, 3-, 50, 68; 1201. 
23, 25, 26, 45, 47 ; 1590. 98. Pococke, the 
traveller, has stated, that the >eat of Mr. 
Macnamara, near Cong, was the most de- 
lightfully situated place he saw in the 
course of his extensive travels. 


good arable land ; in which line, on the west bank of Lough Measg, 
lies Ballyndeonagh Castle and Rosse, whence the half barony is 
named ; and where the parish church q of Ross parish stands, whereof 
St. Brendan r is patron, whose feast is the 1 6th day of May. Ross 
parish reaches from the west side of Lough Measg, and by the fore- 
said arm thereof, to the western borders of the half barony ; but 
between it and Lough Orbsen part of the parish of Cong runs 5 , from 
the river of Cong on the east of it, Lough Orbsen and Moy-Cullin 
barony on the south, to Imaire-an-Linain', as far on the west as the 
parish of Ross goes. 

This river of Cong is the confluent of divers waters, which 
springing under ground from the south side of Lough Measg, are 
divided into two rivers which enter into the earth again, till they 
breake out in one, near the castle and abbey of Cong ; and about a 
quarter of a mile thence, in a deep, narrow, and smooth streame 11 , 
exonerates itself into Lough Orbsen, having the barony of Kil- 
main in the isthmus between it and Lough Measg, and on the 
east of it, and that part of Cong parish in the half barony of Ross 
on the west. It affords good store of salmon, trouts, and eels. 


q Parish church. — The west gable and description here, to add, that the portion 

part of the north and south walls of this of the parish of Cong which lies in the 

church are ancient ; the remainder of the county of Gal way, extends along the north 

building is modern. side of Lough Corrib, from the river of 

1 St. Brendan. — According to the Four Cong to the head of the lake. 

Masters, St. Brendan died on i6th May, ' Imaire-an-Linain lomaipe an L\- 

A. D. 576. With them the Annals of Ulster onan, i. e. the ridge of Leenane, the boun- 

agree ; vide Doctor O'Conor's Edition, In dary of Joyce country. See this place 

Scriptor. Reritm Hib., torn. iii. p. 171. described further on by our author. 

Tigernagh correctly states it at A.D. 577. u Streame On the shore, east of where 

Id. torn. ii. p. 153, where see also Doctor this stream flows into the lake, the writer 

O'Conor's note thereon (77). found Iceland, or double refracting spar, 

s Runs It may assist our author's in great quantity. 



From hence an eele v carryed a purse of 13 s - 4 rf - sterling, and a knife, 
for about sixteen miles through Lough Orbsen, till it was catched on 
the river of Gal way ; which thus happened. One William M c . Ghoill, 
a fisherman at Cong, lighted on a good eele ; and being busie about 
catching more, thrust his girdle through its guill, which had the 
purse and knife on it : the eele by chance slides into the river with 
the purse and knife. 

Six miles from the river of Cong westward, the river of Du- 
waghta w enters into Lough Orbsen ; and five miles from thence to 


v Eele. — This story of the eel, knife, and 
purse, though it occurred nearly two cen- 
turies ago, is still told by old people in 
the vicinity of Lough Corrib. 

w Duwaghta Belanambreac Boribo- 

nan. — Linan Kinmara t)ubacca, now 

called Doughty. This river is in the parish 
of Cong. Belanambreac river, Ir. 6eal oia 
na m-bpeac, Englished Bellanabrack, 
falls into Lough Corrib at Bonbonnain, 
opposite Caiplean na Cipce, or the Hen's 
Castle, having previously received the 
tribute of two other streams mentioned a 
little further on by our author, one of 
which he calls Failmir. Bonbonan, 6on- 
bonnan, or perhaps 6ocan. There is a 
neighbouring mountain of the name, bor- 
dering the lake on the west. Linain Kin 
mara, £fonan Cinn rhapa, signifies the 
head of the sea, or the extreme point to 
which the tide reaches. See the Annals of 
the Four Masters, at A. D. 1235, for an 
interesting account of the hostilities car- 
ried on in that year, in the west of Ireland. 
The occurrence above alluded to is thus 

related: "Cainic can Goo ua piair- 
beapcaij ajup feojan ua h-&6in pluaj 
mop ele cimctall, ajup uprpai^e leo. 
ap na ccappumj co Uonun cino rhapa." 
7c. " Hugh O'Flaherty and Owen O'l 1 
also came round with a great bod 
forces ; and they carried boats with them 
to Lionan Cinn MharaP That is, they 
carried them from Bonbonan, the mouth 
of Belanabrack river, near the Hen's Castle. 
for about seven miles. The narrative then 
goes on to state, that these boats v. 
round (by the Killary) to ( M Iha. 

Clew Bay ; and that, with their aid, the 
English were enabled to commit incre- 
dible slaughter and devastation through- 
out the numerous islands there. It would 
be difficult to adduce from history a more 
signal act of treachery, than that of the 
above pair of renegades, O'Flaherty and 
O'Heyne. The former died within the en- 
suing year: and 0*Heyne's terr: 
soon after seized and his people reduced, by 
the English, whom he assisted on that oc- 
casion. The Annals add, that O'Malley 

5 1 

Belanambreac river, which falls into Bonbonan, the furthest end of 
the lake. 

Imair-an-Linain, antiently Linan Kinmara, is a long green spot of 
land by the sea of Coelshaly Ro, whither the boats of Lough Orbsen 
were drawn by the forces of West Connaught and Hyfiaghry 
Aidhne x , from Bonbonann to the sea, for five miles, Anno 1235, to 
invade the sea islands there, upon an expedition into the Owles, of 
Morice Fitz Gerald y , Lord Justice of Ireland, Eichard de Burgo, 


of Unihall, the prince of the " Owles," 
stood neuter with his fleet. Thus the 
Irish helped to subdue one another. 

x Hyfiaghry Aidhne. — Ui PiacnacGio- 
ne. This was the lordship of O'Heyne. 
It now constitutes part of the present 
barony of Kill ar tan, or, as formerly called, 
Kiltarragh, in the county of Galway, and 
was comprehended within the diocese of 
Kilmacduagh. After the De Burgos sub- 
dued the natives, it became part of their 
extensive territory of Clanrickard. See 
the Indenture of Composition of that ter- 
ritory, A. D. 1585, in Appendix I. 

y Maurice Fitz Gerald. — Walter Riddles- 
ford. — However lauded this Lord Justice 
Fitzgerald has been by Anglo-Norman 
writers and heralds, as " a valiant knight, 
a very pleasant man, inferior to none in 
the kingdom; having lived all his life 
with commendation," — Lodge, i. 60, Irish 
writers paint him in very different colours, 
see the Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 
1236, and Mac Geoghegan's translation of 
the Annals of Clonmacnoise, at the same 
year: "The said deputy had a meeting 


with Felym O'Connor, at Moynemoyne, 
and being there mett, the deputie, with all 
his forces of horse and foot, rushed on 
Felym to kill him and his people, which 
Felym seeing, betook himself to the swift- 
ness of his feet, and so held on untill he 
came to Seysie." This attempt at assassi- 
nation, and that too against his gossip (for 
such a degree of relationship appears to have 
subsisted between him and Felim),was not 
a very " valiant" act. But he was more 
successful at Bealascanny (Ballyshannon), 
in A. D. 1 247 — Id. To such a congenial 
spirit, the treachery of O'Flaherty and 
O'Heyne, before related, must have been 
acceptable. The ancient Roll of Patents 
called " Antiquissime," preserved in the 
Rolls' Office, Dublin, contains two grants 
of considerable possessions to Walter de Ri- 
delesford; one from Earl Richard (Strong- 
bow), "Vices Regis Anglie in Hibernia 
agens ;" and the other from John Earl of 
Morton — Calendar. Rot. Pat. p. 4, No. 52, 
53. The above was a family expedition. 
Hugh de Lacy was married to the daughter 
of Walter Riddlesford ; and Walter, the 

5 2 

Lord of Connaught, Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster, the Lord Walter 
Riddlesford, with the English forces of Leinster, and the Lord John 
Cogan, with the English forces of Munster, in pursuit of a party of the 
O'Connors, belonging to Fedlim O'Connor, King of Connaught. 

The barony of Moycullin z , commonly known in Irish by the 
names of Gnomore on the North, Gnobeg on the South, is separated 
on the north from Joyce Countrey by a ridge of mountains and 
Lough Orbsen: on the east it lyes by Lough Orbsen and the river 
of Galway, on the south by the bay of Galway, and hath Balynahinsy 
barony on the west. 

On the north side of the river of Failmir, and another river, they 
both meet in one channell before they come into Lough Orbsen ; 
and have two different kindes of trouts, which come from the lake to 
the common channell; and they are seen to separate a one from 
another as they goe on their distinct rivers, so as the kind of the one 
is never found on the other. 

The river of Fuogh falls from the mountaines through steep ro< - 


son of Richard de Burgo, was married to seven Dealbhnas, or territorial divia 

the daughter and heiress of Hugh de of which there were rive iu Connaught — 

Lacy, in whose right, on the death of her See Doctor O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, im 

father, A. D. 1 243, de Burgo became Earl voce Dealbhna. It was also called De- 

of Ulster Lodge, \. 1 zo. albhna Tire da loch, Dealbhna, cr Del- 

z Moycuttin. — This name some have sup- vin of the land between the two lakes, viz.. 

posed to be derived from lTIa^ Cuillinn, Lough Orbsen, or Corrib, on the north, 

as it is now pronounced , which means the and Lough Lurgan, or the bay of Galway, 

field or plain of the holly ; but our author on the south. — -Harris's Ware, ii. 49. For 

has elsewhere given its true derivation, more of Moycullen, and of Gnomore and 

viz., maj5 LI illinn, the field of Ullinn, one Gnobeg, see the Additional Notes hereto, 
of the ancient Tuatha de Danann colony. * Separate. — This -.paration was for- 

Seefurtheroninthistreatise,p.55,andalso merly believed, but the "fishers of the 

his Ogygia, p. 180. This was the ancient lake" now question its veracity. 
territory of Dealbhna Feadha, one of the 


till it passes by the castle of Fuogh" to Lough Orbsen eastward. It 
was commonly called Owan Roimhe, or Brimstone River. The oc- 
casion of the name was but lately discovered by an extraordinary 
drought of weather, An. 1666 and 1667, wherein there was brim- 
stone found on the dry stones about the bridge of Fuogh. On this 
river is salmon fishing ; and muscles are found that breede pearles . 
On the north side of the river, not far from the bridge, westward, 
was discovered by revelation, about the year 1654, a well d in honour 
of St. Michael, archangel. From this river to Galway, above twelve 
miles 6 , there is indifferent good arable land by the lake and river of 
Galway, on the east of it, and the mountaines on the west, be- 
tween it and another tract of land by the sea-side. Near Fuogh is 
the parish church of Kilcumin, and St. Cumin's well f , where he is 


b The river — and castle of Fuogh pua- 

raio. This river flows through Ough- 
terard, a small town about fourteen miles 
north-west of Galway, much celebrated 
by tourists. Mr. Inglis, in his journey 
through Ireland, A. D. 1834, state, s that 
" this straggling little village" has " one of 
the prettiest and most limpid streams in 
the world dancing through it." This is 
the river of Fuagh ; or, as it is sometimes 
called, Owin Riff, in Irish Qbamn Roib, 
or the sulphur river. Whenever the 
river runs shallow, sulphur is found on 
the stones in its channel. The castle is 
called Nowghe in the document of A. D. 
1586, mentioned in note g , p. 44. It stood 
on a natural bridge in the townland of 
Fuogh ; but was pulled down some years 
since to build the barrack of Oughterard. 
c Pearles — They are still found here, and 

often of a large size. For an account of Irish 
pearls see Harris's Ware, vol. ii. p. 1 7 2 ; and 
some curious papers in Trin. Coll. MS. Lib. 

1. 1, 3- 

d Well. — This well is still shewn. 

e Twelve miles. — It is reputed to be 
fourteen Irish miles; but as before ob- 
served, p. 6, note k , our author laid down 
his distances by the long Connaught miles. 

f Parish church St. Cumin's well. — 

This parish is bounded on the north by 
Joyce Country; on the east by Lough 
Corrib, many of whose islands it embraces ; 
on the south by the parish of Killanin; 
and on the west by the parish of Moy- 
rus, in Conamara. The church is called 
in Irish Oil Chuimin, the church of St. 
Cuimin, who, according to tradition, was 
the original founder of the parish. No 
part of the primitive church remains. 


worshiped, as patron of the parish, [on the 14th] of October. Not 
far from thence is the castle and mannour of Aghnenui e ? , where tin- 
salmon comes under the castle, on a river not far from the west side 
of Lough Orbsen. 

The next parish of Gnomore is Kilanhin parish ; but Kilanhin" 
parish church is in Gnobeg, where the memory of St. Anhin,V., is 
celebrated the 18th of January; and where her well is frequented on 
the north-east brink of Lough Lonan'. This lake lies between 
Gnomore and Gnobeg, on an island wherof is the castle of Ohery ; 
and where there is no recourse of water from it but under ground. 

Gnobeg containes the parishes of Moycullin and Rahun J : the 


The present building, which occupies its 
site, is comparatively modern. It is situ- 
ate about a mile east of Oughterard. The 
well, cobap Chuimin, is near it, and is 
held in great veneration. The people, 
Avhen passing it, take off their hats, and 
bow respectfully in memory of the holy 
man whose name it bears, and whose me- 
mory is " worshipped," i. e. celebrated 
here. See p. 23, note f . 

zAghnenure. — Irish, CIcao na n-luban, 
the field of the yews. One only of these 
ancient yews now remains. It is growing 
west of the castle, and is supposed to have 
seen at least a thousand years, but it is 
at present evidently decaying. The castle, 
of which a considerable part remains, is 
situate near the brink of Lough Corrib, 
about two miles east of Oughterard. For 
an interesting description of it, by that 
excellent antiquary, who has done so much 
for our national literature, George Petrie, 
Esq., see the Irish Penny Journal, -fto. 

Dub. 1 841, p. 1. 

h KUankin — CiU Gincinn, the church 
of St. Anhin. Her well, Cobup Clinrinn. 
is near it, and appears marked on Larkin's 
large map. I have not met with any his- 
torical account of this saint. 'What Lb given 
above is probably from ancient tradition. 

' Lough Lonan — Castle of Ohery. — The 
name Lonan is not known at present. The 
lough is now called the lake of Ross. The 
castle of Ohery stood on an island in 
Lough Lonan. In A. I). 1585. it be- 
longed to Jonick OTIalorane. — Appen- 
dix I. In the same year, "Teige MFyn- 
nine O'Hallorau of Olf I seventy 

years, deposed that lie was driven out of 
his castles and lands by his kinsman 
Moroghe ne doo (O'Flaherty), since which 
time be dwelt in Clanricard." — Orig. Re- 
cord, Eolls" Office. Ohery is now reduced 
to a small portion of ruins. 

J Parishes of Moycullin ami Rahun 

This parish of Moycullin extends in length 


three first parishes ly in length from Lough Orbsen to the bay of 
Galway, and Rahun from the river of Galway to the same bay. The 
castle and mannour of Moycullin k , whence the barony and parish of 
Moycullin are named, hath Lough Lonon on the west; Tolokian 1 , 
two castles next adjacent, on the north ; and Lough Orbsen on the 
east. The parish church theron, its chief feast of late is the Im- 
maculate Conception of our Blessed Lady, on the 8th of December, 
as patroness. What antient patron it had is not known. Here 
Uillinn, grandchild of Nuad Silver-hand, king of Ireland, 1200 years 
before Christ's birth, overthrew in battle, and had the killing of 
Orbsen Mac Alloid, commonly called Mananan Mac Lir, Mananan 
the Mankish man, Mac Lir son of the Sea, for his skill in seafaring. 
From Ullin Moycullin is named ; to wit, Magh-Ullin, the field of 
Ullin m : and from Orbsen, Lough Orbsen, or the Lake of Orbsen. 
Six miles from a great stone in that field (erected, perhaps, in me- 
mory of the same battle) to the town of Galway. 


from Lough Corrib to the bay of Galway, " natal soil and patrimony through a long 

by which bay and the parish of Rahun it line of ancestors." The manor, with 500 

is bounded on the south; on the west by acres in demesne, was created by a grant 

the parish of Killannin; and on the north of James I. to Hugh O'Flaherty, our 

and north-east by the same parish and author's father, on 25th Jan. 161 8. — Rot. 

Lough Corrib, and the parish of Rahun. Pat. 15 . 

See this latter parish described further on. ' Tolokian Culocaooam. These two 

k Castle and mannour of Moycullin — castles stood on the brink of Lough Cor- 

The record quoted p. 44, note&, states, rib, in the townland of the same name, 

that this castle in A. D. 1586, belonged They were called the castles of the two 

to " Rory O'Flahertie," grandfather of our sisters, of whom some romantic tales of 

author, who was himself called Rory Oge former days are still current. One of 

of Moycullin. See Mac Firbis, in his ge- these old castles was blown down by the 

nealogical abstracts, drawn up A. D. 1 666 ; great storm of January, 1839. 

and our author's Ogygia, p. 180, where he m Ullin See p,52, note z , also Ogyg. 

feelingly describes the loss of this his pp. 174, 179, for further notices of the 


The parish of Rahun n ly's, for the most part, within the west 
liberties of the town of Galway; which liberties extend four miles 
by the river side, and two miles by the sea side from the town. The 
parish church of Rahun celebrates for patron St. James the Great, 
on the 25th of July. In the same parish is a chappell of St. J;i • 
at Newcastle, by Galway river near the town, which was wont to be 
visited on St. James's eve and day, yearly, by the people of Galway, 
for devotion. 

The tract of land on the south side of the barony, by the bay ( .f 
Galway, divided among the four parishes, and separated from Lough 
Orbsen and the river's tract by a large space of mountain land, is 

_ >od 

battle and personages here mentioned. 
The great stone, alluded to above, has not 
been identified. No person in the dis- 
trict ever heard of any such monument. 

D Parish of Rahun Rac Un, the rath 

or dwelling of Un, a man of whom nothing 
more is known: 

" The annals of the human race, 
Of him afford no other trace." 

It is stated in the Book of Ballymote, 
that Heremon, the son of Milesius, con- 
ferred the government of the west of 
Ireland on Un and Etan, two chiefs who 
accompanied him from Spain, and that 
the latter built a fortress at Eath-riosrh- 
baird, in the barony of Murrisk, Mayo 
county ; but the Four Masters, at A. M. 
3501, say that fortress was built by 
Fulman. one of Heber's chiefs, and that 
Un raised Eathcroich (or Craach) in Ard- 
Eitig, or Fithaig. See Keating, book i. 
part ii. ch. vii., and Ogyg. p. 187, for Un 
and Etan. An etymological friend, who 

pleasantly resolves the word Madag" 
into very good Irish, would not hesitate, on 
the above authority, to ascri /,' un to 
the chieftain Un. The portion of this pa- 
ri-li of Rahun (it is now generally written 
Rnh(Kiii), lying within Iil 3, ie bounded 

north by the parishes ullen and 

Oranmore ; east by the latter and tl 
ri-h of St. Nicholas ; south by the bay ; 
and west by the parish of Moycullen, and 
that part ofEahoon lying within the ba- 
rony of Moycullin. 

Church. — CfutppeB. — A small portion 
of the walls of this church, but nearly 
level with the ground, may still be tra 
within the cemetery at Eahoon, about a 
mile west of Galway. Near it is St. 
James'swell; but no "patron"" has been ce- 
lebrated there for many yea re. The chapel 
of St. James at Newcastle, so much re- 
sorted to for devotion in former davs. 
is now converted into a stall for feeding 


good pasture for cattell ; but so craggy and full of stones p , and so 
destitute of deep mold, that in very few spots of it a plow can 
goe : yet the tenants, by digging, manure it so well, that they have 
corn for themselves, their landlords, and the market. Never was 
garden with more paines tilled for black seeds. They carry on 


p Full of stones Mr. Molyneux, in his 

Journey to Connaught, in April, 1 709, pre- 
served among the MSS. of Trin. Coll. Li- 
brary, Dublin, 1. 4, 1 3, and 1. 1, 38, writes of 
this district : " I never saw so strangely stony 
and wild a country. I did not see all this 
way three living creatures, not one house or 
ditch, not one bit of corn, nor , I may say, one 
bit of land, for stones, in short nothing ap- 
peared but stones and sea. Nor could I 
conceive an inhabited country so destitute 

of all signs of people Having got 

back through the barbarous country to 
Galway, I dined with the officers. This 
is the best town I have seen in Ireland. The 
inhabitants are mostly Koman Catholics, 
and the trade wholly in their hands, and 
indeed in all Connaught, as you go far- 
ther from Dublin, you may see the re- 
mains of Popery, less and less extinct 
than in the other parts of Ireland." Ano- 
ther traveller, Mr. Bush, who wrote more 
than half a century after Molyneux, says: 
" If in any part of the kingdom there are 
any wild Irish to be found, it is in the west- 
ern parts of this province [i. e. Connaught], 
for they have the least sense of law and go- 
vernment of any people in Ireland, I believe, 
except that of their haughty and tyrannic 
landlords, who, in a literal sense, indeed, 

are absolute sovereigns over their respec- 
tive towns and clans, which the western 
part of this province may not improperly 
be said to be divided into. Their impe- 
rious and oppressive measures, indeed, 
have almost depopulated this province of 
Ireland. The will and pleasure of these 
chiefs is absolute law to the poor inha- 
bitants that are connected with them, 
and under whom the miserable wretches 
live in the vilest and most abject state of 
dependance." — p. 35. " What with the se- 
vere exactions of rent, even before the corn 
is housed, a practice that too much prevails 
among the petty and despicable landlords, 

of the parish priest, for tythes, 

who not content with the tythe of grain, 
even the very tenth, of half a dozen or half 
a score perches of potatoes, is ex- 
acted by the rapacious, insatiable priest. I 
am sorry to tell you the truth, that too 
many of them are English parsons. For 
the love of God and charity, send no more 
of this sort over, for here they become a 
scandal to their country and to humanity. 
Add to these, the exactions of, if possible, 
the still more absolute Catholic priest, who 
although he preaches charity by the hour 
on Sunday, comes armed with all the terrors 
of damnation, and demands his full quota 



horses, out of the shore, all the seaweeds cast in daily, as long as they 
can get it, from Michaelmas till sowing time past : and sometimes 
on spring tide low waters, they goe as far down as they can, man, 
woman and child, and cut the sea weed with knives, to have it cast 
up again by the sea. With this they muck the land, and dig up dailv, 
earth to cover it, out of watery furrows which serve for conveving 
away the water from the ridges. This mucking and digging keeps 
them in action till March, before which they sow not a grain of corn q . 
In sowing, they give so small a measure of seed as can be immagined, 


of unremitted offerings." — Hibernia C'uri- 
osa, Dub. 1769. — pp. 36-7. Some of these 
evils may be traced in this district at the 
present day. 

1 Com In this curious account of the 

agriculture of the time, we incidentally 
learn that here the tenants paid their rent 
in kind, according to the ancient mode. This 
was general in many parts of Ireland in the 
seventeenth century. By inquisition taken 
at the town of Mayo, on 29th July, A. D. 
1607, it appeared, that Eugenius, alias 
Owen O'Maly, chief of his name and na- 
tion, and his ancestors, had chief rents, of 
barley, butter, and money, out of several 
lands within the barony of Murrisk, and 
county of Mayo ; that he was seised of the 
castle of Cahir-na-mart (now Westport), 
the castle and island of Carrowmore, and 
numerous other lands and possessions 
there, in right of tanistry ; and that he, 
as chief, ought to have, as his ancestors 
had, " all fines for bloodshed, all skins of 
animals killed, or to be killed, within that 
barony, with all customs and other casu- 

alties." By another inquisition, taken nth 
January, A. D. 1610, it was found that 
Robert Bowen, of Castlecarra, Esq.. u 
heir to his brother William Bowen (who 
purchased various lands in Mayo county, 
from Peter Lord Tremblestone, by deed of 
feoffment, dated 1st May, A. D. 1586, and 
who was the first of that name that came 
to Mayo), was siised of a rent-charg 
mortgage from the Stantons, on the lands 
of Clan M c Cormick, of a certain quan- 
tity of "bread, drink, and flesh at Christ- 
mas ; and a proportion of bread, but- 
ter, and drink at Easter, yearly." — Oria. 

The best illustration of the mode of 
manuring with sea-weed, and the other 
agricultural processes above described, will 
be found in Mr. Nimmo's excellent Eeport 
on the Bogs west of Lough Corrib. It is 
observable, that the potato is no where 
mentioned by our author. He alludes to " a 
kindcofcorn they call bwaghfhvft the name 
is now unknown. The houses were all to- 
veredwith?//«/rA. Even our author himself, 


being sure not a grain will fail to multiply. In summer, when it 
grows up, they goe, man, woman and child, and ly prostrate or sit 
upon the corn, to weed it with their bare hands, leaving nothing 
behind but pure corn. Twice, perhaps, they thus weed it before it 
comes to an ear. The soile bears not but for two years, till they 
muck it again. The first year it bears wheat, barly, ry, or oats ; the 
second year oats only, but the increase is forty fold at the least. 
Here is a kinde of corn they call bwagh, the grain is like wheat, but 
more brownish and swarthy ; the bread like barly bread but finer : 
two bushells of this corn is three bushells ground. This land hath 
no help for building but thatch, and plenty of rude stones that can- 
not be wrought. It is destitude of wood and lime-stone. Few places 
have any clay for mortar. It hath severall brooks and shallow 
rivers, falling from the mountaines to the sea, which bear some 
salmons, trouts, and eels, besides plenty of sea-fish and shell-fish; 
together with severall creeks and ship harbours. There is a shift of 
making lime of the shells for tanning leather. Now to descend to 

In this tract 1- , near Galway, westward, is the town land of Barna s ; 
very good arable land, where partly the plow, partly digging with 


the hereditary chieftain of Gnobeg, which s Barna 6eapna, literally a gap, but 

was the best part of the barony of Moycul- here a breach or opening in the coast, 
len, lived in a thatched house, in the district There was formerly a castle here, close to 
above described; and very probably in it he the sea side, about three mdes west of 
wrote his Ogygia, and the present treatise. Galway. Its ruins are shewn by the name 
r Tract. — The tract of land, as far west- of pean caiplean 6eapna, the old castle of 
ward as the barony of Moycullen extends Barna. It belonged to the ancient Irish 
along the bay, is known by the name of famdy of O'Halloran, who before the 
Cop paipje, or the sea tract. We find it twelfth century were lords of Clan Pe- 
so called in A. D. 1586. See the record apjcnl, a district in which Galway town 
quotedfrom the British Museum, in note g , was situate. "O h-allmupan Ucupeac 
p. 44. cecpi m-baile picec cloinoi Pepjaili." 



spade is used. It affords lime-stone and clay. Here is Blake's bill* 
over the sea, whither the young men of Galway were wont to come 
a horseback the third day of their May-game, and there dine between 
this hill and the castle of Barna. 

Sir Morogh Flaherty" of Aghnenure, defeated an army out of 
Clanrickard, the 22nd of June, A. D. 1564, on the strand of Tray- 

—MS. Trin. Coll. Lib. H.2, 17. I here 
take the opportunity of correcting an error 
in the History of Galway, p. 3, occasioned 
by adopting Vallancey's erroneous deri- 
vations of Clann Peapjal and ^aillirh, 
neither of which means " tribes of mer- 
chants," as there stated : the former 
signifying the descendants of Farrell, a 
Christian name common among the O'Hal- 
lorans ; and the latter the river which 
flows through the town. See note v , p. 28, 
ante. For more of the sept of O'Halloran, 
see Additional Notes. 

1 Blake's hill. — In Irish Cnoc a 6lucai j, 
is now called the White Cliff of Barna, 
and appears rather a conspicuous ob- 
ject on entering the bay. The May 
games, and other old customs, as " rid- 
ing the ring," &c, formerly practised 
here, have long since fallen into disuse. 
The "young men" of the present day 
would be ashamed of those homely but 
manly amusements of their forefathers; 
although it is to be feared, that many of 
their modern pastimes are not altogether 
of so innocent a character. 

u Sir Morogh Flaherty. — Our author 
here omits the prefix O (for the significa- 
tion of which see Ogyg. p. 361) in the 

name of his celebrated kinsman Morough 
na d-tuadh, [Morough of the Battle- 
axes] O'Flaherty. But the omission in 
this instance I consider merely acci- 
dental; although in our author's time, 
when the Irish were broken down by the 
wars of the seventeenth century, mai. 
them began to fashion their 1. 
omitting the prefixes 0' and Mac. which 
were among the few remnants of national 
distinction that then remained to them. 
This they did to make their old Irish 
names more English-like, and conse- 
quently more palatable to their dominant 
neighbours ; and it was a literal fulfil- 
ment of the wish of Spenser, express- 
ed a century before, that " all thi 
and Mac's should be utterly forbidden 
and extinguished." Many of the O'Fla- 
herties, and chiefly the more respectable 
of them, then became mere " Flaher 
Our author never submitted to this mark 
of national degradation, like his kinsmen 
of Aghnenure, or Lemonfield. Then ap- 
peared, for the first time. " Bryan Fla- 
herty, of Lemonfield, Esq. Morogh Fla- 
herty, his son. Edmond Flaherty, of Tolly.'" 
&o. — Extract from the will of the first 
named, dated the 30th Dec. A. D. 1 - 2 1 . 


bane v . This strand yields plenty of cockles ; and, with a drudge, 
oysters are to be found near it. Westward from thence, and from 
Galway four miles, the river of Forbagh runs to the sea; near 
which was a great fish cast, Anno 166^, another about a mile thence 
at Koylagh, the 17th of May, 1674, thirty foot long and seaven foot 
high. Two miles from the river of Forbagh w to the river of Spidell x , 
on which the salmon cannot pass a steep salmon leap, a mile from 
the bridge on the mouth of the river, first built Anno 1670, by the 
publick charges. On the east-side of the river, by the high water 
mark of the sea, stands the church of Spidell, dedicated to St. Enna y , 
patron of Aran, whose feast is kept the 2 1 st day of March. Spidell 
is so called of Spittle, or Hospitall. From this river, which separates 
the parish of Moycullin here from the parish of Kilanhin on the west 


Prerog. Office. For valuable observations 
on Irish names, see Mr. O'Donovan's cu- 
rious papers in the Irish Penny Journal, 
A. D. 1 841, which it is to be hoped he 
may yet be induced to enlarge and give 
in a more substantial form to the public. 

v Traybane — In Irish, Updij 6cm, lite- 
terally the White Strand, as it is still 
called. Cockles are here found in abun- 
dance ; but no oysters. The fishermen plea- 
santly relate, that the latter migrated to 
the opposite shore of the bay, to the great 
oyster beds of Poldoody, belonging to that 
excellent and patriotic gentleman, Burton 
Bindon, Esq. 

w Forbagh. — popbac, now pronounced 
Furrobagh. This river flows into the bay. 
In the Composition of A. D. 1585, Ballyne- 
forbagh in Gnobeg, is stated to contain 
four quarters of land, which, with most of 

that district, was granted by James I. to 
Hugh O'Flaherty, our author's father, by 
letters patent, dated 25 th Jan. A. D. 1617. 
— Rot. Pat. 

x Spidell Spioeal, an hospital. Spital 

is an old English term for hospital, and 
is still used in Scotland. " Rob not the 
spital." — Jonson. In the Composition of 
A. D. 1585, the townland here is called 
Ballynspiddell. The river of Spiddle is nine 
miles west of Galway, and is much prized 
for salmon fishing. It flows out of a lake 
in the townland of Shannagarraun, and 
falls into the bay nearly opposite Ceann 
6oipne, or Black head. 

y St. Enna For an account of this 

celebrated Saint, whose memory is still 
venerated here, and in the islands of Aran, 
see Colgan's Acta Sanctorum, p. 704. 


of it, to the river of Ally z are two miles ; and in the midle way is 
the creeke of Crompan, a very secure harbour for boats, much fre- 
quented by the fishermen of Galway. Ally river divides Gnobeg 
on the east, from Gnomore on the west in those parts, whence to 
Cromlin a river is two miles : not far from which, westward, 3rd 
June, 1682, was a fish cast on Miny shore, thirty foot long and 
seaven high. Near Miny is the castle of Inveran, where Walter 
Fada Bourke b was murthered by the procurement of his stepmother 


z River of Ally In Irish GBainn na 

h-Gille, so called from the townland of 
Aille, through which it flows. It is two miles 
west of Spiddle. "Gnobegg is bounded 
from Srawan I Garwane on the north 
side, to Galway, saving the liberties, and 
soe alonge the river of Donkelie (or Ally) 
to Galway aforesaid, by east." — Mot. Pat. 
29 Eliz., quoted in Appendix. The name 
of this river may be traced to the O'Kealy's 
(O'Cadhla), the ancient chiefs of Con- 
mhaicne-mara, of whom more will be 
found in the sequel. 

a Cromlin. — Miny. — Inveran. — Cpu i m - 
jlinn. This river flows into the bay be- 
tween the townlands of Poulgorm and 
Cartronkeel, about three Irish miles west 
of Ally river. There are two portions of 
the parish of Kilcummin here insulated 
by the parish of Killannin. — Miny. Now 
called Minna — Inveran. lnbepan. This 
castle stands a short distance west of 
Crornlin river, on a little cpompun. or 
creek, from which it takes its name. 

b Walter Fada Bourhe Walter the 

Tall. He was the son of David Bourke 

(great grandson of Edmund nafesoige, fur 
whom see Lodge's Peerage, voL iv. p. 231), 
by his first wife. Finola O'Flaherty was 
the second wife of David. By her he 
had Ripoeapo an lapain, called Iron 
Dick, and to secure the inheritance for the 
latter, his mother caused his elder half- 
brother, Walter Fada, to be murdered, as 
above related. In this object the mur- 
deress succeeded, for her son, Iron Dick, 
did inherit all his father's vast possessions, 
and became one of the greatest men of his 
time. See Sir Henry Sidney's curious de- 
scription of him, quoted by Lodge, vol. iv. 
p. 232, where, among other things, he • 
" Surelye, my lords, he is well wonne,_/br 
he is a great man; his land lyeth along the 
west-north-west coast of this realme, wht-re 
he hath many goodly havens, and is a 
Lorde in territore of three tymes at mtich 
land as the Earle of Clanrickarde is." He 
was father of Sir Tibbott na Long, first 
Viscount Mayo. The retributive justice 
of Providence visibly pursued this foul 
murder, in the fate of that man's descend- 
ants. To pursue the subject further would 


Finnola Flaherty, by her brother Donnel Fitz-Rory Og Flaherty, 
Anno 1 549, deceased. Thence, westward, at Moerras c , is an altar of 
St. Columb-Kille by a brooke, and his well within the sea shore. 
His feast is celebrated on the 9th of June. From Cromlin river to 
the river of Casla are two miles, This river falls into Casla haven, 
and hath salmon and trout-fishing on it yearly. These white trouts 
are called Lihain, and come on the rivers from the sea as salmons 

On Casla haven, in the year 1674, memorable for dearth of corn 
through all Ireland, the herring fishing of Galway Bay failing, 
herring fishing was discovered, and soe continued for five years after, 
and failed againe. They were larger and sooner come than Gal- 
way fish. There I saw a herring eighteen inches long. Between 
Casla Haven and Fearmore, or the Great Man's Haven d , lyes the 


be irrelevant here. It is, therefore, left to 
the future historian of this district. 

c Moerras Casla. — On Mackensie's 

chart, Moerras is called Murris. It is 
west of Inveran castle. On the town- 
land of Cloghmore there is an old church- 
yard called after St. Columbkille. On 
Mackensie's chart and Larkin's map are 
marked the ruins of a church. See the 
Ordnance Survey map of this district, for 
the situation of the altar and well men- 
tioned above. The river of Casla, where 
it falls into the bay of that name, is 
four Irish miles west of the mouth of 
Crumlin river. The bay is called in Irish 
Cucm Chaiple, the bay of Caushlia. Mac- 
kensie and Larkin properly call it Casleh 
bay ; but Mr. Nimmo, in his piloting di- 
rections before alluded to, calls it " Cas- 

tello, or Casleh harbour," p. 172. Castello 
is a corrupt pronunciation of Casleh, or 
Casla, the proper name of the bay, and 
therefore ought to have been rejected by 

d Great Man's Haven. — In Irish Cucm 
an pip rhoip, now called Great Man's Bay, 
lies west of Casla, a peninsula of about two 
Irish miles in breadth running between 
them. It was called by the same name in 
A. D. 1560 See the A'nnals of the Four 
Masters, who relate, that in that year, a 
vessel was driven on a rock at the entrance 
of Great Man's Bay in Iar Connaught, and 
that upwards of 1 00 men were lost, among 
whom was Tuathal (Toole) O'Malley, the 
best pilot of a long ship in his time. The 
people here relate, that the " Great man" 
who gave name to this bay, was a giant; 


land of Killin, about four miles, where stands a church by the 
sea-side, which antiquity named Inismacaw church, the feast day 
whereof is on the 15th of March. Westward of Great Man's 


that he lived a long time ago, and seized 
and plundered all the vessels that passed 
that way. They still shew a large hol- 
low rock which they call his churn, Cuin- 
neoj an pip m o'P ; and three other rocks 
called 6pannpao an pip moip, which sup- 
ported the cauldron wherein he boiled 
the whales which he caught with a fishing 
rod ! 

" His angle-rod made of a sturdy oak, 
His line a cable which in storms ne'er broke; 
His hook he baited with a dragon's tail, 
And sat upon a rock, and bobb'd for whale." 

That some "great man," at some dis- 
tant period, did dwell at or about Great 
Man's Bay, and give name to it, may be 
admitted without incurring the charge of 
crediility : but when he lived, and his 
name, and whether he was one of the 
mighty Fomorians, or powerful Tuatha 
de Dananns, or other early colonists of 
Ireland, will probably, like other historical 
questions of similar importance, remain se- 
crets for ever. 

The other places mentioned in this 
paragraph may be summarily noted as 
follows. Killin This is "Killin op- 
posite to Aran," mentioned in page 7. It 
forms the southern part of the penin- 
sula lying between Great Man's Bay and 

Casla. Inismacaw church Ceampult 

inp' Iliac Ctoairh, i.e. the church of the 

island of the sons of Adam. When or by 
whom it was built, or why " antiquity 
named" it so, we are ignorant. It lies in 
ruins on the west side of Casla bay, near 
the shore. Garrnna. — Ifi an island I 
between Great Man's Bay and C. 
Bay, mentioned immediately after. Larc- 
roill, tearhcoill, L e. Elmwood, angli- 
cised Loughil, forms the southern part 
of the island of Garomna. The ruins of 
Olither church, in the south-west of this 
island, are marked on Larkin's map. 

Letter Melon feicip maellain. 

island of Lettermullen lies to the we>t 
of Garomna; and the cat Ifi on the 

north side of the island. It is mention- 
ed in the Annuls of the Four Musters, 
at A.D. 1584, as the residence of Morogh 

Mac Hugh. Keanngualaim Ceann ^ u - 

alaim, a small island immediate. 
Lettermullen. From our author's ex- 
pression it would appear, that in hie 
time they were united; but in Mao- 
kensie's chart and Larkin's map. they ap- 
pear as separate islands. Ceann J^uulaim. 
sometimes called Gulin head, and not un- 
frequently Golden head, by such of the na- 
tives as speak English. See Nimmo's Pilot- 
ing Directions, p. 174, for an account of 
the tides along this coast. Cat&m hare/,. — 
Cuan Caipin, now generally called Casheen 
Bay. It lies to the north of Gulam Head. 


Haven, are the lands of Garmna, Lawroill, and Lettermelan Castle. 
In Garmnia is Olither church, or the Pilgrirae's church. Keann- 
gualaim, or the cape of Golamhead in Lettermellan, stretcheth itself 
between Cassin haven and the sea, the farthest end of Moycullin 
barony, this side, and is eight leagues from Galway. Eastward of 
this point, the lies of Aran 6 lye three leagues distant from the con- 
tinent of this barony, whereof Lettermellan is the nearest to them. 

The three lies of Aran half barony, extending in length from 
west to east, have the barony of Moycullin on the north, Moyclea f 
in Corcamro barony, and county of Clare, on the east, and the Cape 
of Kerryhead, far off in sight g stretched out in the sea, on the south. 


e Isles of Aran. — Some notices of these re- 
markable islands, in addition to those given 
above by our author, will be found in the 
Appendix hereto, if space shall permit. 

f Moyclea — In Irish ITIa^ ^lea, or, as 
it is sometimes called, Uuac ^lea. This 
is a tract of land in the west of the barony 
of Corcomroe (Copcumpuaio), and the 
nearest part of the county of Clare to 
Imp Oipnp, the southern isle of Aran. 
Here are* situate Doolen, the seat of a 
branch of the Macnamara family ; and 
Aran-view, "commanding, as its name 
implies, a fine view of the Aran isles." 
In the sixteenth century, Moyclea was 
rendered remarkable by the following oc- 
currence. A. D. 1565, Mahon O'Brien of 
Arkin (Gipcin), in the great island of Aran, 
was treacherously slain by his own friends 
and followers. The citizens of Galway im- 
mediately went forth in pursuit of the 
murderers ; who thereupon betook them- 
selves to their boats and landed in the 

west of Thomond. There they were met 
by Donall, the son of Conor O'Brien, who 
took most of them prisoners. He then 
brought them bound in fetters to Magh 
Glea; and there, in sight of the place 
where they perpetrated the crime, he 
hanged some and burned others, " as their 
atrocious wickedness deserved," say the 
Four Masters, who relate the circum- 
stance. These feuds among the O'Briens 
led to their total expulsion from the 
islands of Aran, in a few years after, by 
the O'Flaherties of Iar-Connaught. 

g Far off in sight. — The islands of Aran 
command some of the noblest sea-prospects 
in the world. The vast Atlantic stretching 
inimitably towards the south and west ; the 
extensive coasts of Kerry, Clare, Galway, 
Mayo, &c, with their numerous islands, 
headlands, and lofty mountains " far off 
in sight," must be seen, in order to form 
any idea of the sublimity and beauty of 
the view. 


They are fenced on the south side with very high clifts h , some three 
score, some four score and five score fathoms deep, against the 
Western Ocean's approach. 

The soile is almost paved over with stones' 1 , soe as, in some pla 
nothing is to be seen but large stones with wide openings between 
them, where cattle break their legs. Scarce any other stones there 
but limestones, and marble fit for tomb-stones, chymney mantle 
trees, and high crosses. Among these stones is very sweet pasture, 
so that beefe, veal, mutton are better and earlyer in season here, then 
elsewhere; and of late there is plenty of cheese, and tillage mucking, 
and corn is the same with the sea side tract. In some places the 
plow goes. On the shore grows samphire j in plenty, ring-root or 


h High clifts The height of the cliff at 

Dun ^Engus in Aran, which Dun is one of 
the most remarkable remains of pagan an- 
tiquity in the west of Europe, is upwards 
of 300 feet. The cliffs of Aran are else- 
where well described by our author : 
" Claustrorum reliquiae videntur esse 
Arannae tres insulse, quae obrutu non fa- 
ciles in medio pro/undo eminent, et edit '/.-•- 
simasprmruptas Crepidines decumanis fluc- 
tibus objiciiinV — Ogyg. p. 164. 

' Paved over with stones — Large tracts 
of bare flags, in Irish leacct loma, as smooth 
as polished marble, may be seen in many 
parts of these islands. A visitor, surprised 
at the appearance, remarked, that it was a 
mistake not to have called them the Marble 
Islands, for that they were all a mass of 
lime-stone and marble. Yet among those 
rocks and stones there is, as our au- 
thor observes, " very sweet pasture" for 

cattle. These leaca loma, or bare flags, 
have been frequently noticed. In an old 
poem entitled " Coluinbkilh's Farewell to 
Aran," which, though attributed t<> that 
saint, may safely be dated some centuries 
after his time, an an. - ribed as 

showering down benefits from heaven on 
the bare flags of Aran : 

"^aca Diapoain. on! jaca oiapoain. 
C15 Sapial, mop an main, 
^o pgallmn par De 00 mm 
Pop leccao loma an la pin." 

See this " Farewell to Aran." published 
in the Transactions of the Gaelic Society, 
Dublin, 8vo. 1808, p. 1S0. with a b 
lation by Theophilus OTlanagan. A. B. 

i Samphire. — This plant. ( ma- 

ritimum. is found growing on roek> by the 
shore, where it is washed by the salt water. 
It is sent for sale from Aran to Dublin. 

sea-holy, and sea-cabbage. Here are Cornish choughs, with red 
legs and bills. Here are ayries of hawkes", and birds which never 
fly but over the sea ; and, therefore, are used to be eaten on fasting- 
days 1 : to catch which, people goe down, with ropes tyed about 
them, into the caves of cliffts by night, and with a candle light kill 
abundance™ of them. Here are severall wells and pooles, yet in ex- 
traordinary dry weather, people must turn their cattell out of the 
islands, and the corn failes. They have noe fuell but cow-dung n dryed 


where it is said to be used for pickling 

and preserves. Ring-root or sea-holy 

Eryngium maritimurn, in Irish, CuiUeann 
epa£a, grows near the shore, and is used 
by the inhabitants of Aran, as a medicine. 
See its medicinal virtues described in 
K'Eogh's Botanologia Universalis Hiber- 

nica, p. 43. Sea cabbage Crambe mari- 


k Ayries of hawkes For a curious no- 
tice of these once favourite birds, see 
Carvers Lyra, p. 47. They were formerly 
trained in Iar-Connaught for field sport, 
and were held in high esteem. Morogh 
na Maor O'Flaherty, of Bunowen, in Cona- 
mara, by his will, dated 13th April, A.D. 
1626, directed that his third son, Bryan 
O'Flahertie, should have the Cleggan, an 
extensive tract in the barony of Bali- 
nahinch, " excepting onelie the Aiery of 
hawkes upon Barncmoran" reserved for his 
eldest son, Morogh na Mart — Orig. Will. 

1 Fasting days. — Strange as this reason 
may seem, for eating sea birds on fasting 
days, it is nevertheless very ancient. So- 
crates, in his Ecclesiastical History, men- 


tions it in the fifth century. Speaking of 
the various modes of keeping Lent then 
prevalent, he says : — o< ^iv y«g, 7rxvrr, 
lM.ipv%av a.-pn^ovTxt' 01 oi, tuv ifi^v%,av l%8vs 
/novovs f&iTe/,Ax/it.fio!.vov<ri' Ttvii; dl ff-yv to7? IftQutrt, 
xui Tav mrpm a^oytuovrxi, \\ vSoctos y.xt 
ct,\)ta, tov Mavrix yiyivriG-Oxt teyotTis' x.. t. A. 
" Some abstain altogether from animals: 
others of animals eat fish only. Some, 
along with fish, eat also birds: saying that, 
according to Moses, birds, like fish, were 
created out of the waters." Hist. Eccl. 
lib. v. c. 22. In Martin's Description of 
the Western Islands of Scotland (p. 65), 
mention is made of a similar reason for 
eating seals' flesh in Lent. 

m Kill abundance. — In carrying on this 
" dreadful trade," the adventurous " Crags- 
men" of Aran encounter dangers, which 
to any other class of men would be in- 
credible. Mr. Pennant, in his " Voyage 
tothe Hebrides," gives a curious repre- 
sentation of this perilous practice. See 
also Martin's Islands of Scotland, p. 293 ; 
and his Voyage to St. Kilda, p. 105. 

n Cow-dung. — In Irish 6oirpearh. Large 


with the sun, unless they bring turf in from the western continent. 
They have Cloghans, a kind of building of stones layd one upon 
another, which are brought to a roof without any manner of mortar 
to cement them, some of which cabins will hold forty men on their 
floor ; so antient that no body knows how long agoe any of them was 
made. Scarcity of wood and store of fit stones, without peradventure 
found out the first invention. There is a waste island on the south- 
west side, called Oilen-da-branoge°, where they goe to slaughter seal- 
yearly ; and where there is abundance of samphire. 

From the Isles of Aran and the west continent, often appears 
visible that inchanted island called O'Brasil", and in Irish Beg-ara, 


stacks (cpuaca) of this savoury substitute 
for turf may be seen in Aran, particularly 
in the middle island ; but latterly they 
have learned to convert it into manure, 
and get turf from the " Continent." The 
privations which these poor and honest 
islanders sometimes undergo, part of which 
are above alluded to by our author, are 
very severe; and yet you will not find 
any of them willing to exchange the '■'■bare 
flags" of Aran, for the comparative com- 
forts of the inland country ; even of the 
" great town," or 6aile mop of Clifden 
in Conamara; or yet of the greater town, 
the capital of the province, Caraip mop 
na ^ailtrhe. It is believed, that the 
greatest human punishment that could 
be inflicted on an Aranite, would be to 
sentence him never to return home. See 
Martin's curious account of the St. Kilda 
man's visit to Glasgow — Western Islands, 
p. 296 ; which requires little more than the 

substitution of Galway for Glasgow, and 
Aran for St. Kilda, to answer as a de- 
scription of an Aran man"- first vial 
wonder to Galway. 

The primitive buildings called " Clogh- 
ans," mentioned above bv our author, will 
be found noticed, with the islands of Aran, 
in the Appendix. 

Oih'ii-ilii-branoge. — In Irish called 
Oilean oa Bpanoj, and Branuock, or 
Brannoge Island, in English. It lies off 
the townland of Onagh, ar the western ex- 
tremity of the great island of Aran. 
Larkin's map of the county of Galway. 

p O'Brasil Tins fabulous island has 

been so fully noticed in recent publica- 
tions, that it is only neces-ary here to re- 
fer to some of them, viz.: the Tour of M. 
Boullaye le Gouz in Ireland, A. D. 1644, 
edited by T. Crofton Croker. Lond. 1837, 
p. 68 ; and Irish Minstrelsy. Lond. 1831, 
vol. i. p. 369. " O'Brazil" has been cele- 

6 9 

or the Lesser Aran, set down in cards of navigation. Whether it be 
reall and firm land, kept hidden by speciall ordinance of God, as 
the terrestiall paradise, or else some illusion of airy clouds appearing 
on the surface of the sea, or the craft of evill spirits* 1 , is more than 
our judgements can sound out. There is, westward of Aran, in sight 
of the next continent of Balynahynsy barony, Skerde, a wild island of 
huge rocks'", the receptacle of a deale of seales thereon yearly slaugh- 
tered. These rocks sometimes appear to be a great city far of, full 
of houses, castles, towers, and chimneys ; sometimes full of blazing- 
flames, smoak, and people running to and fro. Another day you 
would see nothing but a number of ships, with their sailes and 
riggings ; then so many great stakes or reekes of corn and turf; and 
this not only on fair sun-shining dayes, whereby it might be thought 
the reflection of the sun-beamse, on the vapours arising about it, had 
been the cause, but alsoe on dark and cloudy days happening. There 


brated by our gifted countryman, Gerald 
Griffin, in a pleasing poem, beginning : 

" On the ocean that hollows the rocks where ye 

A shadowy land has appeared, as they tell, 
Men thought it a region of sunshine and rest, 
And they called it 0' Brazil the isle of the blest." 

For the remainder of this poem, see the 
Life of Gerald Griffin, Lond. 1844, p. 357. 
The people of Aran say, that O'Brazil ap- 
pears but once every seven years. 

q The craft of evil spirits. — This is alto- 
gether an amusing passage; but, in the 
time of our author, people were not quite 
so sceptical in these matters as they are 
at the present day. For some examples of 
this, see the Additional Notes hereto. 

r Huge rocks Now called the Skird 

Rocks, lying in the ocean, west of Cashin 
Bay ; about nine miles north-west of the 
western extremity of Aran-more. The 
optical illusions here so well described by 
our author, seem no way inferior to the 
celebrated Fata morgana seen in the Straits 
of Messina, and which the Sicilians call 
the most beautiful sight in nature. For a 
description of the latter, given from Minai, 
by Father Angelucci, see Swinburne's 
Travels ; and also that very pleasing work, 
Buck's " Beauties, Harmonies, and Subli- 
mities of Nature." See also the Philo- 
sophical Magazine, vol. xiii. p. 336; and 
Mr. Brewer's Beauties of Ireland, for an 
animated description of similar exhibi- 


is another like number of rocks, called Carrigmeacan s , on the same 
coast, whereon the like apparitions are seen. But the inchanted 
island of O'Brasil is not alwayes visible, as those rocks are, nor these 
rocks have airways those apparitions. 

There is now living, Morogh O'Ley', who immagins he was him- 

tions which took place in the neighbour- 
hood of Youghall, about the close of the 
last century. 

s Carrigmeacan — In Irish Capnaij riiic 
Qnna, now Carriekmackan, near the mouth 
of Cashin Bay ; and nearly due north of 
the Brannock isles, off the western extre- 
mity of the great island of Aran. The 
aerial phenomena witnessed here and at 
the Skerds, invest these wild regions with 
an air of romantic grandeur ; and, com- 
bined with the surrounding scenery, pre- 
sent a view altogether indescribable. When 
with these the enchanted isle of O'Brazil 
appears, it completes a picture which is 
said to be unrivalled in any other part 
of the British islands. The great extent 
of ocean and coast, stretching from head- 
land to headland, as far as the eye can 
reach, heightens the magnificence of the 

1 Morogh O'Ley Lee or Lye. The cu- 
rious story here related is still remem- 
bered, but it appears to have received some 
additional embellishments from fancy. One 
of these is the introduction of an incident 
which renders our author's narrative com- 
plete. It is, that Morogh O'Ley received 
a book from one of the inhabitants of 
O'Brazil, with an injunction not to look 

into it for seven years. This injunction 
he faithfully obeyed ; and when, at the end 
of the time prescribed, he opened the book, 
he at once became indued with the gift of 
healing, and began to practise surgery and 
physic with wonderful success : " Tho' he 
never studyed nor practised either all his 
lifetime before, as all we that knew him 
since he was a boy can averr." i 
words almost induce a supposition, that 
our author believed the story. The 
truth, however, seems to be, that Morogh 
O'Ley, whose patrimony was confiscated 
in the seventeenth century, turned quack- 
doctor to obtain a livebhood ; and that 
he then invented the story of O'Brazil 
and the book, in order to attract atten- 
tion. It is, moreover probable, that he 
was previously in possession of the book 
in question ; and that it had descended 
to him from his ancestors, who. it is 
known, were hereditary physicians in Iar- 

Among the records connected with the 
memorable Act of Settlement, the follow- 
ing document appears, in A. D. 1 663 : - To 
the Eight Honorable His Majesty's Com- 
misMoners for executing His Gracious 
Declaration for the Settlement of Ireland. 
— The humble petition of Morogh O'Lve. 

7 1 

self personally in O'Brazil for two days, and saw out of it the iles of 
Aran, Golamhead, Irrosbeghill, and other places of the west conti- 
nent he was acquainted with. The manner of it he relates, that 
being in Irrosainhagh, in the south side of the barony of Balyna- 


sheweth, that Edmond O'Lye of Moyas- 
kragh, deceased, was lawfully seised in 
his demense as of fee, long before the re- 
bellion, of the lands following, viz., Bolle- 
banane, Gortnecony, and Balliskey, in the 
barony of Muckullin and county of Gal- 
way; and so continued seised, till, in or 
about the yeare 1641, he mortgaged the 
premisses unto one Robert Martin, for 
the sum of eighty pounds. That the said 
Edmond dyed in or about the year 1662, 
after and by whose decease, the power of 
redemption of the premisses descended to 
your petitioner, as son and heir unto the 
said Edmond. That the said Edmond and 
the petitioner have been inoffensive, never 
acted any thing against the Crown nor 
the English interest, embraced and are 
included in the Articles of peace granted 
by His Majesty's authority, in the year 
1 648, to the Irish, and constantly thereto 
adhered. The petitioner therefore hum- 
bly prayeth to be restored to his said 
reversion or power of redemption, accord- 
ing to His Majesty's gracious intention, 
by which persons innocent are to be res- 
tored, and petitioner will ever pray : 
Morogh O'Lye." This claim, with thou- 
sands of a similar nature made at the time, 
was rejected; and it is probable that then 
the claimant began to turn his thoughts 

to medicine, as already related. The book 
above alluded to, lay for some time in the 
possession of the editor. It is now called 
the Book of O'Brazil ; and certainly was 
well calculated to suggest and keep up 
the singular deception it happened to be 
connected with. It is a medical manu- 
script on vellum, in good preservation, 
containing forty-six large 4to. folios, very 
well written in Irish and Latin, in the 
fifteenth century (the year 1434 occurs 
on p. 76), and it appears to have remained 
until a late period in the possession of the 
Lee family ; for the name P. Lee is inscribed 
on the first folio, in modern handwriting. 
The pages are curiously ruled and divided, 
each presenting somewhat the appearance 
of a complex astrological figure. It pre- 
sents lists of various diseases, with their 
cures, mostly arranged in parallel columns, 
headed Prognostics, Region, Season, Age, 
Constitution, Causa, Signum, Evacuatio, 
fyc. An account of this volume, given by 
that excellent Irish scholar, Mr. Curry, ap- 
pears in Doctor Wilde's valuable Report, 
upon the tables of deaths, contained in the 
Return of the Commissioners appointed to 
take the Census of Ireland, 1841. The 
" Book of O'Brazil" is now preserved in 
the library of the Royal Irish Academy. 

7 2 

hinsy, about nine leagues from Galway by sea, in the month of Aprill, 
Anno Domini 1668, going alone from one village to another, in a 
melancholy humour, upon some discontent of his wife, he was en- 
countered by two or three strangers, and forcibly carried by boat 
into O'Brazil, as such as were within it told him, and they could 
speak both English and Irish. He was ferried out hoodwink'd, in 
a boat, as he immagins, till he was left on the sea point by Galway ; 
where he lay in a friend's house for some dayes after, being very des- 
perately ill, and knowes not how he came to Galway then. But. by 
that means, about seaven or eight years after, he began to practise 
both chirurgery and phisick, and so continues ever since to pract;- 
tho' he never studyed nor practised either all his life time before, as 
all we that knew him since he was a boy can averr. 

In the Western Ocean, five or six leagues from the continent, 
there is a sand bank", about thirty fathoms deep in the sea, and of 


u A sand-bank This is the well-known 

Cod fishing Bank, which lies about sixty 
miles west of Achill Head; and runs south- 
ward by Shark Island, parallel -with the 
western coast of Ireland. Upon it are 
vast quantities of cod and ling. In the 
sixteenth century, and even later, the 
Dutch fished here with considerable suc- 
cess. The poor fishermen of Iar-Con- 
naught are now unable to reach this bank, 
except in fine weather ; for their boats are 
not fit to stand the sea on the bank, and 
they have neither fishing-tackle nor skill 
to carry on this deep-sea fishing to any 
profitable extent. There can be no doubt, 
that, during the summer months, with 
good vessels and proper tackle, the deep- 

sea fishing on the west coast of Ire- 
land would become a source of national 
wealth and strength. Franklin has said : 
" He that puts seed into the ground reaps 
forty- fold; but he that puts a line into 
the sea and pulls out a fish, pulls out 
a piece of silver." On this subject see 
the evidence of William Bald. Esq.. before 
the Select Committee on the Public Works 
of Ireland, A. D. 1835. 

The above bank is described in an Ac- 
count of a Tour through Ireland, by Dr. 
Pococke, A. D. 1752, preserved in MS. in 
the Library of Trinity Cc liege, Dublin, 
I.4, 15, as follows: "About ten leagues 
off(t.e. icest of Clare Island, on the western 
coast) is a bank where there are plenty of 


very small breadth, which extends from Ulster to Minister, all along 
the western coasts of Connaught. It is called in Irish Imaireboy, or 
the yellow ridge; and, in English, the Cod Fishing Bank, where 
people in summer season use to goe in boats a fishing from Bonn, 
the Owles, Irros Downan v , and some parts of the barony of Balyna- 
hinsy, and are there in their boats over night. From this bank, about 
twenty years agoe, a boat out of the Owles was blown westward by 
night; next day about noon, they spyed land so near them, that 
they could see sheep within it, and yet durst not, for fear of illusions, 
touch shore, imagining it was O'Brasil ; and they were two dayes 
coming back towards home. Soe much of the inchanted island ; 
whence we come back again to Aran. 

The isles of Aran are fameous for the numerous multitude of 
saints w there living of old and interred, or there trained in religious 
austerity, and propagating monasticall discipline in other parts ; ve- 

cod, and it is supposed that it is part of 
that bank which extends to Newfound- 
land, being supposed to be hills in the 
sea where the fish lye. On this they have 
between forty and fifty fathom water : the 
fish have very much failed on all the coast, 
since they have burned the sea- weed for 
kelp, which they not only take away as 
the sea leaves it, but they cut it off in the 
sea, that it may be thrown up, the fish 
spawning on this weed." — p. 62. 

v Irros Downan. — lopnup t)orhncmn, 
the present barony of Erris, in the county 
of Mayo. See the interesting description 
of this barony, entitled, " Erris in the 
Irish Highlands," by P. Knight, Civil En- 
gineer: Dublin, 1836. Until the publi- 

cation of Mr. Knight's book, this now 
rapidly improving and important district 
remained " almost unnoticed and un- 
known." — Preface, p. vi. 

w Saints Of the multitude of holy 

men who lived and died on these islands, 
for a period of more than a thousand 
years after the introduction of Christi- 
anity, the names of few only are re- 
corded : " Nemo scit numerum sanctorum 
qui sepulti sunt ibi, nisi solus Deus." 
Nobody but God alone knows the number 
of saints that lie buried there, as our 
author, further on, quotes from the life of 
St. Albeus. Colgan, Acta SS. p. 7 1 4 ; and 
Ware, Ant. 249. " Et magna est ilia in- 
sula, et est terra sanctorum." 


nerable for many sacred churches", chappells, wells, crosses se- 
pulchers, and other holy reliques of saints still there extant, as 


x Sacred churches In A. D. 1 645, or 

shortly before, a description of the churches 
and chapels of the archdiocess of Tuam, 
in the west of Ireland, was compiled by 
Doctor Malachias O'Cadhla ( O'Kealy), then 
Eoman Catholic prelate in that see ; and 
so much of his description as related to 
the islands of Aran, is fortunately pre- 
served in Colgan's Acta Sanctorum Hi- 
bernian. Within ten years from that date, 
the principal churches of Aranmore were 
destroyed by Cromwell's governors of 
those islands, and the materials applied 
to the building of the " citadel," and other 
works of defence then erected there. A 
translation of the portion of Doctor 
O'Kealy's description, preserved by Col- 
gan, is here subjoined. The original will 
be found in Acta SS. p. 714. 

"of the three islands of akan and their 
" Concerning the churches of these 
islands (and first of the first island), 
and their patrons and other saints, re- 
ceive the following from a tabular des- 
cription of the churches of the diocese of 
Tuam (in which it lies), lately transmit- 
ted to us, and faithfully written by the 
most illustrious lord Malachias Quadams 
[O'Kealy], archbishop of Tuam, a man dis- 
tinguished for his zeal in religion, and 
endowed with every virtue ; extracted as 
they lie : 

" 1. The parish church (to wit of the 
first island) commonly called Kill-Enda, 
lies in the county of Galway and half ba- 
rony of Aran ; and in it St. Endeus, or 
Enna, is venerated as patron, on the 2 1 ?i 
of March. 

"2. The church called Teglack-Enda, 
to which is annexed a cemetery, wherein 
is the sepulchre of St. Endeus ; with one 
hundred and twenty-seven other sepul- 
chres, wherein none but saints were ever 

"3. The church called TempuR mar 
Longa, dedicated to St. Mac Longiu 
situated near the parish church, which is 
called sometimes KiE-Enda, that is the 
cella or cell of St. Endeu-. and -•metimee 
Tern pull morEnda, or the great church of 

"4. The church called Temjndl mic 
Canonn, near the aforesaid parish church. 

" 5. The church called of St Mary, 
not far from the same parish church. 

" 6. The church which is named 7 
pull Benain, or the Temple of St, Be- 

"7. The church called Mainittir ( 
nachtach, that is the Connaught monastery : 
in the place of which, being afterwards 
demolished, was built a chapel dedicated 
to St. Kieran. 

" 8. The church called KiU-na-manach, 
that is the church or cell of the monks, 


monuments of their piety ; reverenced for many rare priviledges of 
sacred places therein, and the instant divine punishments inflicted 


which was dedicated to St. Cathradochus, 
orCaradoc the monk, surnamed Garbh, or 
the rough. 

" 9. The church called Tempull- Assur- 
nuidke, which is said to be dedicated to 
St. Assurnidhe (or, perhaps, Esserninus), 
and this church is held in the greatest 
veneration among the islanders. 

" 10. The church called Tempull an 
cheathruir aluinn, or the church of the four 
beautiful [saints] who were, saints Fursey, 
Brendan of Birr, Conall, and Berchann ; 
whose bodies are also said to be buried in 
the same tomb, lying in the cemetery of 
the same church. 

"n. The church called Tempull-mic- 
Duach, or the church of St. Mac Duagh 
(who is also called Colmanus, surnamed 
Mac-Duagh), which is a handsome church 
dedicated to that saint. 

"12. The handsome, and formerly pa- 
rochial church, called Tempull Breccain, 
or the church of Brecan, dedicated to the 
same Saint Brecan, in which also his feast 
is celebrated on the 22 nd of May. 

"13. The church near the aforesaid 
church of St. Brecan, which is commonly 
called Tempull a phuill. 

" Thus far of the churches and chapels 
of the first island, from the list just men- 
tioned, of the most illustrious prelate of 
Tuam. Moreover we read in our Martyr- 
ologies, that the birth-day of St. Endeus 

is celebrated on the 2 1 st of March ; that 
of St. Goban on the 30th of March and 
30th of May ; of St. Cronan, on the 8th 
of March ; St. Nehemias, on the 14th of 
June ; and St. Benedict, on the same 1 4th 
of June ; wherefore, I think that he is 
the same saint, who is called by the calen- 
dar of Cashel Benedict, and by other 
Martyrologies, Nehemias 

" In the second or middle island, ac- 
cording to the same list, there is one 
church called Tempull Ceannannack, dedi- 
cated to the same St. Ceannannach ; and 
another church dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin ; both subject to the parish of St. 

" In the third island of Aran, which is 
also called Ard-Oilen: 

" 1. The church of Kill-Choemhain, de- 
dicated to St. Coeman, and in which also 
he is venerated. 

" 2. The church consecrated to St. 

" 3. The church called Kill-Gradh-an- 
Domhain, in which Gobnata is venerated 
on the 1 ith of February. 

" In this island there was formerly a 
celebrated monastery called Kill-Choemain 
(of which above), in which St. Coeman is 
venerated on the 12th of June, from 
which also the island itself is called Ara- 

Colgan, as may be seen in the foregoing 


on such as dare violate or prophane them ; frequently visited by 
Christians in pilgrimage for devotion, acts of pennance, and miracu- 
lous virtues there wrought. 

Ara-Mhor, the greatest and furthest to the west of them, con- 
taines twenty-four quarters of land, and is twenty- four miles in com- 
pass; wherein, on the south side, stands Dun-Engus y , a large fortified 


extract, has stated that the third island of 
Aran was called Ard-Oilen ; but in that 
he was mistaken, for none of these three 
islands was ever called or known by that 
name. Ard Oilen is an island lying several 
leagues north-west of the islands of Aran, 
and is well-known at present by that name, 
which is translated High-island, its pre- 
sent appellation in English. This was a 
mere oversight of the learned and labo- 
rious Colgan, for in the life of St. Fechin, 
p. 135, n. 13, he had previously stated, 
that Ard-Oilen lay a few leagues towards 
the west from Immagia (Omey), which is a 
considerable distance from the islands of 
Aran. He has also referred to the Four 
Masters, but they only record the death 
of St. Gormgal, of Ard-Oilen, in A. D. 
1017, and do not confound it with Aran. 
Doctor Lanigan, relying on Colgan, fell 
into the same mistake, calling Ard-Oilen 
"One of the Aran islands," chap, xxiii. 
See further on, for what our author says 
of Ard-Oilen. If our limits permit, an ac- 
count of the ecclesiastical remains in the 
islands of Aran, alluded to by our au- 
thor, will be given in the Appendix. 
1 Dun-Engus. — Mr. Petrie, in his evi- 

dence before the Government Commis- 
sioners of Inquiry on the Ordnance Me- 
moir for Ireland, A.D. 1843. has stated, 
that " Dun Aenguis in Aran, which was 
erected in the first century, is. perhaps, 
one of the most magnificent barbaric mo- 
numents remaining in Europe; it was a 
fortress of the Belgian kings in Ireland." — 
Report presented to Sir Robert Peel. p. 36. 
In addition to the al ription of this 

remarkable place, see our author" 
p. 175; which is the only published ac- 
count ever given of Dun Engus. In what 
Doctor Ledwieh has written of it in his 
Antiquities of Ireland, p. 141. and in 
Grose's Antiquities v\ Ireland, vol. ii. p. v. 
there is not. even by chance, one word of 
truth; except what little he copied from 
the Ogygia. Our author above states the 
cliff on which Dun Engus stands, to be 
1 00 fathoms deep ; but that statement he 
has omitted in the Ogygia. It is not. in 
fact, more than fifty fathoms deep. He 
further above states the surrounding wall 
to be "in compass - 2 - a large castle 
bawn;'" but finding that description con- 
veyed no definite idea of its extent, he 
tried to define it better in the Og 


place, on the brim of a high clifft, a hundred fathoms deep : being a 
great wall of bare stones without any mortar, in compass as big as 

a large 

p. 175, by stating that it would " contain 
200 cows in its area." Even this is de- 
fective ; for it is certain that its area would 
encompass more than 1000 cows. The 
limits of these notes prevent further no- 
tices here, which, if space will allow, may 
be given in the Appendix. But having 
(note x , p. 74) given a list of the Christian 
remains of antiquity in these islands, I here 
subj oin a similar list of their principalPagan 
antiquities. And first of the great island: 

1. Dun JEngus This great Pagan 

fortress is situate, in a considerably ruin- 
ous state, on the south side of the island, 
in the south-west of the townland of Kil- 
murvey. It was erected in the first cen- 
tury of Christianity (see Mac Firbis's 
Account of the Firbolgs, in the library of 
the Royal Irish Academy). This is perhaps 
one of the finest specimens of barbaric 
fortresses extant. 

2. Dun Eoghanacht, in the western side 
of the island, on the townland of Eogh- 
anacht, from which it is called. The ori- 
ginal name is lost. Much of the surrounding 
wall is still in good preservation, and is, in 
some parts, from twelve to sixteen feet in 

3. Dun Eochla, situate on the highest 
part of the townland of Eochoill; from 
which it is named, the original name being 
also lost. It is in better preservation than 
Dun iEngus. 

4. At the village of Eochoill, about half 
a mile south-east of Dun Eochla, there 
are strongly marked traces of another dun 
or fort. Its original name is also lost, but 
the people relate that it was the strongest 
fort on the island. 

5. Dubh-Cathair, anglicized Doocaher, 
i. e. the black dun or fort, is situate on 
the townland of Killeany, over the edge 
of a high cliff; and to all appearance is 
the oldest dun on the island. Its wall is 
in some places twenty feet high. 

6. About half a mile south-west of the 
village of Kilronan, are the remains of 
another dun, but entirely in ruins. 

7. Dun Conchobhair, the Dun of Con- 
nor, on the middle island. This and Dun 
iEngus are the only duns or forts men- 
tioned by our author. See further on 
above, and in Ogyg., pp. 175, 176. It is 
situated on a rocky eminence commanding 
a view of nearly the entire island. This ap- 
pears to have been a more considerable fort, 
ress than even Dun iEngus, to which it is 
superior in masonry and extent. Its wall, 
in some places, is twenty feet high. 

8. Mothar Dun, on the middle island is 
situated in a commanding situation on the 
south-east division or townland called 
Mohar. It is about the same size as Du 
Eoghanacht on the great island, and no 
unlike it in its general appearance. 


a large castle bawn, with severall long stones on the outside, 
erected sloapewise about it against assaults. It is named of Engus 
M c Anathmore [Uathmore y ], of the reliques of the Belgmen in Ireland, 
there living about the birth-time of Christ. On the east side thereof, 
the island is somewhat soelow, that about the year 1 640, upon an ex- 
traordinary inundation, the sea, overflowing that bank, went cross 
over the island, to the north-west. 

The king's castle and manor of Arkin z stood on the north side, 
over the ship harbour ; for the service of which castle all the patents. 
in capite, of West-Connaught, granted by Queen Elizabeth and 


9. Cathair na m-ban, — civitas mulierum, 
on the south island, is now entirely in 
ruins. There is not at this day extant 
any tradition concerning it, or even its 
name. I am obliged here to discontinue 
any further description of these, and some 
.other remains of pagan antiquity to be 
seen on the Aran islands ; but if space al- 
lows it may be resumed in the Appendix. 

y Engus M c Uathmore (Uaorhop) — He 
was king or leader of the "Bolgmen," Fir- 
bolgs or Belgaj, at the time alluded to by 
our author ; and by him the great fortress 
of Dun iEngxis was erected. See the Book 
of Lecan, fo. 2 7 7, b ; and the Account of the 
Firbolgs, by Duald Mac Firbis, preserved 
in the Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 
as before mentioned. This latter curious 
piece of Irish history yet remains in manu- 
script ; but it is hoped, that it will be 
published under the auspices of the Irish 
Archasological Society. 

* Arkin. — In Irish, Clipcin. The chiefs 
of the O'Briens, who for many centuries 

possessed the isles of Aran, held their 
principal residence at Aircin, a command- 
ing situation on tb 8 'the 
Annals of the Four Masters, at A. I>. 
1565, et ante, p. 65, note f . They wen- 
soon after this expelled by the OTflaher- 
ties; who in their turn were di- 
by Queen Elizabeth, by whom the castle 
of Arkin was erected on the site of O'Bri- 
en's fortress. In A. D. 1585, on the Com- 
position then effected, all the patent* 
Iar-Connaught were granted to be held as 
of " the Queen's manor or castle of Ar- 
kyne." In two years after this, the islands 
of Aran were granted by letter- patent to 
John Raw>un, who. in an instrument dated 
5th June, A. D. 1594, inrolled in the Rolls' 
Office, Dublin, is called " an industrious 
discoverer of lands for the Queen." Arkin 
was considerably fortified in the time of 
Cromwell, but it is now in ruins. Tht 
inundation mentioned by our author, is 
still spoken of in the island. 


King James, were held ; in place whereof, now stands a cittadell, in 
the usurper Cromwell's time erected. This island was inhabited by 
infidells out of Corcomroe a , the next adjacent countrey in the county 
of Clare, when St. Enna got it (by the donation of Engus King of 
Munster), Anno Christi circiter 480 ( War. Antiq. p. 249), who 
there laid the first foundation of piety, and sowed that small grain 
of mustard-seed (Math. 13, 31) which so increased, that this island 
was called Ara Sanctorum. Whereunto may be applyed the pro- 
phecy of Isaias : " In cubilibus in quibus prius habitabant dracones 
orietur viror calami et junci, et erit ibi semita et via, et via sancta vo- 
cabitur." — (Isai. 35, 7.) The author of Saint Kieran, first abbot of 
Cluinmacnois, Anno 549 deceased, his life, thus expresseth the in- 
finit number of saints in that island in his own time : " In qua mul- 
titudo sanctorum virorum manet, et inumerabiles sancti, omnibus 
incogniti nisi soli Deo omnipotenti, ibi jacent." The like expression 
is to be found in St. Albeus, bishiop of Imly, his life, thus : " Magna 
est ilia insula, et est terra sanctorum ; quia nemo scit numerum 
sanctorum qui sepulti sunt ibi, nisi solus Deus." 

St. Enna b , son of Conall Dearg, of the noble Orgiellian family in 
Ulster, and brother-in-law, by his sister, to King Engus of Munster 
aforesaid, followed the evangellical precept of forsaking a rich patri- 
mony for Christ, and his merits brought him to be abbot beyond 
seas in Italy, before he came with one hundred and fifty religious 


a Infidells out of Corcomroe. — See ante, deinceps. This holy man was prince of 

p. 65, note f . These infidels were headed Orgial, or Oriel, Oip^iallu, a district 

by a leader named Corbanus, for a curious which, in his time, comprehended the pre- 

account of whom, see Colgan's Acta SS. sent counties of Louth, Monaghan, and 

p. 707, c. xv, xvi. Armagh ; but he abandoned all for a re- 

b St. Enna. — In Irish, Ginne ; in Latin, ligious life in Aran, where, and in Iar- 

Endeus. The first abbot of Aran. See Connaught, his memory is held, to the 

his life in Colgan's Acta SS. p. 704, et present day, in the highest veneration. 


persons to Aran, where he lived to his decrepit age, upwards of fifty- 
eight years, for St. Kieran aforesaid, lived nine years under his dis- 
cipline, and left, Anno 538. ( Usser. in Iiidice Chronohg.) His suc- 
cessors, abbots of Aran, continued, I suppose, to the time of [the] 
suppression of abbeys. The last of whom I find recorded, was 
Donatus O'Leyn, abbot of Aran, Anno Domini 1 400. 

The memory of St. Gregory the Great c , kept in this island, was 
doubtless because [? become] much reverenced of old in Ireland, and 
honoured with the title of golden mouth, as Cumianus writes in his 
letter, Anno circiter 634 ( Usser. loco ut et in Sylloge Epnst. p. 3 1 ) : " Ad 
Gregorii Papas, urbis Romas episcopi (a nobis in commune suscepti. 
et oris aurei appellatione donati) verba me converti," by which name 
he is known to this day in Irish. 

GiraldusCambrensis ( Topogr.Hib. dist. 2, cap. 6) was misinformed* 1 , 


c St. Gregory the Great Previous to 

A. D. 596, when this great Pope sent St. 
Austin to convert the English, he seems 
to have known but little of that people. 
See Bede, Hist. Eccl. B. ii. c. i. It was 
otherwise with respect to the Irish, who 
had been long before that time converted to 
Christianity. From the letter of Cunimi- 
anus above quoted, there can be no doubt 
that the memory of Pope Gregory was 
" much reverenced of old in Ireland;" but 
there is no authority for any direct or 
immediate connexion between him and 
our islands of Aran. We are told above, 
that his memory was kept in the great 
island ; and tradition asserts, that the 
ship-road, or sound between it and middle 
island was called after him, " Gregory's 
sound." It is, however, much more pro- 

bable, that Gregory's sound was called 
after St. Ceannannach (Cecmnpionncic), 
whose church, on the middle islam:. 
described in Archbishop O'Kealy'e list 
(p. 74, note x .) This latter saint's r<.-al 
name, according to tradition, 
and by that name he is still called in the 
parish of Ballinakill (of which he is patron), 
in Ballinahinch barony. See more of him 
in our author's account of that ban: 

d Cambrensis was misinformed, Wart- 
treats all the relations of Cambrensis above 
alluded to as fabulous: " Sed audi porrd 
fabulosam relationem de hac Insula ex 
Giraldi Cambrensis topogr." — A/itiq. cap. 
xxviii. Ledwich, who undertook to de- 
fend Cambrensis, has not even once alluded 
to these fables about Aran. He asks, who 
are Cambrensis' accusers? and answers his 


to say that St. Brendan was the chiefe patron of this island (St. Bren- 
dan visited St. Enna e here once, passing to Kerry; and, another 
time, on his second adventure of navigation on the ocean). And 
that humane carcasses need nro buriall in it, as free from putre- 
faction ; which last was attributed to Inisgluaire f on the sea of Irros- 


own question thus: "Richard Stanihurst, 
John Lynch, and Abbe M'Geoghegan, 
and other Roman Catholic writers who 
detested the English name and nation, 
and who esteemed it the cruellest dispen- 
sation of Providence to be subject to 
them." — Antiq. p. 367. Great wits are 
said to have short memories. The Doctor 
here forgot that Cambrensis was himself 
one of the same class. Akin to Cambren- 
sis's account of the dead in Aran, was his 
description of the living in the island of 
Monaincha, in Tipperary ; thus rendered of 
old into " the comen Englyshe tonge," by 
the learned " Authour of The Mirroure and 
Description of theWorlde:" " There is an 
other ile wherein noe man may die in noe 
time of the worlde ; but when they bene 
so oulde and feable that ther members 
faile and ake and live with gret paine, 
that they may not helpe ne sustaine theni- 
selffe, and that they had lever die then 
leve, they doe then {desire) to be borne 
in to an other ile, and over the water, for 
to die : and treas that bene in this ile 
kepe ther leves grene, and verdure all 
times of the yeare, winter and somer." — 
MS. in Lib. Trin. Coll. Dub. E. 3, 8. Led* 
wich assures his readers, that the passage 
just quoted, must be understood "in a 

refined and spiritual sense." — Antiq. p. 

e St. Brendan visited St. Enna. — See 
Primord. p. 963, for the first visit here 
alluded to. The second took place before 
St. Brendan set out on his " seven years" 
adventurous, and to this day, mysterious 
voyage ; on which occasion, as related in 
his acts, he received the benediction of St. 
Enna ; but that must have been long be- 
fore A. D. 545, the time assigned by Col- 
gan (Ind. Ckron.), as observed by Dr. 
Lanigan, vol. ii. p. 35. Although this 
celebrated " navigation" of St. Brendan is 
one of the most curious facts of Irish his- 
tory, yet it is more than probable, that 
it never will be satisfactorily explained. 
Lanigan (loc. cit.) seems to think that the 
Saint reached some part of America. 

f Inisgluaire. — This island, now gene- 
rally called Inisglory, lies in the ocean, 
about a mile west of the village of Cross, 
within the Mullet, in the parish of Kil- 
more, and barony of Erris, county of 
Mayo. In Mr. Knight's map of Erris, 
the ruins of an abbey are given at Cross, 
called mainirrip na cpoipe. The Book 
of Bally mote, fo. 140, and Ogyg. p. 291, 
mention the fabulous properties attri- 
buted to Inisglory, which have been above 


downan, and there itself it is by experience found false. But what 
he alledges, that it did not breed rats, and that by chance, thither 
transported, they immediately dyed, I believe was true in his time ; 
for that is the nature of all the rest of the territorie, except the dis- 
tricts of Galway town. It was held an ominous presage of the fol- 
lowing alteration, that rats g frequented Moycullin for one year, 
ending in Lent, 165^, at which time they all parted in one night, 
after devouring a carcass of mutton to the bones. About the same 
time they infested the castle of Bunowan for two years, till it was 
all burnt, 31st January, 165%. In Irish they are still called French 
mice, for there was a time when they were no where in Ireland. 
Near the castle of Arkin was St. Enna's church, and an abbey of 
Saint Francis 11 , both demolished for building the cittadell with their 
stones. Soe all-devouring time : 

"Diruit:, sedificat, mutat quadrata rotundis." 

disposed of by our author. On this little 
island are to be seen the ruins of four 
of those primitive stone houses called 
Cloghans (see note n , p. 68, ante) nearly of 
a bee-hive form, and three small churches, 
the oldest of which is dedicated to St. 
Brendan, the patron of the island ; the 
other two are not ancient. That near St. 
Brendan's is called Ceampull na b-peap, 
the church of the men ; and the other, 
Ueanipult na m-ban, or the church of 
the women. Near the latter is a well de- 
dicated to the saint. 

g Rats. — The migratory habits of these 
animals are well known. Martin, in his 
Description of the Western Islands of 
Scotland, states that " a swarm of rats, but 
none knows how, came into Rona (isle). 


and in a short time eat up all the corn in 
the island," p. 14. These Uica fpuncaca. 
or French mice, a< they arc still called, are 
now unhappily to be found in " all the ter- 
ritorie" of Iar-Connaught : which, 
was exempt from them in the days of our 
author. See p. 10, note x . Pocock.-. in hi? 
Tour, referred to p. 72, note^.o/ 
the island of Inisglory, mentioned in the 
last preceding note: " They Bay no rat or 
mouse will live in it. and go so far 1 
affirm, that if they bring the earth and 
>hake it in a rick of corn, none of \. - 
vermin will touch it." — p. 59. See the 
Additional Xotes for a curious communi- 
cation on this subject. 

h Abbey of St. Francis. — Ware Btal -. 
vol. i. p. 280, that this abbey wa< erected 


Not far from thence, to the east, remains a small chappell of St. 
Enna, wherein Sir Morogh OTlaherty' 1 of Bunowan was buried, 
Anno D. 1666. The outside of this chappell, north-east, is the 
church-yard, where antiently were 120 graves of saints, in one of 
which St. Enna was buried, where the stone laid over him is as yet 
to be seen, together with diverse other tomb-stones j still extant. 
Here numerous saints interred (as in other parts of the island) rest 
in peace, till the day of generall resurrection. 

There is, on the east side of this island, Portdoibhche k , i. e. 
Portus-Doly, mentioned in St. Enn's life (cap. 16), now corruptly 
Port-eiche ; and in each of the two other islands is Trach-na-neach, 
or Tract-each, i. e. the Horse's- shore 1 , situated as in his life (cap. 15). 


in A. D. 1485, but does not mention by 
whom. It was probably founded by the 
O'Briens, who were then the possessors of 
these islands. 

i Sir Morogh (J Flaherty In his life- 
time better known by the name of Morogh. 
na Mart, or Morogh of the Beeves. He 
was, in his day, the most powerful of the 
western O'Flaherties. His principal re- 
sidence was the castle of Bunowen, of 
which more hereafter. According to tra- 
dition, he was knighted by the Earl of 
Strafford, Lord Deputy of Ireland, who is 
said to have visited Iar-Connaught about 
A. D. 1637, and is still remembered there 
by the name of " Black Tom." Tradition 
further relates, that when the Lord Deputy 
arrived at Bunowen, he was informed that 
O'Flaherty was absent on an expedition 
against his enemies of Gal way ; that the 
Lord Deputy hearing this, patiently await- 


ed his return ; and was then received with 
all the rude profusion of Irish hospitality ; 
and that his Lordship thereupon knighted 
Morogh na Mart, but soon after robbed 
him of all his property. Such is the tra- 
dition; which further adds, that the sole 
object of " Black Tom's" visit to Cona- 
mara was to obtain a knowledge of the 
vast possessions of O'Flaherty. It is 
curious to observe, how ingeniously some 
truth and much fable are blended toa;e- 
ther in this story, as will appear in the 

J Tomb-stones. — These tombstones are 
now buried in the sand. 

k Portdoibhche In Irish, Pope Ouib- 

ce, Portus Dolii, or the port of the 
large vessel or hogshead; so called from 
a wild fable related in the life of St. 
Enna, which see in Colgan, p. 707, c. xvi. 

1 Horse's shore In Irish, Cpui£ na 


8 4 

But Leamhchoill (cap. 14), where he is said to have first arrived in 
the north side of the island, should be Ochoill; for Leamchoill is 
in the west continent, whence is a ferry-port into the island, and 
Ochoill in the island, on the north side thereof, hath a port for boats 
to arrive, named from Ochoill; and another called Port Caradoc, 
from St. Caradoc Garbh, to whom Kill-na-manach church in the 
island is dedicated. Near this port is the Poole of Lough-na-kean- 
ainne, whereof mention is made in St. Enna's Life (cap. 19, col. 2). 
There is but a straight ship-road between St. Gregorie's Sound, od 
the east of this island, and Tract-each, or the Horse's short- on the 
midle island. 

But before I goe further, I reflect upon an old saying I often 
heard, thus: " Athenry m was, Galway is, Aran shall be the best of 


n-eac, the horse's track or shore. This 
name yet exists, but is corruptly pro- 
nounced Traghteagh. For its origin, see 
Colgan, loc. ult. citat. ch. xv. where the si- 
tuation of the shores above alluded to 
will be found accurately described. The 
other places on the islands and west con- 
tinent mentioned above, are Leamhchoill, 
see p. 64, note d , where Leamhchoill i- 
mentioned as being on the island of Ga- 
romna, above called " the west continent." 
The Leamhchoill mentioned in the Life of 
St. Enna, is the place on the great island 
called Ochuill, where the great stone, " Uv 
pidem grandem," on which he sailed from 
Garomna isle to Aran! is still shewn, 
about half a mile north-west of Cromwell's 
fort. It is a huge, rough rock, and is 
called the currach stone, from curac/i, a 
boat. Port Caradoc — Now Port Couroogh. 

See No. 8, in the li-t of the church' 
Aran, given note (*), p. 7+. ante, for Kill- 
na manach church, dedicated t" St. Cara- 
doc. A village in Kilmurvy townlan 
still called after him Couroogh, Cobu- 
pubac, q. d. Caradoc uogh. Lough ma 

Ct'n until n<>. — Thi- i- tile J«->ol or lake. 

called in tin- Life of St. Enna, "Stagnum 

na Ceanainne," and it i- -till known by 
the same namr. The tide now n 
with it. 

m Athenry. — In Irish, Qr no. TC105 : in 
English, the Ford of the Kings. This 
was the original name of a ford, or stream- 
let, on the western boundary of II v -Many, 
in the present county of Galway, the prin- 
cipality of the great family of O'Kclly. 
See Mr. O'Donovan's " Tribes and Cus- 
toms of Hy-Mauy," published by the 
Archaeological Society, A. D. 1S43. ^ l 


the three." Which may be interpreted that Athenry was the crea- 
tion of a baron, and afterward the creation of a viscount of Galway 


was at this point the three following an- 
cient territories met, viz., Aidhne, the 
country of O'Heyne and O'Shaughnessy, 
Hy-Many, and Hy-Briuin Seola, now the 
barony of Clare, originally the country 
of O'Flaherty. The castle and town 
afterwards built at this ford of nc na 
R015, were named from it Ath-en-ry; or 
as written in the oldest Anglo-Norman 
records, Anry. Camden supposed that 
this was the Auteri of Ptolemy; see Gib- 
son's Ed. vol. ii. 1 83 1; but if that great 
antiquary had been acquainted with the 
Irish language, he could not have advanced 
that supposition. Some fancy that the 
castle here was built by King John ; but 
it is well known that he never crossed the 
Shannon. It was erected by the Anglo- 
Norman barons, about A. D. 1238, among 
whom were the Berminghams, who after- 
wards possessed the castle, and became 
barons of Athenry. In A. D. 13 16, a 
fatal battle was fought here between the 
Irish and English, in which the former 
were defeated with great slaughter. This 
battle, which led to the entire subjuga- 
tion of the western Irish, is described by 
the Four Masters at that year; and also 
by Conly Macgeoghegan, in his translation 

of the Annals of Clonmacnoise MS. Lib. 

Trin. Coll. Dnb. E. 3, 8. 

For an " old saying" similar to that 
above quoted, see Stanihurst in his " De- 

scription of Ireland," written A. D. 1576, 
and printed in Holinshed, vol. vi. Lond. 
1 808, p. 30, where, describing Drogheda, 
he says : " There runneth a blind pro- 
phesie on this towne, that Rosse was, 
Dublin is, Drogheda shall be the best of the 
three." It is amusing to see how gravely 
our learned author explains this " blind 
prophesie," which was evidently bor- 
rowed from Stanihurst, and applied to 
the above localities, as it was to many 
other places in Ireland. It is stated, that 
" Athenry was the creation of a baron," by 
which our author meant, that the place 
gave that title to the Anglo-Norman fa- 
mily of Birmingham, in Irish called Mac 
Feorais. This ancient barony is supposed to 
have been held by tenure, and not by crea- 
tion. It is now in abeyance, but may yet 
occupy the attention of the House of Lords. 
The last claimant for the title, Edward 
Bermingham, Esq., spent his life and for- 
tune in pursuit of it, and died in indi- 
gence, leaving it undecided. A treatise on 
the extinct and dormant peerages of Ire- 
land, and the successful and disappointed 
claimants of Irish titles, including, of course, 
the celebrated and romantic Annesley case, 
would prove a most interesting and instruc- 
tive piece of Irish history. One of the few 
successful claims of this nature, made of 
late years in Ireland, was that of theNetter- 
ville peerage, established by the Editor, in 


was conferred on Rickard Earl of Clanrickard, extinct with his bod 
the late lord marquis, and now Aran hath the creation of an earl. 

The midle island of Aran containes eight quarters of land, where 
there is the like old fortification" as in the great island, named from 
Connor Mac Huathmor, brother to Engiis of Dun-Engus, as the 
tradition goes. Hallowed places in the isle are, our Blessed Lady's 
chappell ; St. Kenanack his chappell ; a hallowed place, called Atharla 
Kenerge; and the chappell of Seactmicrigh, or the seven bom 
a king. Tradition goes, that St. Kenanack was a king of Leinsters 
son, and Kenerg, a king of Leinster's daughter. Her well is there 
in a rock, and never becomes drie. In tins island is a great deal of 
rabbets. Hence eastward, to Tract-each, in the third island, i- 
another streight ship-road, called Bealagh-narfearbag. 

The third island of Aran, Inisoirthir p , or the Eastern Isle, soe 


the person of the present Right Honour- 
able Lord Viscount Netterville, A. D. 1834. 

n Old fortification. — For this and the 
" hallowed places" mentioned above, see 
the lists of the Pagan and Christian remains 
on those islands of Aran, pp. 74, and 76, 
ante; also Ogygia, pp. 175, 6. Instead of 
referring to tradition for Dun Conchahh- 
air, as in the above passage, our author 
might have quoted the authority of the 
Book of Lecan. That valuable collection 
of ancient and authentic records relating 
to Ireland, is now in the possession of the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

Her well. — This is a beautiful spring, 
and is still called Cobap na Cin6ipse, or 
St. Kenerg's well. Bealagh na fear boy, 
in Irish, bealac na pecqibac, the foul 

sound mentioned above, will be found no- 
ticed in the sequeL 

p Inisoirthir. — Imp Oipip. It is now ge- 
nerally called the South Wand, and is di- 
vided into four Carrows or quarters, which 
are known by the following names: Car- 
row druim Arlamain, Carrow Castle. Car- 
row an locha (so called from a lake there 
named Loughmore), and Carrow an phoil- 
lin. InA.D. 17 17. April 17. Edmund Fitz- 
patrick demised the whole island of Inis- 
heer to Andrew French, of Galway. mer- 
chant, for thirty-one years, at the yearly 
rent of £100; with liberty to cut and 
carry away as much latch from Straw 
Island (Oilean n cui^e) and Bunacosh in 
the Great Island, as should be necessary 
for the houses then, or thereafter to be 


called of its situation from the two other, contains four quarters of 
land, with a castle on a height. This island was also called of old 
Ara-Coemhan, of Saint Coeman q of the antient Dal-Messincorb 


built, on Inisheer. On 26th February, 
A. D. 1 754, John Digby demised Inis- 
heer to William M'Namara, of Doolen, 
County of Clare, for a like term, at £90 
yearly. — Orig. Leases. The " castle on a 
height" in this island, is O'Brien's castle, 
now in ruins. It is said to have been 
built by them in the fourteenth century ; 
but was broken down, in A. D. 1652, by 
the Parliamentary forces. 

The lake called Loughmore in this 
South or Small Island of Aran, if opened, 
would form one of the finest harbours in 
Her Majesty's dominions ; vessels would 
be as safe in it as in any dock. It lies at 
the mouth of the South Sound, which is 
the best entrance into the bay of Gal way ; 
and vessels could reach it at all times. 
The distance from this lake to the sea is 
not more than 300 or 400 yards, at an 
elevation of sixteen or eighteen feet ; and 
the harbour would accommodate 500 
ships of any size; it would at least ac- 
commodate as many as could ever be ex- 
pected to come to it. In the passage to 
America, it would be the most conve- 
nient harbour on the western coast of 
Ireland. See, in the Report of the Select 
Committee on Public Works (Ireland), 
A. D. 1835, the evidence of M. O'Malley, 
Esq., Q. 3287-3297. This alone ought to 
ensure a preference for Galway, as a 

western packet station, beyond any other 
part of the coast of Ireland. 

q Saint Coeman. — Brother to the ce- 
lebrated St. Kevin {Coemgene) of Glen- 
dalough, in the present County of Wick- 
low ; and born of parents of the first rank 
in Leinster, about the close of the fifth 
century. St. Coemhan is the most famous 
of the saints of Aran. He is believed to 
have often abated storms, and dissipated 
mists, after having been piously invoked. 
It happened not long since, that a native of 
Iniseere, and two of his sons, were fish- 
ing off the island; a violent storm sud- 
denly arose, and the father and one of the 
sons were blown out of the boat and 
drowned. The other son, who always 
had a particular veneration for St. Coem- 
han, cried out, O! a Choerhain cu B-puil 
en? "O ! Coeman, where art thou?" and 
the storm immediately subsided. 

For an account of the ancient Dal 
Missincorb family of Leinster, see Ogygia, 
p. 293, and Ogygia Vindicated, p. 219. The 
saint's church is enumerated among those 
of this island, in the list contained in note 
x , p. 75. His festival, which, in the time 
of our author, was celebrated on the 3rd 
of November, is now held on the 1 4th of 
June. His tomb or grave mentioned 
above, is near the church, but is now al- 
most covered with sand. 


family, descended of the kings of Leinster, brother to St. Coemgin, 
Abbot of Glindalogh, and likely disciple to St. Enna, as his brother 
was. He lies buried in this island, on the north side of the church 
dedicated to his name ; where he is worshipped the 3rd of November. 
There is a marble stone over his tomb, with a square wall built 
about it, on a plain green field in prospect of the sea, where sick 
people used to lye over night r , and recover health of God, for his 


r Lye over night This is still the cus- 
tom here, and cures are said to be fre- 
quently performed. The grave, or, as it 
is now more generally called, the bed, or 
place of rest, is believed to have the mi- 
raculous power of adapting itself to the 
size of every person who lies in it. Pity, 
as the lively French traveller Latocnaye 
might here exclaim, that the bed of Pro- 
crustes had not the same accommodating 
quality ! Among the cures said to have been 
performed, may be classed the following 


" Examinations of withnesses tacken, 
sworne, and examined beffore us the 
under written persons, both of the clergie 
and laytie of the towne of Gallway, about 
an extraordinarie delivery, and speedy 
amendment happened to Patricke Lynche, 
sonne to Patrick Lynche Fitz-Maurice of 
Gallway, merchant, and Redise Lynch, at 
St. Augustin's well, neare Gallway, on St. 
Barnabie's day last, being the 1 1 th of 
June, 1673. 

" Patricke Lynch of Gallway, youth, 

adged four tine yeares or thereabout, being 
examined, voluntarily deposed apponthe 
holly Evangelists, that hee was to 
with a most grivous, desperat, and dan- 
gerus disease, and given over by all doc- 
tors to be incurable, and could not eate 
one bite since Ester lu>t. and what little 
sustenance of milke hee would take hee 
pi-esently wometted the • . •< as all 
things were prepared for hi- death, and 
no humane hopes of his recovery, and 
was, in that maner, like a deade body, 
brought to St. A ugus tine's well as affor- 
said, on the iitli day instant, and there 
was totally diped in the said well, ha 
no fileing thereof, and being brought upp 
was wraped by Mary Burke into a wollin 
plaide, where hee slumbered about a quar- 
ter of an houer, untill his mother wixked 
and stired him. and there wept, and 
grivously blamed his mother for stu 
him, having seene to him, that hee - 
Our Lord Jesus Christ and his bl 
mother, and a multitude of brave winged 
birdes, and desired his mother to bring 
him a cupe of water out of the well, and 
thereof druuke three draughts, in the 

8 9 

sake. I have seen one grieviously tormented by a thorn thrust into 
his eye, who by lying soe in St. Coeman's burying place, had it mi- 

name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and 
of the Holly Gost, and there got upp of 
himselfe, and walked about the well, and 
tould his mother then, that hee was ad- 
vised A to visit the well neine dayes, and to 
drinke thereof three tymes in etech day, 
and that he would doe well, and douth 
continue since to observe the same dayly, 
and since is cured of the womitting dis- 
ease, and douth eath and drinke ever 
since with a great apctit and deseire, and 
douth slipe well, and is allwayes since 
uppon the mending hand, the Eternall 
God bee glorified, and praised for the 
same for ever. 

" Eedise Lynch mother to the affore- 
said examined, voluntarily deposed uppon 
the Holly Evangelists, that the contentes 
of the above examination of her sonne the 
said Patricke Lynch is true, to all in- 
tent^ and purposes, and was present with 
him at St. Augustin's well, when he was 
A delivered and amended from his disease 
as afforesaid, being formerlly past all hu- 
mane cure, as the doctours tould this de- 
ponent, and dayly redie to dey in her 
oppinion, and is since uppon the mending 

" Mary Burke adged fifty years or 
thereabouts, being examined, voluntarily 
deposed uppon the holly Evangelists, that 
shee was along with the said Patricke 
Lynch at the afforesaid well, and at the 

tyme afforesaid, and that the contents of 
the former examinations is true, and sawe 
and observed the same. 

" Patricke Lynch fitz-Marcus, father to 
the said youth Patricke Lynch, being ex- 
amined voluntarielly deposed uppon the 
holly Evangelists, that he gave his said 
sonne for lost, and that all the phisicians 
that visited him did give the same oppinion 
of him, and to that purpose prepared a 
coffin, and all other necessary for his 
death, and that ever since his beeing at the 
afforesaid well, hee observed hee eates and 
drinke, slipes, walke upp and downe, and 

at the mending hande Gall way the 23 rd 

of June, 1673. 

"Matthew Lynch, Warden of 

" Fr. William Bourke, Prior 
Ord. Pred. 

" Fr. James Blake, S. Theol. 
lector, ord. S. Fran". 

" Fr. Domnicke Lynch. 

" Fr. Dominicke Martin, Prior 
of S. Augustin. 

" Fr. Edward Bodkine, Aug us . 

" Fr. Martinus French, Aug us . 

"Patricke Martine. 

"Anth. Ffrench. 

" Richard Martin. 

"Marcus Lynch." 
The foregoing document has been tran- 
scribed from the original, preserved in St. 


9 o 

raculously taken out, without the least feeling of the patient ; the 
raarke whereof, in the corner of his eye, still remaines. 

As this Coeman gave the name of Ara Coemhan to the island, 
so he, from the island, is called Coeman-airne, i. e. Coeman of Aran. 
For Ara (signifying a kidney), the common name of the three islands, 
in the nominative, is Airne, or Arann in the genitive of the Irish ; 
whence father Colganus (26 Mar. p. 750) thought Airne a distinct 
name of one of the islands. 

There is another St. Coeman, disciple of St. Patrick, abbot of 
Ardcoeman or Airdnecoeman abby {Num. 12 in Colgan. in Vita 7"" 
S. Pair. par. ii. cap. 54), near Wexford, wherein his feast is cele- 
brated the 1 2th of June (Ibid. p. 177, num.88). This likeness 
the names of Airdncoeman and Coeman-airne, and other circum- 
stances, induced father Colganus 5 (Ibid, prope Jmem) to believe 
Coeman of Ardnecoeman, and Coeman- Airne were the same pc a 


Augustine's convent, Galway. The words 
" an extraordinarie," in italics, were in- 
serted in place of " a miraculous,''' evi- 
dently before the paper was attested ; 
" cure" was displaced for " amendment," 
and " a vision'''' for " to him." At the 
first caret, after the word " advised," the 
words " in his vision" were expunged ; at 
the second caret, after " was," the word 
" miraculous!//" likewise appears expunged, 
and "amended," immediately following 
it, was inserted in place of " cured." 
These significant alterations shew, that 
however anxious the friends of the youth, 
and perhaps others, were, that the cure 
should be considered miraculous ; or how- 
ever convinced they might have been that 
it really was so, yet the attesting parties 

were of a very different opinion. The 
"amendment" may be attributed to hy- 
dropathy, i. e. cure by cold water. 

s Father Colganus The published 

works of this learned and labor 
piler of the lives of our national sa 
so frequently referred to by <>ur author, 
viz.. the "Acta Saneto rum Hibernian" and 
" Triadis Thaumatnrgi an.- 

now seldom found except in public libra- 
ries. His unpublished wurks. mentioned 
in Harris's Ware, voL ii. p. 14.1. ar 
I am assured by a respectable member 
of his order, at present preserved in the 
Irish College at Rouit. They may In- 
classed among the most important docu- 
ments connected with the ancient his) 
of Ireland. 

9 1 

and worshipped the 12th June (Colg. 12 Mar. p. 586, num. 6. Item 
21 Mar. p. 715, prope finem). But it appears by an old author, 
Engus-kele-de, quoted by fa. Colganus ( 1 2 Mar. p. 586, num. 4, 5, 6), 
that Coeman-Airne was brother to St. Coemgin; and elsewhere 
{supra, p. 177, num. 88, Vitce J""*- S. Pair.), that Coeman, St. Coem- 
gin his brother, is worshiped the 3rd November. It is another mis- 
take of father Colganus (21 Mar. p. 714, 715, cap. 7) to write, that 
Ard-Olen was the same with this island, for Ard-Olen lyes as else- 
where he hath (20 Jan. p. 135, cap. 22, and p. 141, num. 13), 
of which hereafter. Neither is the most eastern the chiefesf of 
the three isles, as he tooke it (21 Mar. p. 714, cap. 7), but rather 
the smallest, wherein, besides St. Coeman's church, is a chappell of 
St. Gobnat, Y\irgiri\, worshipped 1 ith of February; and another of 
St. Paul. 

On the south-east side of this island, is a great rock in the sea, 
remarkable for ship wracks, called Finnis"; which gave the name of 


z Neither is the most eastern the chief- 
est — Colgan, p. 714, col. 2, has unac- 
countably mistaken this eastern island, 
which is the smallest of the three islands, 
for Aranmore, which is the largest and 
most westerly of them. It is probable, 
that he was led into the mistake by some 
incorrect map, in which these islands were 
either misplaced, or their position reversed ; 
and that to the same cause may be attributed 
his mistake about Ardoilen, which occurs 
in the same place. See p. 76, note x , ante. 
Before Colgan's time the maps of Ireland 
were grossly inaccurate. In some of them 
this east Island of Aran is set down as the 
largest. In the government map, headed, 

" Hibernia, insula, non procul ab Anglia, 
wlgare Hirlandia vocata, 1567," published 
with the State Papers, London, 1834, 
vol. ii., the middle island appears the 

u Finnis This rock is described by 

Mr. Nimmo in his Piloting Directions, 
p. 167, b, as being " above a quarter of a 
mile from the shore, dry with spring tides 
only." He adds, " On the north-west part 
of Inishere, in Foul Sound, a rocky ledge 
extends one-third over, having six feet 
water upon it." Bealagh-na-Finnis, men- 
tioned above, means the way or sound of 
the Finnis rock ; but it is now always 
called the South Sound. 


9 2 

Bealagh-na-finnis to the ship road between this island and the county 
of Clare. All the ships bound for or from Galway, must saile by 
the isles of Aran, in either of the four roads, viz., Bealagh-Lougha 
Lurgan v (so called of old, Lough Lurgan, de quo p. 26) between the 
west continent and the great island. Bealagh-na-haite (so called of 
Binnaite, the next land over it in the great island), between the great 
island and the midle island. Bealagh na-fearboy, so called of the 
land next it in the middle island and the east island And, Bealagh- 
na-finnis, between that and the county of Clare. Having thus sur- 
veyed the. three isles of Aran, as in a sea parenthesis, I will hence 
steere my course from the cape of Golam-head (the furthest point 
this side the west continent — of the west continent I touched) t<> 
the barony of Balinahinsy. 

The barony of Balynahinsy" (known in Irish by the name of 

< inmhaicne- 

v Bealagh-Lougha Lurgan. — In Irish 
6ealac loca Gupjan, the way or sound 
of Lough Lurgan. We have seen before, 
p. 42, that Lough Lurgan was the ancient 
name of the bay of Galway. This sound 
is always so called in Irish ; but in 
English it is generally called the North 
Sound, and is the entrance to Galway 

bay by the Skird rocks See Nimmo's 

Piloting Directions, p. 168. The other 
sounds or passages mentioned above are, 
Bealagh-na-haite. — 6ealac na h-aice, 
now always called Gregory's Sound. It 
takes its name from Binn Aite, an elevated 
part of the Great Island in the townland 

of Killeany See Nimmo, p. 1 67. Bealagh- 

na-fearhoy In Irish, 6ealuc na peap- 

bac, or the Foul Sound. So called from 

Peapbac, a part of the Middle Island 
verging on it. Bealaghrna-Finnu — In 
Irish, 6eatac na pinnipe. See the la-t 
note u . This South Sound " is bet* 
Dunmacfelin in the county of Clare and 
Inishere Island.'' — Nimmo, p. [68 

w Balynabin&y — In Irish, Oaile n 1 
h-lnpi, the town or bally of the island. 
This bar' my, which was the ancient 
trict of Conmaicne-mara (now Anglicised 
Connamara), was created in A. D. 1 585 : and 
took its name from a well-known castl.- 
in the district, belonging to the western 
O'Flaherties. See, in the Appendix, the 
composition entered into in that year, fur 
Iar-Connaught. This barony wa> for a 
long period divided into the two half 
baronies of Balinahinch, viz., north and 


Conmhaicne-mara, i. e. the Sea Conmacny, to distinguish from Con- 
macny-rein), containing Angaly in the county of Longford, and 


south (called also the two Connamaras), 
which were separated by the Owinglin 
river, that falls into the harbour of Ard- 
bear. The record in the British Museum, 
dated A. D. 1586, before referred to, p. 44, 
note 8 , describes this barony as follows: 
" The barony of Ballenehence, conteyning 
the ii Conymares, vm myles long and vi 
broad; and is, after like rate, plowlands 
five. Murrogh ne doo O'flarty chief in 
the same — -Parishes (4) Vicar, of Balli- 
nekilly — Vicar, of Ballindoyne — Vicar, of 

Omeya — Vicar, of Maierus Gentlemen 

and their castles, viz. Donell Ecowga, 
Ballenehense ; Edmund Oflairte, Kyllin- 
do wne ; Edmund M c . Hugh , A new Castle ; 
Ochaghy of Lettermellan ; Donell Ecowga, 
Bonowyn ; Tege ne Buly of Arddearee ; 
Miles M c .Tibbot, Keynivylie.— Castles 7.'' 
— Titus, B. xiii. 

For the other ancient territories called 
Conmhaicne, mentioned above by our 
author, see his Ogyg. p. 275. Antiqua- 
ries further relate, that " Fionnchaomh, 
son of Cosgrach, descended from Conmac, 
had for his inheritance the territories of 
Gonmaicne Cuile-tola, and Conmaicne-ma- 
ra ; that his son Caireach was the first of 
his line who embraced the Christian faith, 
and that he was baptized, with all his re- 
tinue, at Tarach, by St. Patrick, whom 
he invited into his country to propagate 
the faith there." For this, see Overall's 

Linea Antiqua, or Book of Irish Gene- 
alogies, preserved in the Office of Arms, 
Dublin. O'Cadhla (O'Kealy) was after- 
wards chief of Conmhaicne-mara. It is 
written, that from hence, a body of troops, 
under Carnen their chief, joined the stand- 
ard of Brien Borumha, and fought at 
Clontarf, A. D. 1014. The Four Masters 
relate, that in A. D. 1 139, Aodh (Hugh) 
O'Cadhla was lord of Conmacne-mara ; 
and O'Dugan records, in his Metrical To- 
pography, compiled about A. D. 1350, that 
O'Cadhla was the chieftain at the time of 
the Anglo-Norman invasion : 

" Qp Conmaicne mupa moip 
O Caola capa an Corhoil." 

" Over Conmacne-mara great, 
Was O'Cadhla, friend of banquets." 

From O'Dugan, Lynch, in Cambrensis 
E versus, p. 27, has, " O'Cadhla sive 
Qmclly in Conmacniamara." Colgan la- 
tinizes thename Quadeus. Doctor O'Kealy, 
R. C. Archb. of Tuam, who, about A. D. 
1645, furnished Colgan with the account 
of the ecclesiastical remains of Aran, be- 
fore referred to, p. 74, note x , was of this 
old family. See the eulogy on that pre- 
late by Lynch in Vita Kirovani, p. 47. 
The Muintir Murchadha, or O'Flaherties 
of UiBriuin Seola, being driven from the 
plain of Ui Briuin Seola by the Anglo- 
Norman settlers in 1238, proceeded across 
Lough Orbsen, and possessed themselves 


Munter-Eolais in the county of Leitrim ; Conmacny Dunmore, now 
the barony of Dunmore x , in the county of Gal way; and Conrnacny- 
culy, now Killmayn barony, in the county of Mayo, is divided into 
the south and north half baronys, and, on the east side, lyes adjacent 
to the barony of Moycullin ; washed by the Western Ocean on the 
south-west and north coasts of it, till it mears with the mountaines 

On these coasts ambergre. 


of Joyce Countrey on the north-east. 

of Conmaicne-mara. The O'Cadhlas then 
lost their authority, and disappear from 
history ; but the name is still to be found 
among the peasantry in the mountainous 
district of Ross barony ; and some res- 
pectable gentlemen of the name, though 
not of this race, reside in other parts of 
the country. The name Kyley, in the 
county of Waterford, is of another race, 
and is spelt in Irish (JCaella. 

x Dunmore In Irish, t)un Hlon, the 

great fort or dun, which gives name to 
the barony of Dunmore, in the county of 
Gal way . Here there was a strong fortress of 
the kings of Connaught ; and there still re- 
main the ruins of an extensive castle, said 
traditionally to have been built by Hosdech 
(Hosty) Mac Membric, or Mebric (now 
Merrick), one of the Welch adventurers 
mentioned in the sequel. This castle 
was possessed by the Anglo-Norman Ber- 
minghams, barons of Athenry. In A. D. 
1 249, it was burned by the army of the 
king of Connaught. In the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, the Berminghams being 
in arms against the Queen, Sir Henry 
Sidney, A. D. 1569, besieged and took the 

castle of Dunmore, It was finally dis- 
mantled in the time of CromwelL 
y Ambergreese — (Ambra gri.-ea.) 
substance affords another proof of ti 
sort of whales to that part of the Atlantic 
Ocean off the \vc->tc-rn shores oflar-Con- 
naught. — See p. 12. note*. It i- now well 
ascertained, that "Ambergris is induratt-d 
fffical matter, discharged by thi 
ceti w/iale, a species of phy - meter 

macrocephalus). It has been found in that 
species of whale, bu1 usually is found I 
ing on the surface of the ocean, in regions 
frequented by whales ; sometimes in m 
of from 60 to 225H'-. weight. In this 
substance are found the beaks of the 
cuttle-fish (Sepia moscAata), on which 
that whale i^ known to feed. It i- L . 
valued as a material in perfumery.' 1 — 
Encyc. SeeBoatr's Natural History, 41a 
Dublin, 1726. p. 146. for an account of 
Ambergreese found near Sligo, A. D. 1 691 ; 
and Beale. Xat. Hist, of the ^perin "Whale, 
1839. It is not to be wondered at, that 
in the time of our author, the poor unin- 
formed natives of Iar-Connaught should 
be unacquainted with the value o{ amber- 


is frequently found. In the year 1666, there was a great deal of 
black amber cast ashore every where, and the people, not used to 
the like, knew it not at first, yet they could get ten shillings an 
ounce for it, when people understood what it was. The best is of the 
colour of Castile soap, and worth seventy shillings an ounce. 

Here are some spots of fine arable land, by the sea side, almost 
everywhere ; and where that is wanting they work with the spade. 
The countrey is generally commendable for fishing, fowling, and 
hunting. No river there towards the sea, and scarce any small 
brook, without salmons, white trouts, and eels. Many wast islands 
here, during the summer season, are all covered over with bird eggs, 
far more delicate than those laid by poultry. Here is yearly great 
slaughter made of seales z , about Michaelmas, on wild rocks and 


gris, as above related ; when we know, that 
at a later period they were ignorant of 
matters in much more general use. The 
Editor remembers an old gentleman who 
knew the district well, and who used to 
relate a pleasant occurrence which took 
place in it within his own memory. Several 
chests of tea were washed in on the western 
shore, and the inhabitants, not knowing 
" what it was," tried in various ways to 
ascertain it's use. One of these was by boil- 
ing it, then pouring away the fragrant li- 
quid, and cooking the leaves for food ; but 
finding them in that way rather unpala- 
table, they gave up all further experiments, 
and converted the rich cargo into manure. 
Several other stories are told of the simple 
manners of that primitive people' ; but I 
have never heard that they mistook the 
use of the French wines, the rum, brandy, 

and other cupcupca mapa, ejecfamenta 
maris of that kind, so frequently thrown 
on their shores. The present inhabitants 
are as shrewd and intelligent a race as can 
be found in any other part of Ireland. 

z Slaughter made of seales This prac- 
tice has been since discontinued. See 
ante, p. 27, note z . That the seal (Phoca 
vitulina) was formerly used for food along 
the coasts of Ireland, appears from seve- 
ral ancient authorities ; among others, 
from the old " Book of Lismore," in the 
possession of His Grace the Duke of De- 
vonshire. For the following extract on 
the subject, I am indebted to that ex- 
cellent Irish scholar, Mr. Eugene Curry, 
of Dublin, who has lately transcribed that 
venerable record for the library of the 
Royal Irish Academy : 

" peachc aim cancaeapuioibco&pigir, 

9 6 

wast islands of the sea. Many lands here invironed for the most 

part by the sea, are called Irros, with an adjection to distinguish 

them one from another. „ 


aciac uaipli cpaiboeca, .1. na pecc n-ep- 
puic pilec a culaift mo aippceap Caf- 
tan, lp ann pin popconjnip bpijic pop 
apaili peap Dia muinncip cede do cum 
in mapa, co n-oeapnao lap^ac do na 
h-aijeaouib. Ueic in peap 7 a rhup-ja 
laip, 7 cecmaij pon do. SaioiD inn in 
pon£ai, 7 ceunjlaiD a ceic Diu laim. 
CaippnjiD in pon leip in peap cap in 
6-paippce co cpaij mapa 6peacan, cu 
b-papcuib annpin h-e pop cappaic, lap 
m-bpipea6 na ceca. Ro cuipeao Dan 
in pon pop culai 7 a £ui ann, cu po laa 
in muip h-e pop pin cpuij ba compoc- 
puib do &pi,9C. Oo pacpac, umoppo, 
lupcaipeoa &peucan cupuc do lapcaipe 
6pi^ce, 6 po inoip a pcela Doib ; cainic 
1 appin cap muip, co b-puaip a pon 1 
cpaij mapa Caijean ibup, co puc leip 
co h-aioeabuib &pijce." — " On a cer- 
tain time, there came visitors to St. 
Bridget, and they were noble and de- 
vout, viz., the seven bishops of Tulla 
in the east of Leinster. Then Bridget 
commanded a certain man of her people 
to go to the sea, and to fish for the vi- 
sitors. The man went forth, carrying his 
sea-spear (mup-ja) and he met a seal. 
He struck the seal-spear (pon-jui) into it, 
and tied the rope fast to his arm. The 
seal dragged the man after him over the 
sea to the shore of Britain, where it left 
him upon a rock, after having broken the 

rope. The seal was, however, sent back, 
with the spear sticking in him. until he 
■was cast by the sea on the part of the 
shore nearest to Bridget. The British 
fishermen gave a curach [leathern canoe] 
to Bridget's fisherman, when lie told them 
his adventure ; and he then came "Yer the 
sea, and found his seal on the strand of 
Leinster on the return: and he carried it 
to Bridget'^ visitors." — Boot ofLitmore 
fol. 57, a. Transcript, in tin- Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy, p. 30. 

Rejecting the marvellous part ofl 
story, the remainder proves, that in Ire- 
la ml seals were anciently used lor food. 
In the west of Scotland. 
were eaten, even to a much later period. 
See Martin's Description of the Western 
Islands, pp. 5, 64: " Ti ' the 

Seals with the ashes of burned Sea-ware, 
and say they are good Food : the -v 
eat them commonly in the Spring time, 
with a long pointed Stick instead of a 
Fork, to prevent the si 11 which 

their hands would otherwise han 
veral Hours alb i." Amongst the better- 
fed people of England, seals and porpoises 
were frequently feared upon in former 
da vs. See Henry's Hi- 
pciidix vi. ; but the historian adds, that 
" Porpoises and seals are seldom seen at 
modern entertainments."" It is observed, 
that the people of Aran, who wear 


Between the capes of Golam-head and Mason-head, the ocean, 
breaking into the haven of Cassin, separates the barony of Balyna- 
hinsy from the barony of Moycullin. This coast hath severall banks 
of scollops and oysters, whereunto Inverglassan river, parting both 
barony's, falls. 

The next land on the west of it is Irrosainhagh, a small coun- 
trey ; and therein the lands of St. Kieran's church and hill, named 
likely from St Kieran of Cluain-M c Nois, St. Ennas's disciple, wor- 
shipped 9th September. Over against Mason-head, southward in the 
same countrey, lies Cruagh mhicDara a , a small high island and harbour 


skin pumps, or " pampooties," are never 
afflicted with gout. They affirm, that a 
piece of the skin worn on the person, 
cures and keeps away the cholic. See 
Keogh's Zoologia Medicinalis Hibernica, 
p. 77 ; and Martin's Western Islands of 
Scotland, p. 64, for various virtues attri- 
buted to the flesh, skin, and other parts 
of this animal. 

The several places named above, are 
within the parish of Moyrus, ITlujRuip, 
i. e. the plain or field of the point or pro- 
montory. This parish forms the southern 
portion of Conamara, or Balinahinch ba- 
rony. It is bounded on the north-west 
by the parish of Ballindoon ; on the north 
by the parish of Ballynakill ; on the north- 
east by the barony of Ross ; on the east by 
that of Moycullen ; and south and south- 
west by the Atlantic. — loppup, a border, 
brink, margin, promontory, or head-land. 
The extreme western point of the county of 
Clare is so called. So loppuptDorhnan, the 
present barony of Erris, county of Mayo. — 

See p. 73, note v . Mason-head, Ceann 
lDar-a, the head of the land called Maus 
or Mace. — Inverglassen River, now called 
Tnvermore. lnbeup, Inver, the mouth of 
a river. It divides most of that part of 
Moycullen barony, anciently called Gno- 
rnore, from the barony of Balinahinch. — 
Irrosainhagh, in Irish, 1111101' Gmbceac, 
the stormy Irros, as Mr. O' Donovan con- 
jectures in his notes of this parish for 
the Ordnance Survey ; and for which he 
quotes the following passage from an old 
poem in the Leabhar Gabhala, or Book of 
Invasions: " Suibem ponn popp nn cpacr, 
ainbceac puucc." The lands of St. Kie- 
rarfs church. — These lands are situate on 
the south-east of Moyrus parish, and are 
so called from an old church there, Cill 
Chtapain, dedicated to St. Kieran ; near 
which is a holy well, Cobap Chiupain. 

a Cruach mhic Dara. — Literally the 
stack or rick (from its appearance in the 
ocean) of Mac Dara, who is the patron 
saint of Moyrus parish. It is now always 

for ships. This island is an inviolable sanctuary, dedicated to Mac 
Dara, a miraculous saint; whose chappell is within it. where his 


called Oilean MhicDara, or Mac Dara's 
island; ljut in Nimmo's Piloting Direc- 
tions, p. 175, Cruankarra. In terming this 
island "an inviolable sanctuary," our au- 
thor does not mean that it was ever ap- 
pointed a sanctuary or asylum, to which 
fugitives might resort for protection, " se- 
des ad quam reus fugiendo proveniens, 
omnimodo habet securitatem" (for in that 
sense all Iar-Connaught has been often 
termed an asylum. — See Stat. Kilkenny, 
p. 7, note) ; but rather that it was a place, 
like the sanctuary of a clnirch, ah\ a\ 5 
held in the utmost veneration. 

St. Mac Dara is to this day held in the 
greatest respect by all the seafaring people 
and natives of the western coasts and 
islands. They often name their children 
after him. Thus you will frequently 
meet with Mac Dara O'Flaherty, Mac Dara 
M'Donough, Mac Dara O'Brien, &c. ; and 
even their boats bear his name. To sail 
in the " Mac Dara," is considered a gua- 
rantee for personal safety. If you want a 
boat, one of the fishermen, perhaps Mac 
Dara M'Donough, will tell you, that his is 
the " Mac Dara," and that in itself he con- 
siders a sufficient recommendation. Not- 
withstanding this saint's local celebrity, his 
name does not appear in any of the Ca- 
lendars or Martyrologies at present known ; 
but that he flourished at an early period, 
may be concluded from the antiquity of 

his church. The remains of this primi- 
tive Irish building are well worthy of 
attention. It is situated near the only 
secure landing place, on the eastern shore 
of the island. Part of the original - 
roof is still remaining. The entrance, in 
the western gable, is a fine specimi 
the semi-cyclopean doorway. About 1 OC 
yards distance from the church, on the 
north side, there is a square altar, with 
a cross upon it ; and near it a holy well, 
dedicated to the >aint. 

In this church "hi- si 
many ages stood." In former tin 
usual t<> preserve in Irish chut 
tues of their founder- or pat; 
Dominicana, pp. 273. 344. Cambn 
states that, in his time, many such wen- 
preserved; and at the present day there 
arc some remaining. In the small chajK-1 
of St. Brendan, on the Ulandof Inisgluaire 
(Inisglory), off the coast of Erri-. in 
county Mayo, the statue of that -aim . 
still be seen: and in the island of Inismuny, 
off the coast of Sligo, the • 
Molaise (called by some ridiculere, " Father 
Molash"), i- -till, or lately was, \ reserved, 
in his old stone- roofed chapel there. — 8 
Archdall's Monasticon, p. 635 ; and 
derson's Historical Sketches of the an- 
cient native Irish. Edinburgh, 1828, p. 168. 
The statue of St Mac Dara remained in his 
church until about 200 years ;._ 


statue of wood for many ages stood, till Malachias Queleus, Arch- 
bishope of Tuam, caused it to be buryed under ground, for speciall 
weighty reasons. 

On the shore of this island is the captives' stone, where women, 
on low water, use to gather duleasg b for a friend's sake in captivity, 
whereby they believe he will soon get succour by the intercession of 
the saint. Duleasg, or salt-leafe, is a weed growing on sea-rocks, 
and preserved by spreading it on dry stones in fair weather, and 
soon after, when occasion serves, for eating. There is scarce any 
sea shore [where] it grows not. 

The boats that pass between Mason-head and this island, have a 


the Archbishop of Tuam " caused it to be 
buryed under ground, for speciall weighty 
reasons ;" probably to prevent the island- 
ers from asseverating by the saint, as was 
then, and is still practised, on the relics 
of saints, in other places, notwithstanding 
the utmost vigilance of the. clergy to pre- 
vent it. Martin, in his Description of the 
Western Islands of Scotland, informs us, 
that in St. Barr's church, in the isle of 
Kismul, " The Natives have St. Barr's 
Wooden Image standing on the Altar, co- 
vered with Linen in form of a shirt, all 
their greatest Asseverations are by this Saint. 
I came very early in theMorning with an 
intention to see this Image, but was dis- 
appointed, for the Natives prevented me, 
by carrying it away, lest I might take oc- 
casion to ridicule their superstition, as 
some Protestants have done formerly, and 
when I was gone, it was again exposed on 
the Altar." — p. 92. It was probably to 
prevent similar asseverations, that the sta- 

tue of St. Mac Dara was "buryed," as 
above related by our author. 

b Gather duleasg — The Rhodomenia pal- 
mata, now called dilisk. — This singular su- 
perstition has not been practised here for 
many years ; although an aged person has 
assured me, that in her youth it was fre- 
quent. A few of these "old observances" 
still remain, of which the following have 
recently occurred. Some fishermen to 
the west of Galway, in order to obtain 
a fair wind, buried a cat to its neck in 
the sand on the sea shore, turning its 
face to the point from which the adverse 
wind blew ; and there left the poor ani- 
mal to perish. In the west of Iar-Con- 
naught, they sometimes erect a pile of 
stones on the shore, bearing a rude re- 
semblance to a small house or castle, 
which they offer to some imaginary being 
or goblin, and expect a fair wind in re- 
turn. But this is considered a serious 
affair, and can never be repeated by the 



custome to bow down their sailes three times, in reverence to the 
saint. A certain captain of the garrison of Galway, Anno 1672, 
passing this way, and neglecting that custome, was so tossed with sea 
and storme, that he vowed he would never pass there again, without 
paying his obeysance to the saint; but he never [re]turned home, till 
he was cast away by shipwrack soon after. Few years after, one 
Gill, a fisherman of Galway, who would not strike saile, in contempt 
of the saint, went not a mile beyond that road, when, sitting on the 
pup of the boat, the mast, by [a] contrary bla>t of wind, broke, and 
struck him on the pate dead, the day being fair weather both before 
and after. 

This saint's proper name was Sinach d , and patroniinically called 


same individual. In these matters sailors 
and fishermen are superstitious in nil 
countries. Martin relates, that in the 
western islands of Scotland, " It was an 
ancient Custom among the Islanders. 1 1 1 
hang a He Goat to the Boat's Mast, hoping 
thereby to procure a favourable Wind." — 
p. 109. 

c Bow down their sailes This is scru- 
pulously observed to the present day ; and 
is performed by lowering the main-sail a 
little, three times. The custom is sup- 
posed to have originated with some pious 
boatmen, who, probably in the life-time of 
the saint, first adopted that mode of 
salutation on sailing by the island. That 
precedent a few times repeated, and a 
wreck or other accident befalling a boat 
which might happen to neglect it, would 1 ie 
sufficient to establish the ceremony. But, 
however it may have originated, few sea- 

faring natives of the coasts \\"uld now 
venture to omit that accustomed mark i if 
respect t.> St. Mac Dara. Many catas- 
trophes, similar to those above mentioned, 
are still confidently attributed to its • 
sion. It may be easily believed, that 
among the numerous wrecks and sea acci- 
dents which have occurred along these 
western i me may have been in- 

tended by circumstances, which would in- 
duce a less imaginative people than the 
Irish to attribute them to thi • - 
assigned. It would be - ject, 

that our author's incredulous captain isj _ I 
have been cast away, and poor Gill knocked 
on the pate, even though they had paid 
the accustomed obeisance. 

^Sinach. — Sionnac, a j'ox. It is a curious 
coincidence, thai the name of this favourite 
saint of our western fishermen, sheiuld be 
that of an animal which, of all others, they 


Mac Dara, from his father Dara. The parish church of Moyras, by 
the sea shore just opposite to the island, in the continent of Irros- 


most abhor. So great is their aversion to 
a fox, hare, or rabbit, that they never so 
much as mention their names themselves, 
nor can they endure even to hear them 
named by others. If a fisherman of Clad- 
dagh, vide ante, p. 42, note d , happens to see 
one of those animals, or to hear its name 
mentioned, he would not on that day ven- 
ture to sea ; and the cause of this strange 
superstition they neither know themselves, 
nor can any one else account for. But 
it has been often turned to their disad- 
vantage, of which the following, among 
other instances, has been frequently re- 
lated. Near the great fishing village of 
Claddagh, there once lived a butcher, who 
\ised to take a humorous but mischievous 
advantage of the simplicity of his neigh- 
bours. They never, it appears, go to fish 
on Saturday, for fear of breaking in on 
the sabbath, a day which they always 
scrupulously observe. Friday is, there- 
fore, one of their principal fishing days ; 
and a successful " take" on that day, ge- 
nerally has the effect of reducing the 
price of meat in the ensuing Saturday's 
market. The butcher, whose calling was 
thus occasionally injured, contrived for a 
long time to prevent it, by procuring a 
fox, or, as some say, a stuffed fox-skin, 
and causing it to be exhibited, every Fri- 
day morning, through the village. This in- 
variably caused a general noise and move- 

ment among the fishermen, not unlike 
those of gulls in a loom-gale ; and it never 
failed to make them, for that day at least, 
abandon their fishing excursion. It is 
probable, that to this moment, not one on 
the coast is aware that St. Mac Dara's 
real name was Sionnach, although his 
altar-stone, " Leac Shinach," is said to be 
still preserved. It has been pleasantly 
remarked by Mr. O'Donovan, that if a 
man of the name of Fox, Hare, or Rabbit, 
wished to settle among the Claddagh 
fishermen, he should change his name 
to Pike, Codde, or Salmon, or some such ; 
for that his name would destroy the luck 
and happiness of this strange people. 

The ancient parish church of Moyrus is 
now in ruins. It had originally two door- 
ways, one in the north side, and the other 
in the south. The former is built up. 
The latter, which is that now used, is 
formed of three concentric arches of beau- 
tifully cut stone. In the eastern gable 
there was a fine window, now nearly de- 
stroyed. Here St. Mac Dara's festival, 
la peile mine t>apa, is kept, and is at- 
tended principally by fishermen. The 

castle of Ardes In Irish, Cair-lean na 

h-QipOe, now a ruin, is situate about 
seven miles north-west of Golam Head. 
Here " Teigene Booly (buile) O'Fflahertie 
of the Arde,otherwise called O'Fflahertie 
of both Con O'Marrice (Conamaras),'''' the 


ainhagh, is dedicated to his name, where is kept his altar ston< 
the name of Leac Sinach. His festivall day is kept as patron of 
Moyras parish, the 16th of July. Not far from Moyras, by a creek 
of the same sea, stands the castle of Ardes. 

On this side of Irros Ainhagh, is Murloghmore, or Blackford 
haven, a very broad and most safe harbour for ships ; where there 
is an inexhaustible bank of oysters, that are carryed by boats hence 
to Galway. Into this haven, from Irros-ainhagh, comes Owangowla. 
a river of salmon fish and white trouts. 

From Macdara Island, westward, lies a like small high island, 
corruptly called Cruagh na Kily e , for Cruagh Coelann. Cruagh is 


as monuments over people who foni 

died here of starvation. The traditional 
account of the occurrence is curious, and 
is generally related as follows: — In the 
reign of Elizabeth, there came into 
Conuaught, a man i 

who, as it afterwards appeared, was abbot 
of aCistercian mon i lied the White 

Friars, in Donegal. 11- mber 

of the great family of O'Donnell : and 
marly related to it* celebrated chii : 
1 1 agh Ruadh. Having refused to surrender 
his monastery, it was suppressed by the 
Queen's commis-i< mers : the abbot hi: 
was proclaimed a traitor, and a reward 
offered for his head. He then fl< 
Iar-Connaught, as before related, and 
there found a Long and secure asylum, at 
the foot of Cnoc a CaiHean hill, in the pa- 
rish of Moyras, near the sea shore, where 
a Martello tower now stands. Her 
was occasionally visited by his brother, 
who afterwards settled in the country, 

chief of the western O'Fflaherties, resided 

in A.D. 1585 Indenture of Composition. 

By an inquisition taken 17th August, 
1607, it was found that the same Teige 
na buile " was seised of the castle or stone 
fortress of Arde." For these records, 
more in detail, see the Appendix — Mur- 
loghmore, or Blackford haven Both these 

names are now obsolete. The haven is 
called Birterbuy (Bertrach buidhe) bay. — 
See Nimmo's Piloting Directions, p. 176. 
Bertrach is the usual name in Connamara 
for an oyster-bank. Owan-goicla. — In 
Irish, GBcnnn ^hahla, the Forked River, 
flows into the east side of Birterbuy bay. 

e Cruagh na Kily. — In Irish, Cpuac na 
Caoile, an uninhabited island in the 
ocean, now called Cruanakeely, and some- 
times Deer Island. Of the ancient chapel 
of St. Coelann, mentioned by our author, 
no trace now remains. On the summit 
of this island there are some heaps of 
stones, which are said to have been raised 


any high hill like a stake [stack], as these islands are; and Coelann is 
the saint to whom the island is dedicated, whose chappell is therein. 


and by others of his kindred from Done- 
gal. After a long search by the Queen's 
officers, the abbot's retreat was at length 
discovered. A party of fourteen persons, 
among whom were some of his own coun- 
trymen, induced by the promised reward, 
undertook to apprehend him. Having 
arrived at his place of concealment, they 
entered his dwelling in the night time ; 
but none of them being acquainted with 
his person, they resorted to an experi- 
ment,, by which they were assured they 
would immediately identify him. This 
was, by his amending an expression which 
is often used in Irish, viz., when one is 
desired to light a candle, the phrase some- 
times employed is lap a pollap, lite- 
rally, "light the light." This he was 
invariably in the habit of correcting, by 
saying, b'peapp \ a y a' corneal, " bet- 
ter say, light the candle." One of the 
party having used the phrase, and the 
expected correction having followed, no 
doubt remained of his identity. He 
was instantly seized, and they only await- 
ed the morning to return with their 

In this dilemma, the abbot promptly 
determined on a bold expedient. He in- 
formed his pursuers, that he had con- 
siderable treasure concealed in the unin- 
habited island of Cruaghnakeely, which he 
pointed out at an apparently short dis- 

tance from the shore ; and requested them 
to accompany him thither, in order to 
bring away the treasure, and that he would 
then quietly submit to his fate. Sure of his 
person, and anxious to secure the expected 
prize, they readily consented to his pro- 
posal. When they reached the island, he 
directed one of the men to step on the 
rock, which formed its only landing-place, 
and to lay hold of a rope which was at- 
tached to the bow of the boat. This done, 
he placed himself at the bow, and with a 
setting-pole kept the boat steady, until 
all were safely landed. Then, slipping 
the rope, and giving a sudden shove, the 
place being deep too, he was quickly out 
of reach, and directed his course back, 
leaving the entire party on this desolate 
island, where, being destitute of food and 
shelter, they all miserably perished. In 
course of time, the monuments before al- 
luded to were raised over their remains. 
The abbot lived for many years after in 
Iar-Connaught. His brother's family ac- 
quired large possessions there, and, among 
others, the great tract of land called after 
them, LittermoreO'Donnell, in the barony 
of Moycullen ; which descended to Edmond 
M'Eory, great-grandfather of the Eight 
Eev. Lawrence O'Donnell, the present 
E. C. Bishop of Galway. These possessions 
were confiscated in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and granted, under the Act of Set- 


His memory is celebrated in that parish of Moyras the 3rd of Fe- 
bruary. Coelann and Cailin are different saints' nan 

Of each side of this island, is a shiproad to Blackford and Round- 
stone' havens ; and another small island, called Olena Cruagh g , stands 
between it and the continent, on the north. Inisnee island, con- 
taining three cartrons of land, lyes in the mouth of Owanmore river, 
and divides the haven into Round-stone haven on the west side, 
and Blackford haven on the east side thereof. This island hath a 
chappell dedicated to St. Mathias, and another place in memory of 
St. Brendan. In the midle of the island there is a poole of freshwater. 
On the east side of it, the river of Owanmore is exonerated into 
Blackford haven. This river springs from Baiynahinsy lake, two 
miles from the sea. It is shallow and full of wares and stones, from 
the lake down, for a mile, to Wine Island; on which island' is a 


tlement, to a Sir Thomas Meredith ; by 
whom they were assigned to Captain 
Richard Martin, of Dangan, in whose fa- 
mily they still continue. This is one of 
the numerous traditional stories current 
in Iar-Connaught ; and, so far as it has 
been tested by existing records, it has 
been found correct — See Archdall's J/o- 
nast. p. 931. 

{ Round-stone. — In Irish, Cuan nn 
cloice punca. A pier and haven were 
built here by the Fishery Board. At 
the former, there are four feet at low 
water, and spring tides rise eighteen feet. 
— See Lewis's Topogr. Diet. vol. ii. p. 406, 
parish Moyrus. Here Mr. Ninmio (see 
ante, p. 9, n. s ) laid the foundation of a 
town, to which he was induced by the 
situation and excellence of the harbour. 

In A. D. 1841 it contained seventy-three 
houses, with a population of 396 persons. 
— Census of Ireland, p. 374. 

g Olena Cruagh Sometimes called 

Oileun na 5-cpuac, the island of the 
stacks or ricks, from its appearance at a 
distance in the ocean. The island of 
Inisnee, Imp nije, is bounded on 
south and west by Round-stone bay ; and 
on the north and east by Birtirbuy (Ber- 
trach luidhe) Bay, formerly Blackibrd 
Haven. On the 7th Feb. A. D. 1610, the 
"river and fishing of Owanmore," abainn 
mop, were granted b " M> m gh ne mover 
O'Flaherty of Bonowen. . •.'"—.'. -Pat. 
This grantee was father of Sir M 
na Mart, mentioned p. 83, note '. The 
Owanmore is now sometimes called the 
Balliuahiuch river. 


salmon fishing", worth £30 a year. On this island experience was 
made how the salmon hath still recourse from the sea to its first 
offspring ; for here, eighteen salmons were marked, with a finn cut of 
each of them at their going to the sea, and seaventeen of them were 
taken next season, in the same place, coming back. The sea flows 
up to Wine Island, on every tide, from each side of Inisnee. On 
the west side of the river, by the sea shore, stood the abbey of 
Tombeola' of St. Dominick's order. In our own memory, eighteen 


h Salmon fishing. — This fishery is now 
rented at £500 a year. The fish is pre- 
pared for exportation, by cutting it in 
pieces of 2lbs. each, which are hermeti- 
cally sealed in tin cases. In this state, 
it is asserted that it will keep fresh for a 
considerable period, even for some hundreds 
of years ! A late tourist, Mr. Inglis, says that 
Iar-Connaught is "a country of salmon; 
every inlet and river is full of them." 
Wine Island is situated in the river of 

'' Abbey of Tombeola. — In Irish, Uuaim 
6eola, Tumulus Beolai. This name is 
supposed to be derived from some " great 
man," or " giant," named Beola, who for- 
merly ruled over these western regions, 
and was here interred. But there is no 
trace at present remaining of any such 
tomb, or place of interment. We know 
from history, that several of the Firbolg 
chieftains, about the commencement of 
the Christian era, gave names to several 
places in these western parts. See Mac 
Firbis's account of those colonists, before 
referred to, p. 18, note q . About A. D. 

1427, according to De Burgo, in Hib. 
Dominicana, p. 309, the abbey " of St. 
Dominick's order" was founded at Tom- 
beola by the O'Flaherties. Of this foun- 
dation, John O'Heyn, for whom see Har- 
ris's Ware, vol. ii. p. 295, writes as follows: 
"In eodem Comitatu Galviensi fuit Con- 
ventus noster in Baronia de Balbjnehensi 
fundatus, et erectus a Domino (J Flaherty, 
Dynasta antiquo istius Baronia 3 usque ad 
Usurpatorem Cromuellum, per quem ex- 
utus est tota Hsereditate sua. Erant or- 
dinarie in isto Conventu, vocato Tombeo- 
lomme, Octo Eeligiosi, sed ab Initio Eegni 
Elizabethae nullus fuit Incola, et Muros 
omnes, et ipsam Ecclesiam abstulerunt 
ad Eedificandum Castellum in Vicinia." 
— Epilogus, p. 37. The castle here al- 
luded to, as having been built of the 
stones of the ruined abbey of Tombeola, 
was situate on the small island in the lake 
of Ballynahinch, afterwards mentioned by 
our author. For an account of the abbey 
of Tombeola, see Hib. Dom. ut supra. Its 
situation is now pointed out by a small 
building like a chapel, said to have been 


porcupices that were in pursuit of the salmon fish, were taken near 
Tombeola. The seale goes up all along to the lake of Balynahinsy, 
to fish on salmons. This lake, from which the barony is named, 
hath two islands on it. On the lesser of them is a castle J built of 
the stones of Tombeola Abbey; as also a hallowed monument of St. 
Fechin ; to whom there is a well dedicated at Cara-more, where the 
river parts with the lake. 

On the north-west of Balynahinsy, are the twelve high moun- 
taines of Bennabeola", called by marriners the twelve stakes, being 


erected by some gentlemen of the country, 
in order to commemorate the existence of 
the abbey. The site of the Carmelite 
friary at Ballynahinch, founded, according 
to Ware, by the O'Flaherties, in A. D. 
1356, is now unknown. It is alluded to 
by De Burgo, as near Tombeola. See 
Archdall for this friary, in Monast. p. 
276, where he erroneously asserts that the 
barony of Ballynahinch was called after a 
village of the name, although no such 
village ever existed. 

J A castle. — This is the castle alluded 
to in the last note, as having been built 
of the stones of Tombeola abbey, on a 
small island (said to be partly artificial), 
towards the western side of Ballynahinch 
lake. It is a small square tower, about 
thirty feet in length and twenty-five in 
breadth. The island will be found men- 
tioned again in the historical account of 
the O'Flaherties, contained in the Appen- 
dix hereto, at A. D. 1584. 

St. Fechin's well, above alluded to, may 
still be seen. This celebrated saint died 

A. D. 664. He was anciently mud. 
veredinlar-Connaught. where his memory 
is still celebrated ; and many holy wells, 
and other "hallowed" remains of anti- 
quity, yet bear his name. See Bollandus 
and Colgan, at Jan. 20, for three several 
lives of St. Fechin; and our author's ac- 
count of the island of Imay (or Onuv). 
which fellows in this treatise, for further 
particulars of that - .int. 

k Mountaines of Bennabeola. — 6eunna 
6eola. These remarkable mountains are 
now known in English by the name of the 
•■ Twelve Pins.'' the latter word being a 
corruption of bins or bens (btannu). which 
is -till correctly preserved in Scotland, as 
Ben Lomond, Benevis, Ac. and in other 
parts of Ireland, as Benburb, Binbolbin, 
&c. They are named from the supposed 
" giant" Beola, mentioned in the la-t n 
and certainly tend to give an exalted idea 
of that personage, whoever he may have 
been. The name Bindowglast ated 

as that of the highest of the range, is now 
forgotten, and the name of Binlettery used 

the first land they discover as they come from the maine. Bindow- 
glass is the highest of them, and, next the lake, is two miles high ; 
and hath standing water on the top of it, wherein they say if any 
washeth his head, he becomes hoare. At the foot of it, by the lake, 
was kept the fair of Bonowan 1 mannor. At Balynahinsy, Owan- 
tuidhe and Sraith-Salagh rivers, after they meet in one channell, pay 


in its place. The mountain next the lake 
is not, however, the highest of the Pins, for 
according to the Ordnance Survey, BenCorr 
and Ben Bawn exceed it in height by seve- 
ral hundred feet. The standing water men- 
tiond by our author, which maketh the 
head hoar, is here called a bullaun, ballan, 
a bowl, and is deposited in a rock, on the 
top of Binlettery, which identifies it with 
the Bindowglass of O'Flaherty. Among 
the wonderful wells in Ireland mentioned 
by Cambrensis, there was one in Munster 
which produced the same effect : " Est 
fons in Momonia cujus aquis si quis ab- 
luitur statim canus efficitur." The well 
at Gabhal Liuin, in Oriel, now Galloon, in 
Fermanagh, is stated in the " Wonders of 
Ireland," in the Book of Bally mote, fol. 
1 40, b, a, to have had the same property ; 
but Keating, in the preface to his History, 
denies the existence of any such fountains 
in his time, and rather unfairly says, that 
Cambrensis introduced them to give a 
colour to his other falsehoods, " TTlap 
6aru;j;a6 aip a bpeajuib." Gratianus 
Lucius, p. 8, argues the case more learn- 
edly, and in the end agrees with Keating. 
But it is evident from the instances here 

given, that such tales were current, and 
that Cambrensis did not invent them. 

1 Fair of Bonowan mannor. — On the 15th 
February, A. D. 1610, license " to hold a 
Wednesday market, and a fair on Whit- 
sun Monday and the day after, at Bonoieen" 
was granted to " Morrogh ne Moyer 
O'Flaherty of Bonowen, gent. ;" to hold 
the same, among other possessions then 
granted, for ever. — Rot. Pat. For a fur- 
ther grant of the manor, with an additional 
fair and market here, to the same indivi- 
dual, see note" 1 immediately following. 

The rivers above named are now called 
Abhainn Tuaidhe, Anglice, Owentuee, and 
Srath Salach. The name Innish leih dhuine. 
Imp liac ouine, which means, the Island 
of the grey Man, mentioned above, is at 
present forgotten. The island alluded to 
is now called Imp Geaccnnn, or Shelving 
Island. It lies in Round-stone Bay, at 
the south end of the parish of Moyrus. 

Irrosbeg Now corruptly called Urrisbeg, 

is the name of two townlands in the 
south-west part of the same parish. Port 

na Fedoigge Pope net Peuooije, the 

Harbour of the grey Plover. 


their tribute to this lake ; and in recompence receive the benefit of its 
salmons to spawn on them. Upon the common channell of these 
two rivers, pearles are found in their musles. 

Westward of Inisnee and Round-stone haven, is Inisleth-dhuine, 
a small island which leads to Irrosbeg haven, called Portnafedoigge ; 
over which is Irrosbeg hill, the second place discovered by marriners 
coming from sea, on the top of which is a poole where trouts breed. 

Three miles from Irrosbeg is the castle and mannor of Bonnowan m 
in Irrosmore. Westward of the castle is Knock a duin hill, the 
third land-mark discryed by such as saile from the main. On the 


m Castle and mannor of Bonnowan. — 
The castle of Bunowen, i. e. the Castle of 
the River's Mouth, was an extensive for- 
tress which belonged to a powerful branch 
of the western O'Flaherties. In the six- 
teenth century, it was the residence of 
Donell an Chogaidh O'Flaherty, whose 
warlike character is sufficiently indicated 
by his agnomen. In the composition 
entered into with Queen Elizabeth, A. D. 
1585, it was provided, that this Donell's 
two sons, Owen and Morogh, should, " for 
their better maintenance of living, have, 
by letters patents, the castle of Bonowne, 
and the six quarters of land next ad- 
joining the same, as a free deinayne." 
— See this composition in the Appendix. 
Owen, the elder, was soon after slain, 
and Morogh, the younger, afterwards 
called Morogh na Maor (of the stewards) 
succeeded to the entire territory. On 
the 25th January, A. D. 161 8, King 
James I., by letters patent, granted to him, 

by the name Morogh na Moore O'Flaherty 
of Bunowen, Esq., the castle of Bu no 
with numerous lands in the baronj 
Ballinahinch, and thereby created the 
manor of Bonowen, to contain 1300 acres 
in demesne ; gave a power to creal 
nures; hold courts leet and baron; a Mon- 
day market at Bunuwen, and a fair there 
on St. Lawrence's day and the day fol- 
lowing; "with a court of 1' and 
the usual tolls." — Rot. Pat. 15 Jac. I. 
p. 4. 

Morogh na Moyre (for so he hinu 
wrote his name) died A. D. 1626. He 
succeeded by his eldest bod, Sir Morogh 
na Mart (see p. 83, note '. ante), who died 
A. D. 1666, in a state of poverty, his vast 
possessions having been all confiscated by 
the Crown. On the 15th May. 1678. his 
principal residence, the castle of Bunowen. 
and the adjoining lands, were granted to 
Giles and Edmond Geoghegan. the widow 
and second son of Art Geoehesran of 


east side the hill is a harbour for sniping, and the parish church just 
by, at the hill's foot. There is an old fortress of a down on the top of 
the hill, which gives name to Balyndown, Balyndown haven, Balyn- 
down parish. St. Flannan 11 , of the noble Tuamonian bloud, conse- 
crated by Pope John the Fourth, Anno 640, first bishiop of Killaloe, 
is patron of this parish; and therein his festival day kept, the 18th 
December. On the west side of the hill is a well in memory of the 
seaven daughters. About two miles hence, is Kennlemy or the 
cape of Slimhead, the furthest into the sea and most western point 
in those parts. Here a great whale was cast in, the last day of 
December, 1650 ; and another about forty years before. 

Westward of this point is Olen-lacan , or Duck Island, where there 


Castletown, in the county of Meath, Esq., 
in lieu of their forfeited estates in Lein- 
ster — See Rot. Pat. 29 . Car. II. 3. p. f. r. 4. 
In this castle the Mageoghegan family 
resided, until the early part of the last 
century, about which time the occupiers 
of the old Irish castles began to erect 
more commodious habitations. The then 
proprietor of Bunowen built a handsome 
residence near the foot of the hill of Doon, 
Cnoc a t)uin, mentioned above; and the 
castle, thus abandoned, speedily went to 
ruin ; but its massive walls remained in 
tolerable preservation till a few years 
since, when they were altogether pulled 
down by the present proprietor, John 
Augustus O'Neill, Esq., to obtain mate- 
rials for enlarging the mansion-house of 
Bunowen. This respectable gentleman is 
the present head of the Mageoghegans of 
Ireland. For further particulars of his 

branch of that race, see the Additional 

n St. Flannan Patron of this parish 

of Ballindoon, 6aile an t)uin, the town- 
land of the dun or fort. In addition to 
the notices above given of this saint, see 
Colgan's Acta SS. p. 154 ; Ware's Antiq. 
and Bishops ; and Lanigan's Eccl. History, 
c. xix. § iii. The well of the seven daugh- 
ters is still to be seen on the west side of 
the hill of Doon. It is called in Irish, 
Cobap na peace n-injean, or na peace 
m-ban-naom ; the well of the seven 
daughters, or the seven female saints. 
For Kennlemy, or Slime-head, mentioned 
above, see p. 6, note k , ante. This head- 
land is universally called Ceann Ceime 
(i. e. Leap Head, or the Head of the Leap) 
by the natives of Iar-Connaught. 

Olen-lacan. — Now called Imp Ca- 
can, or Duck Island. It lies in the 


is a chappell and well of St. Cailin, bishiop, disciple of St. Benign, 
and of the antient Conmacny family, who is worshipped in his abbey 
of Fidhnac, in Conmacny-rein [Fenagh, in the County Leitrim] the 
13th of November. There is another miraculous well of St. Cailin, 
in the continent of Slimhead, on a little height within a stone, which 
never overflows the stone nor becomes diye. 

Beyond Duck Island is OlenimiolP, or Bordering Island, as being 


ocean, opposite the townland of Ballyna- 
leame, of which it forms a part. The 
ruins of the chapel of St. Caillin are still 
to be seen here ; and near them is the 
holy well mentioned above. On this wild 
point of Ballynaleame, there lived for 
many years, a valued friend and relative 
of the Editor, the late Robert Coneys, 
Esq., whose stormy habitation may be 
seen marked on Larkin's large and small 
maps of the county of Galway. This 
gentleman held all Ballinaleame, includ- 
ing Duck Island, at twenty shillings yearly 
rent. Before the erection of the light-houses 
at "Slyne" head, in A.D. 1836, he saved 
many lives from shipwreck, and his hu- 
manity was often rewarded by " wind- 
falls," as flotsam and jetsam are familiarly 
termed in Conamara ; but these " wind- 
falls" have considerably decreased since 
the erection of light-houses on the coast. 
To sickness he and his family were stran- 
gers. He used to boast that a doctor was 
never known to visit Slime-head; and he 
considered it a bad omen, when one of 
the faculty settled so near as Newtown- 
Clifden, though several miles distant. 

The " well of St. Caillin," mentioned 
above, is on the townland of Keeraun- 
more. It is one of tho?< dep .-its of rain- 
water called bulletins (see ante note k , p. 107), 
of which there are several in these i-lands; 
and, as in the present instance, it is con- 
fidently believed they can never run dry. 
although the contrary has been frequently 

p Olenimioll — In Irish, Oileun lnull. 
the Border Island. IT re are situate the 
two light-houses of " Slyne*' head. Mr. 
Nimmo, in his Piloting Din rions. ob- 
Berves that, "a light-house might be 
placed on the Skird rocks, which would 
serve as a guide into the harbours of 
Round-stone, Birturbuy, Casheen, and 
Kilkerran, the only good harbours for 
groat ships between the Shannon and 
Lough Swilly." — ]'. 178. On the adjacent 
island of Dun na blifal, i. e. the Dun of the 
walls or inclosures, ;iro the ruins of a 
Firbolgic Caher, smaller than Dun Aengus 
in Aran, but apparently as old. Th<_-re 
are also the remains of ancient Clophavnt. 
or stone-roofed hi - - similar to those 
there described — See ante, p. 81. note f 

1 1 1 

the outmost border of the west. Here they use to have a slaughter 
of seales in their due season. 

Northward of Slimhead, towards the east, is Manin Bay, over 
which is Knocktuaskert towards Slimhead. In the same bay is 
Irrosflannan Point, and Ardberra haven" ; wherein is an oyster bank ; 


Manin Bay In Irish, Cuan lTlanamne, 

is still so called. It is said to have been 
named after Manannan Mac Lir ; for 
whom see p. 20, note u . Irrosflannan, 
mentioned above, is now incorrectly called 
Urrislannaun. — See Irrosbeg, note ', p. 
107, ante. 

q Ardberra haven In Irish, Cuan CIipo- 

beapa. Here resided, during the last cen- 
tury, the elder branch of the respectable 
family of Coneys, now so numerous in this 
district. Tradition relates, that the first 
of the name that settled here, was Thomas 
Coneys, who came to Ireland with his two 
uncles, who were officers in Cromwell's 
army ; and that he was stationed at Innis- 
bofin. This may be, but I find the name 
C Coney among the Irish families enu- 
merated in the collections of Doctor Ray- 
mond, formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin ; and which are now preserved in 
the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. 
The first who settled in Iar-Connaught 
was Thomas Coney; who, on 2 1st August, 
1677, obtained a "transplanter's certifi- 
cate for a grant to him and his heirs for 
ever, of the lands of Towerskehin, Lough- 
ana, and Crosslehaine, in Ballinahinch 
barony : saving to Hugh King, ' an inno- 

cent,' all his rights thereto." — Roll iii. 
rnemb. 101, Chief Remembrancer's Office, 
Dublin. This Thomas (who appears to 
have afterwards added an s to his name) 
was sheriff of Galway, A. D. 1 694 — See 
Hist, of that town, p. 221. From him 
descended Matthew Coneys of Ardbear, a 
near relative of the Editor ; and an indi- 
vidual who, through a long life, bore the 
character of an upright magistrate and an 
honest man. He died at a venerable age, 
in A. D. 1 806. His eldest son resided at 
Slimehead. See ante, p. no, note °. 

Belathnabay. — 6eal ara na baibe, 
now called Ballinaboy. A monthly market 
held here from time immemorial, has been 
lately removed to the town of Clifden. 
The ruins of St. Flannan's church, Cill 
piannamn, may be seen in the townland 
of Kill (which townland should properly 
be called Kilflannan), on the north of 
Ballindoon parish ; and near it a holy 
well dedicated to the saint. See ante, p. 
1 09, note n ; and Martin's account of the 
Flannan Islands in the West of Scotland, 
which are said to be called after St. Flan- 
nan. — Description, p. 17. This church 
" admits no buriall," i. e. bodies are not 
interred within it; and it is firmly be- 

I 12 

and the salmon fish comes on Belathnabay River. In Irrosflannan 
is Saint Flanan's church, which they say was the parish church 

This church admits no burial within the walls of it. Owanglinn 
river falling from the mountaines of Bennabeola into Ardberra haven, 
divides the north half barony from the south. 

Between Inistuirk and Imay islands', an arm of the sea runs up 


lieved, that should any person be so inter- 
red, the body would be found over ground 
the next day. See Martin's Description, 
p. 49, for a similar belief in the isle of 
Taransay ; and for the mode by which 
the natives there were " delivered from 
this unreasonable fancy." The Owanglin 
river mentioned above, is that which flows 
under the bridge of Clifden. 

r Inistuirk and Imay islands — There are 
other small islands here, the chief of which 
is called Tarbert ; but the most remark- 
able of the group is Imay, called in Irish, 
lomaio, or lomaio Peicin, now anglicised 
Omey. Here the celebrated St. Fechin, 
patron of Fore in Westmeath, founded a 
monastery in the seventh century, as re- 
lated in the supplement to his Life, ch. xx ii. 
in Colgan's Acta SS. 135. It is said that 
the last pagans in Ireland were found by St. 
Fechin in this island of Omey. For those 
whom Cambrensis afterwards described as 
"homines nudi, qui non sciverunt nisi 
carnes et pisces; qui non fuerunt Chris- 
tiani, nee audiverunt unquam de Christo," 
see Gratianus Lucius on this, p. 38. For 
more of this island, and of the tract of Bal- 

lymac-Conry. and the castle of " Down." 
mentioned above, see the Additional Notes. 
On a part of that tract, called Clougkm, 
Clocdn, stands the new town of that name, 
fashionably anglicized Clifden. In A. D. 
1809, there was only one hou->- her.-, built 
by Walter Coneys, Esq.; but in A. I> 
1 841, there were, according to ti 
that year taken. 182 houses and 1509 in- 
habitants. The ruins of the chunk of 
Athdearg, in Irish, Ceampull dKaoeipg, 
or the Church of the red Ford, lie west of a 
mountain stream of a reddish colour, 
which flows into that inlet of the ocean 
now called Streamstown Bay. nortl - 
of " Ballymac-Conrv." 

In this district there lately lived ■ 
elected poetical genius, whose nam. 
Michael Mar Sweeny, who. though held in 
high repute by his countrymen, was suffer- 
ed to die in poverty: but this, it is said, 
often occurs in half-civilized communi- 
ties, where pride and ignorance ar 
nerallv prevalent. By the Knrrlish-speak- 
ing portion of the people. Mac Sweeny 
was called the " Bard of the West" Be 
composed, in his native language, several 

1 1 

by Balymac-conroy, to the castle of Down, where there is a harbour 
for shipping. The church of Athclearg near that castle, they say, 
was in antient time the parish church of this parish ; but now the 
parish church is at Imay. The island of Imay lyes in the sea, so as 
on low water it can be entered dry foot. Within it there is a poole 
of standing water, and the soil is plain and champain. St. Fechin 
erected an abbey therein, but now the parish church is only extant ; 
whereof St. Fechin is patron, the 20th of January worshiped, whose 
well is here visited, which of late proves very miraculous for restoring 
of health. St. Fechin, abbot, native of Lugny [Leyny] in the county 
of Sligoe, and of the same house of Fothart with St. Bridget of Kil- 
dare, was founder of severall abbeys ; the chiefest of which are Fovar 
in Meath, Easdara in Sligoe county, and Cong. From Esdara he 
came to Imay ; and his memory is kept in several places of this 
countrey. He dyed of the plague 8 , which, Anno 664, began in Ire- 
land, the 20th of January after. 

poems and songs of considerable merit; 
which have become such favourites, that 
there are but few of the Irish-speaking 
natives, who cannot repeat some of them 
from memory. Many of these have been 
collected by the Editor; and if space shall 
permit, one or more of the most popular 
will be inserted in the Additional Notes, 
as a specimen of modern Irish versifica- 
tion, and of those compositions which af- 
ford so much social pleasure to the good 
people of Iar-Connaught. 

s The plague. — This memorable pesti- 
lence was called buibe Chonnaill, yellow 
plague of Connell. Connall is supposed to 
have been the name of some distinguished 
man who died of it, for which see the Four 


Masters, A. D. 664. For the particulars 
above related of St. Fechin, see Colgan's 
Acta SS. p. 130 ; also Ussher's Primord., 
p. 966, where by a singular error (first 
corrected by Mr. O'Donovan) he con- 
founds Pabap, the name of the ancient 
town of Fore, inWestmeath, with teabctp, 
the Irish name for a book ! " Eum vulgo 
Peicin pabcnp Fechinum Foverce vel Fou- 
rice appellant : ab habitationis loco, quem 
Latine Favoriam, Hibernice balle-leab- 
uip, quasi Kiriath-Sepher (Josu. 15. 15. 
Judic. 1. 11) aut Urbem librorum dixeris 
appellatum invenio." Doctor O' Conor, 
Annal. Ulton. p. 56, n. (3), and Tig. 205, 
n. (68) ; Doctor Lanigan, Eccl. Hist. ch. 
xviii. n. (148); and Archdall, Monast. 



In the Western Ocean beyond Imay three smaller islands ap- 
pear, viz., Cruagh-ar-ni-may, called by Sir James "Ware " Insula cu- 
niculorum," for its store of rabbets ( Ware, Ant. Hih. cap. 28, p. 287). 
It is a bane to dogs', which dye on the spot or soon after coming 
out. The next is Olen-ambrahar, or the Fryar's Island. The 
furthest of is Ardolen", the High Island {Colgan, 20 Jan. p. 135, 


p. 7 1 1 , following Ussher, have perpetuated 
the mistake. 

' A bane to dogs This is not the case 

at present. The island is now called Crua 
(Cruack) Island, and is still remarkable 
" for its store of rabbets." North of it is 
" Fryar's Island." Both are uninhabited, 
but afford good pasturage. 

u Ardolen Qpo Oilean, i.e. High 

Island. This is the most remarkable 
island of the group mentioned above. It 
lies a short distance west of Friar's Isle, 
and like it is uninhabited, and difficult 
of access. Here the celebrated St. Fechin 
(for whom see ante, p. 113) founded a 
monastery, formerly in great repute. A 
considerable portion of its ruins still re- 
mains, and several ancient stone crosses 
are erected around them. There are also 
here some of those old stone houses or 
cells called Cloghans, for which see ante, 
p. 82, note f . The Four Masters record, 
that in A. D. 1017, Gormgal, Primh Anm- 
chara, or, as he is called by Colgan, Archisi- 
nedrus, or principal father confessor of all 
Ireland, died in Ard-oilen. The second 
life of St. Fechin, Colgan, p. 135, ch. xxii. 
states, that after the saint finished the 

monastery of Imaidh (Omey), he founded 
another in Ard-oilen. On this Colgan, 
p. 141, has a note (13), thus translated : 
" This island is also in the ocean, and is 
distant a few leagues towards the ^ 
from Immagia (Orney) and after St, Fe- 
chin, St. Gormgal, a man of celebrated 
sanctity, who died in the year ioi - . 
the 5th day of August (on which day, 
according to Marianus, his birth-d^ 
observed), ennobk-d it very much by hi* 
anachoretic habits, and most exact life. 
The elegant and very pious poem of 
blessed Corranus, who flourished at tht- 
same time, concerning his praises and 
relics, is extant in my possession." In 
the Appendix to the Life of St. Endeus, 
ch. vii. p. 715, Colgan. speaking of the 
third island of Aran, which he mis- 
takes for Ardolen, see ante, p. 91, note c , 
gives, from Corranus. the names of the 
following holy men, who. with St. Gorm- 
gal, were interred in Ardolen. viz. : " Moel- 
suthunius, Celecharius, Dubthacus. Du- 
nadach, Cellachus, Tressachus. Ultanu>. 
Maelmartinus, Corornacchus. Conma- 
chus." Archdall, in Monast. p. 272. has 
copied Colgan respecting Ardoilen; and. 

1 1 

cap. 22), antiently called Innis-hiarthuir, i. e. the West Island. It is 
unaccessible but on calm settled weather, and so steep that it is hard 
after landing in it to climb to the top; where there is a well called 
Brian Boramy (King of Ireland) his well, and a standing water, on 
the brook whereof was a mill. There is extant a chappel and a 
large round wall, as also that kind of stone building called Cloghan. 
Therein yearly an ayrie of hawkes v is found. Here St. Fechin 
founded an abbey, as he did at Imay. It is alsoe celebrated for the 
heremiticall retirement of Saint Gormgal, a very spirituall person, and 
of renowned sanctity, who dyed the 5th of August, Anno 1017; and 
was there interred, together with diverse other holy hermits that 
lived with him. Ten of them are named by father Colganus, out of 
an antient poem in his praise, extant ( Colg. 2 1 Mar. cap. 7, et Vit. S. 
Endei, p. 715, adjinem.) 

Northward of Ardolen are Inis-ark and Bonn Isles w , of this 


therefore, all he says of it, except what 
relates to St. Gormgal, is erroneous. Doctor 
Lanigan himself, the great corrector of 
Archdall and Ledwich, has erred on this 
very point, by following and even defend- 
ing Colgan. — Eccl. Hist. chap. xvii. n. 137, 
et seq. 

v Hawkes Ireland was anciently cele- 
brated for producing these noble birds. See 
Harris's Ware, Antiquit. chap. xxii. Carve, 
in his Lyra, Sultzbaci, 1666, 4to. (before 
referred to, p. 67, note k ), thus writes of 
Eobert Barry, one of the early Anglo- 
Norman adventurers, and ancestor of the 
earls of Barrymore: " Fuit hie primus, 
qui accipitres in Hibernia cicuravit, atque 
venandi, seu accipitrandi usui assuefecit, 
unde primordialis accipitrarius in Hiber- 

nia extitit." — p. 47. But this statement 
cannot be depended on. It comes un- 
supported by any authority ; and we 
know that Carve's Lyra abounds with 

w Inis-ark and Bofin isles On the 

island of Inis-ark are the ruins of an an- 
cient church called Teampull Leo, and 
near it a stone cross, Leac Leo. On the 
south shore there is a cave called Uaimh 
Leo, where the saint is said to have passed 
much of his time in prayer and medita- 
tion ; and in it is a well dedicated to him. 
There is also shewn a ruin called Cloghan 
Leo, in which he is said to have dwelt. 
The bell mentioned above, as having been 
preserved there in the time of owv author, 
has long since disappeared. Bofin In 



countrey of Conmacny-mara in old times as the same father Colgan 
notes (S. Endei Vit,, p. 715 adjlnem), tho' this countrey [is] not part 
of Irrosdownan, as he guesseth (Idem. 1° Mar. p. 437, num. 3). but 
for three hundred years now belonging to the Owles ; which there- 
fore I omit, only that Inisark is of the same property with Bofin. 


Irish, Imp bo Pmne, the Island of the 
White Cow. It has been sometimes writ- 
ten Bophin ; in which form, it gave the 
title of baron (created by James II.) 
to John, the ninth earl of Clanricarde. 
This island is celebrated in ancient and 
modern Irish history. Venerable Bede 
relates, that in A. D. 667, St. Colman 
founded a monastery here: " Deinde se- 
cessit ad insulam quandam parvam, 
ad occidentalem plagam ab Ilibernia pro- 
cul secreta, sermone Scotico Inisbqfinde, id 
est, ' Insula Vitulse Albas' nuncupatur. 
In hanc ergo perveniens construxit mo- 
nasterium, et monachos inibi, quos de 
utraque natione collectos adduxerat, col- 
locavit." — Hist. Eccl. lib. iv. c. 4. On 
this Ussher pertinently observes : " Earn 
in hodierna Scotia frustra quaerit Deinp- 
sterus : quum, e regione Maioneusis litoris 
in Connacia. positam nomen adhuc inte- 
grum retinere, compertum habeamus." — 
Primord. p. 825. See also the Annals of 
the Four Masters, ad ami. 667, 674, 711, 
809, 898; and our author's Ogyg. p. 232. 
From the seventh century to the seven- 
teenth, this island was little known be- 
yond the neighbouring shores of Iar- 
Connaught and Umhall ui Mhaille ; but 

during the latter eventful century, it 
was considered of importance by the I - 
contending parties in Ireland, and 
alternately fortified by them. On this 
island, which is now generally called In- 
nisbofin, the following remains of anti- 
quity may still be seen. In Knock tow n- 
land, the ruins of S church, 

built as already mentioned, in A. D. I J 
Near it, a holy well called 71 otn. 

In the townland of Middle-quarter, i^ the 
site of a dwelling called . 1 it tight < 
This Guairiiii is said to have be. 
porary with St. Colman. Dt .the 

site of a castle said to have been built ly 
the celebrated heroine Grana Weale. 
earthen dun called Durtr-mor, in the town- 
land of West-quarter. The remain* 
the fortress repaired in the time of Crom- 
well. Loc/i bo finite, or tii I tL. 
White Cow, lies between ' -illd> 

of West-quarter and Faunmore. The 

natives tell that the enchanted white 
from which the island takes its na: 
frequently seen emerging from this lake. 

North of Innisbofin lie the island of 
Inisturk (Imp Cuipc) and Cahir island, 
which have been omitted by our author, 
as "belonging to the Owfl s." In the far- 

ii 7 

and the saint therein worshipped, St. Leo ; of whose reliques is a 
bell there extant, And that St. Colman, third Irish bishiop of Lan- 
disfarn in England, (and native of Connaught, as father Colgan 
gathers) (TV. Thaum. pi 382, num. 16), arrived at Bonn, Anno D. 
668 (Usser. De Primord.), and there founded an abbey (Usser. loco 

citato ; 

mer are the ruins of an old church dedi- 
cated to St. Columbkille, and the site of 
an ancient dun, or earthen fort. The 
family of O'Toole is said to be in posses- 
sion of this island for many centuries. 
They are a branch of the O'Malleys, and 
different from their namesakes of Omey 
island in Conamara, who are of Leinster 
origin, and for whom see the Additional 
Notes. Cahir island lies east of Innisturk, 
and is called in Irish, Oilean na Cathrach 
(i. e. the Island of the Cahir, or Stone 
fort), or Cathair na Naomh (Cathair 
of the Saints), and sometimes, Cathair 
Phadruig. Here is a small ancient church, 
in the primitive Irish style, called by 
some, Team pull na neeve (na naorii), and 
by others Templepatrick. Near its east 
gable on the outside, is a flag inscribed 
with a cross, and called Leaba Phadruig, 
or the bed of Patrick. On the altar with- 
in the church is laid a remarkable slab 
called ^eac na naom, about two feet in 
diameter, and composed of different kinds 
of stones, which is said to be possessed of 
great virtues. Boats passing this island 
lower the main-sail thrice, out of reve- 
rence to the saints whose memories are 
here celebrated ; as is done at Mac Dara's 

island, for which see ante, p. 97, note a . 

The " Owles," mentioned above, was a 
term used by English writers to Anglicize 
Umhall, the ancient territory of the O'Mal- 
leys, in the west of Ireland, which was 
generally called Umhall Ui Mhaille. This 
territory comprised the two districts now 
forming the baronies of Murrisk and 
Burrishoole, in the County of Mayo, which 
were named the two Umhalls ; the former 
called Umhall uachtrach, or the upper ; and 
the latter, Umhall iochtrach, or the lower ; 
and hence the plural " Owles," from an 
approximation of sound, was used to de- 
signate both. Our neighbours were not 
more successful in Latinizing this Irish 
name by the word " pomum." Thus, 
" O'Mayll, de Porno, chief Captaine of his 
nation." — State Papers, vol. ii. part iii. 
p. 4, A. D. 15 15, would be read by a fo- 
reigner, " O'Mayll of the Apple." This 
also arose from a similarity of sound in 
the pronunciation of Umhall the territory, 
and ubhall, an apple. Much original and 
curious information might here be intro- 
duced respecting this old district and its 
former proprietors; but as it would be 
irrelevant in the present treatise, it must 
be reserved for some future opportunity. 


citato; and Eccles. Britt. p. 964; V. Bed. Histor. Ecd. lib. 4, cap. 4), 
dyed the 8th of August, 676. 

Within Ardolen, Inisark, and Bonn isles, is Blackrock haven*, 
whereby the continent of Cloggin there is pilchard fishing, and an 
ayrie of hawkes. There was a weekly market at Cloggin belonging 
to the manor of Bonowan. In the same bay lyes Dowras [haven', 
and the salmon fishing of Dowras], on which pearle breeding muscles 
were found. By this haven of Dowras stands the parish church of 
BallynaknT, whose patron, St. Kennanack, is worshipped the [1 2th] of 


* Blackrock haven, — Cloggin. — The name 
Blackrock is not known at present. The 
inlet of the ocean here is now called 
" Cleggan bay." Nimmo in his Piloting 
Directions, says : " The access to Cleggan 
bay is easy, the ground clean and good, 
and the shelter tolerable, having sufficient 
depth/or any ship:' 1 — p. 1 80. The " Ayrie 
of Hawkes" formerly here (see ante, p, 66, 
note k ), was long preserved with great 
care, but its place is now unknown. Near 
the head of this bay is situate Cleggan- 
house, built by Robert Martin in A. D. 
1740, as appears by an inscription over 
the entrance. This Eobert Martin was 
charged with having murdered, in Galway, 
Lieutenant Henry Jolly, an officer in 
General Dormer's regiment of foot; for 
which he was tried at Dublin, in A. D. 
1735, and acquitted. An extract from 
the only copy of this curious trial, sup- 
posed to be extant, will be found in the 
Additional Notes. 

* Dowras haven. — In Irish, Oarhpop, or 
Cuan Oathpuip. Now the harbour of 

Ballinakill. which Mr. Nimmo describes 
" as well sheltered, the bottom good, and 
the water deep." — Piloting Jj< net ions, p. 
181. The words within brackets arc in 
O'Flaherty's autograph copy, now in the 
possession of Sir Thomas PhilippS, Bart. 

1 Parish church of BaUynakUL — I 
ruins of this ancient church lie at thi 
of the hill of Cartron, about two miles 
north of the village of Cleggan. It is de- 
dicated to St. Ceannanach. whose well, 
enclosed by a circular wall, is situate about 
a furlong east of the church. The 
gable of the church is vi great antiquity ; 
but there is a modern chapel at the 
end, built, according to tradition, by Ed- 
niond Laidir, or the strong. OTlaherty. 
who is interred in it. A. D. 1 709. appears 
inscribed on this chapel. The parish of 
Ballinakill (6aile na cille, the bally or 
townland of the church), forms the north 
part of the barony of Ballinahinch. It is 
bounded, north, by that arm oi the sea an- 
ciently called Cnol pmle puao, now the 
Killary; east, by the barony of Ro- 

n 9 

March, likely the same with St. Kennanack in the midle island of 
Aran. There are sixteen oyster banks on this haven, near Ballynakill. 

North-east of Dawras haven is the bay and narrow streight of 
Coelshaly Roe, stretching into the lands between this barony, the 
Owles, and Joyce Countrey; in which bay is Rynnmoyle a castle and 


Joyce country ; south, by the parishes of 
Moyrus and Omey ; and west, by the At- 
lantic Ocean. 

St. Kennanach (Ceannannach, Ceann- 
pionnac) the patron saint of Ballynakill, 
is known in the parish by the name of 
" Gregory," which is said to have been 
his original name. See p. 80, note c , for 
an account of his church in the middle 
island of Aran ; which is considered one 
of the most ancient and perfect of all the 
ecclesiastical remains in those islands. 
From him it is supposed that Gregory's 
Sound, the passage between that island 
and Aranmore, has been called. The tra- 
dition still preserved in the parish of 
Ballynakill is, that St. Ceannanach was 
one of the earliest preachers of Christi - 
anity in those western parts ; and that he 
was taken, by order of a pagan tyrant who 
ruled here, and beheaded near the eastern 
extremity of the present village of Cleg- 
gan. A heap of stones is still pointed 
out, as a monument said to have been 
erected on the spot where he suffered. 

a Rynnmoyle In Irish, Rmn TTlhil. 

This point or headland lies opposite In- 
nisbofin, and it was so called according 
to Mac Firbis, in his account of the Fir- 
bolgs, from Mil, one of the leaders of 

those ancient colonists, who settled here 
about the first century of Christianity. 
Other places on the western coast were 
also named after this Mil, as Muirbheach 
Mhil, now Kill-Murvy, in the great island 
of Aran ; and Rinn Mhil, now Einvile, 
both at the eastern extremity of the bay 
of Gal way. The castle of " Rinmoyle" 
(Einvile) was erected, according to some, 
by the O'Flaherties, but others attribute 
it to the Joyces. In A. D. 1586, it was 
inhabited by Miles Mac Tibbot, see ante, 
p. 93, note w , and in A. D. 1642, by Colo- 
nel Edmond O'Flaherty, of whom an in- 
teresting account will be found in Ap- 
pendix II. It is now the property of 
Henry Blake, Esq. 

Blacksod haven In Irish, Cuan an 

Phoib Duib, is now called the " little 
Killary, or Salrock Harbour. Sal ■Roc- 
means the tract of St. Eoc, who is stated 
by tradition to have been a most holy 
man, and a worker of many miracles ; but 
no written account of him has yet been 
found. His church, which is said to have 
been a sanctuary in former times, is now 
a ruin on the south side of the bay. 

The seaven daughters above alluded to, 
are stated to have been the daughters of 
a British king (see ante, p. 14), Seacc 


Blacksod haven. In Ryimmoile is a church, and the memory of the 
seaven daughters celebrated. Culfinn river falls into this bay. and 
Leaght Fathacan river between this and Joyce Countrey, as also 
Bonowan-an-eoin river. From Joyce Countrey next, is a ridge of 
high mountains, between this Barony of Balynahinsy and Joyce 
Countrey, or the half barony of Ross; and the passes that open 
through are called Mam b , as Mam-eich, Mam-tuirk, and Mam-en. 


n-injien pi j; 6peaccm. The remains of 
their church may still be seen to the east 
of the old castle of Rinvile. The door is 
in the north side, close to the west gable. 
Near it is a holy well held in great vene- 
ration, called Cobap na peace n-in£ean, 
where the people perform their devotions. 
Here they formerly had a stone called 
^eac na peace n-in£ean, which was used 
as a " cursing stone ;" but it was taken 
away and buried by the parish priest, at 
which the people were much dissatisfied. 
Near this are some upright stones called 
the Liagauns, which are supposed to be 
the remains of a pagan grave. 

In Oilean oa cpumne (the largest of 
those now called the Crump islands, which 
lie about a mile north of the old castle of 
Einvile), maybe seen the remains of a small 
primitive church, rudely built of some 
laro-e, and many small stones, but with 
good mortar. It is not known when or 
by whom this ancient church was erected, 
nor is there any account of the saint to 
whom it was dedicated. No burial is 
permitted within its walls. It is related, 
that the remains of one person only were 

deposited in it, since the time of the saint, 
but that, next morning, the body 
found at Smearoid, on the opposite shore, 
a place where children are now interred. 
See ante p. in. note q . 

The rivers mentioned above, are in Irish. 
Gbamn cuite pine, feacr Ui Purucuin. 
and 6un abann an Cucun. or the Mouth 
of the River of the Harbour. 

b Minn. — TVkiom. a gap or chasm. In 
Iar-Connaught, Mam (which is pronounced 
Maum) is understood to mean an elevated 
pass; and such gaps or passes are often 
distinguished by the names of aninia-- 
in the above instances. See on this sub- 
ject, a curious " Tour in Connaught.' 
a late ingenious and fa< irist. the 

Eev. Csesar Otway, Dublin. 1839, p. 232. 

Besides the holy wells aboi 
there are several other places of d 
tional observance in this district, viz.. in 
Murder Owen, a holy well dedicated to 
the seven daughters, called Cobap na 
peace n-mjean. At To-imkilk. in the 
barony of Eoss, an ancient settlement of 
the Joyces, are t wo wells ; one named after 
St. Patrick, and the other after St. Fechin. 


There is a well in memorie of St. Fechin at Mam-tuirk. At Mam-en, 
there springs out of a stone a litle water, named from St. Patrick, 
which is a present remedy against murrein in cattel, not only ap- 
plyed, but alsoe as soon as tis sent for they begin to have ease. 
Next Mam-en are the mountains of Corcoga, in the confines of 
Balynahynsy, Ross, and Moycullin countreys, where the fat deere c 


At Cannanagk and Gowlannatt, two other 
wells dedicated to St. Fechin. In the 
townland of Kilbride, in the same barony, 
another ancient patrimony of the Joyces, 
there is a well dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin, called Cobap TTluipe. In the 
townland of Dooghty (tDubacca), in that 
part of the parish of Cong which runs 
into Iar-Connaught, there are two holy 
wells ; one named after the Blessed Virgin, 
and the other after St. Fechin. Near the 
latter is a flag or stone called leac Peicin, 
by which men are put to the ordeal. 

c The fat deere — These were the large 
" red deer" ( Cervus elaphus), once so nume- 
rous in Ireland, and the hunting of which, 
for food or amusement, formed the princi- 
pal occupation of the early Irish. These 
fine animals, which have been described as 
" very large, fleet, and fierce," herded for 
ages among the " high mountains" of Iar- 
Connaught, and were plenty there when 
the foregoing treatise was written ; but 
they have since become extinct. See 
Colgan's Acta SS. p. 160, c. 7 ; p. 280, 
c. 13 ; p. 306, c. 8 ; and Gratianus Lucius, 
p. 138, for notices of this large species 
of deer. Doctor Thomas Molyneux, the 

friend and contemporary of our author, in 
" A Discourse concerning the large Horns 
frequently found under Ground in Ire- 
land," has observed that " the red deer 
in those our days, is much more rare with 
us in Ireland, than it has been formerly, 
even in the memory of man :" and he 
truly conjectured that, " unless there be 
some care taken to preserve it, I believe 
in process of time this kind may be lost 
also." He has moreover quoted " a re- 
markable passage in Scheffer's Description 
of Lapland, from Johannes Bureus, that, 
sometimes a sort of disease, after the man- 
ner of a plague, affects the rein deer, so 
as they all die : ' Solet interdum rangiferos 
morbus quidam velut pestis invadere. Sic 
ut moriantur omnes.' " — Nat. Hist, of Ire- 
land, Dub. 1726, p. 143. Probably to 
some similar distemper may be attributed 
the extinction of the red deer in this part 
of Ireland. So late as A. D. 1752, they 
abounded in the barony of Erris, Mayo 
County. Doctor Pococke in his Travels, 
quoted ante, p. 72, note", states, that the 
mountains of Erris " are full of red deer, 
which are very indifferent food, being ne- 
ver fat. However, the hunting of them 



is frequently hunted ; whereof no high mountain m the barony of 
Balynahinsy, or half barony of Rosse, is destitude. 

/•'/ NTS. 

Aprill the $th, 1684. 

affords good diversion to those who tra- 
verse the mountains on foot, but they 
frequently escape the dogs." — p. SS- -^ 
a later date, A. D. 1760, they were nu- 
merous among the mountains of Kerry, 
and "amazingly large and fat." — Derrick's 
Letters, p. 59. The Editor has recently 
heard from an old native of the barony 1 if 

Boss, in Iar-Connaught, that in his youth 
large red deer were common there ; that 
he frequently saw them grazing among 
the black cattle on the hills; and par- 
ticularly rememl which 
caught by the horns in a thick' 
it was found dead. 





NOTE A. See 2)age i, note b . " Wes^ Connaught" 

rpiIIE ancient divisions of Connaught, through the neglect of its history and 
-*- topography, are not so generally known at the present day, as those of the 
other provinces of Ireland. The late Doctor O'Conor has observed, that " there is no 
history of the province of Connaught, neither is there of any town or district in that 
most populous part of Ireland, except this unpublished chronicle {i.e. Annates Conna- 
cice, Hibernice, fol.) The barren Orkneys, and the wilds of Caithness, Sunderland, 
and Morey, can boast of their histories; while the rich plains of Koscommon, Maio, 
Sligo, and Galway, and their towns and capitals, are unrecorded and undescribed." — 
Cat. Bib. MSS. Stowensis, vol. i. p. 73. This cannot be attributed to want of mate- 
rials, for there is abundance on record, if properly explored. From these it appears, 
that the ancient colony of the Belga;, or Firbolgs, first divided Ireland into five pro- 
vinces; and to that division Cambrensis, who wrote about A. D. 1 180, alludes in the 
following words : " In quinque enim portiones fere sequales antiquitus ha?c insula 
divisa fuit." — Topogr. dist. i. c. 6. The western portion originally extended from the 
mouth of the Shannon, along its right bank, to the mouth of the Drobhais (Drowes), a 
river on the confines of Ulster, which flowing out of Lough Melvin, in a north- 
westerly direction, falls into the bay of Donegal. Connaught comprehended, beyond 
its modern limits, the territories of Thomond, or the present County of Clare ; and 
North Breifne, the present County of Cavan. By the latter it acquired " a fearful pre- 
ponderance over the other provinces of Ireland." — Cat. MSS. Stow. p. 26. So late as the 
sixteenth century, Sir Henry Sydney, when about dividing the province into counties, 

adopted the ancient boundaries, but excluded North Breifne See his Dispatch to the 

Lords of the Council, 27th April, 1576, in "Letters and Memorials of State," pub- 
lished by Arthur Collins, London, 1747. — Fol. vol. i. p. 102. Also the Annals of 
the Four Masters, at A. D. 1569. 



This great western division of Ireland was first known by the name of Olnrgmacht. 
"strangely corrupted," says the venerable Charles O'Conor, "into Nagnatce by 
Ptolomey." — Dissert, sect. xiii. ; and it is supposed to have been so called from Olneg- 
mackt, daughter of one of the Firbolg chiefs — Book of Lecan. fol. 221. Our accurate 
annalist, Tigernach, at A. D. 33, calls it Coiceo n-Olnecmocc, the fifth, or province, 
of Olnegmacht. That name it retained until the third century, after which it v 
called Connact, as is supposed from the Scotish or Milesian tribes, who settled in it 
about that period ; and who were known by the name of Cuinn lccra, the raceofConn, 
i. e. the posterity of Eochaidh Muighmhedhoin (Eocky Moyvane) king, first of Con- 
naught, and afterwards of Ireland, who was descended from that hero. — Book of 
Lecan, loc. cit. The readers of our annals wall find this province frequently mentioned 
by other names, viz. : Coige Srenge, Coige Meadhbha (Meave), Coige OilioBa, &c. ; bat 
these were temporary appellations, generally given by the bards, after distinguished 
personages who flourished there at different periods. 

Connaught, from an early period, has been frequently subdivided. See our aul: 
Ogygia for the ancient ternary division called ceopa Connacc, or the three Con- 
naughts, made by the Belgae, or pectn Chonnacccn^, the old Connacians: " Tres pre- 
cipuaj fuerunt familiae, viz., Gamanradii, Fir-Craibii, et Tuatha-taidhen, a quibu- 
Connactia in ternas Connactias distincta, et hi Fir Olnegmact etiam sunt appellatL" — 
Ogyg. p. 175, see also c. xliii. p. 269. These old Conacians were succeeded by the 
three Scotic or Milesian tribes of Connaught, viz., the Hy-Fiachrach, Sil Murry (Siol 
Muireadhaigh) and the Hy-Briuin of Breifny, i.e. of Oixthir, ot Eastern Connaaght; 
and all were descended from Fiachra and Brian, the sons of Eochy Moyvane, King of 
Connaught, before mentioned. By these the old ternary divisions of the Belgse were 
long preserved. For an account of those three Milesian tribes, and their - and 

possessions, see O'Connor's Dissertations, p. 283, et deinceps. Among the most dis- 
tinguished of the race of Brian were the Muintir MurchadAa, or 0' Flaherties (descended 
from the youngest and greatest of his sons, Duach Galach, King of Connaught). whose 
principal inheritance, from the fifth to the thirteenth century, was the level and fertile 
plain of Magk Seola, sometimes called Muintir Murchadha. and now the barony of 
Clare, in the County of Galway. See the Annals of the Four Masters, A. D. 959 and 
1034. After this time, the O'Flaherties possessed themselves of/ar or West Con- 
naught, where many of the name still remain. Besides the foregoing great divisions of 
this province, there were others, viz., loceap, or hirer Connaught, winch comprised 
part of Mayo, and the present Count)'' of Sligo; and uacrnp, or upper Connaught, the 
present County of Galway. These distinctions of iochtar and uaehtar were afterwards 
adopted by the Anglo-Norman De Burgos. There were also Titoisceart and Deisceart. 
or northern and southern Connaught ; and these were again subdivided into" several 



districts, possessed by the leading tribes. Most of the latter divisions were abolished, 
and some created baronies, in the sixteenth century, when the province was divided 
into counties ; for which see Appendix I. Of these districts, perhaps one of the best 
known at the present day, is Iar, or West Connaught, which has been so well described 
by Roderic O'Flaherty, in the foregoing treatise. 

So little has been published respecting the former state and affairs of Connaught, 
that I am induced to insert in the following pages, a few extracts and documents, not 
hitherto printed; but which may tend to illustrate some portions of its early history. 
To many, but particularly those of ancient Irish descent, they may prove novel and 
interesting ; and, moreover, may be found useful by the future topographer or historian 
of the country. They have been introduced in accordance with one of the primary 
objects of the Irish Archaeological Society, viz., to rescue original historical documents 
from oblivion. 

In a preceding paragraph, p. 126, allusion has been made to Brian, the son and suc- 
cessor of Eochy Moyvane, King of Connaught. That personage is recorded to have had 
no less than twenty-four sons, who became the progenitors of the principal Scotic, or 
Milesian families of this province. Mac Firbis, in his account of the Belgse, or 
Firbolgs, a treatise before referred to, and preserved in manuscript in the Library of 
the Eoyal Irish Academy, Dublin, enumerates those sons of Brian, and the tribes 
which sprung from them, as follows : 

" Cecpe mic piceao buoap aj 6pian .1. 
Gcean, o ccaib cmel n-Gcean .1. Ua 
5iapoa, Ua 6U, Ua Caipleopac, Ua 
Ruanuioen, Ua pionnucuin. peapjup 
mac 6piam, a quo cmel Peapjupa na- 
ajup Ua Conpece, ujup Ua Caipioba, 
caoipi jChineoil peapjupa. Gpct)eapj 
o ppuil Cinel Oeipj la Connacca, ajup 
Ouppacc, ajup Cpiorhrunn, ajup Cael- 
Capna, ajup Gppe (no Gpille a quo 
Cuac Gpille) ajup Qonjup, a quo Cmel 
n-Qonjupa o ^jaillim .1. ui Gllmupum 
cona ppineabaib. Ceneab, 6 cca Cop- 
co ceneab, lp ITIiiiceab, a quo < opco 
TDuiceao, aguptDealj, ajup 6iop, ajup 
Cana, 6 ccaio Ui Canannan in Uairnib, 

" Brian had twenty-four sons, viz.: 
Echen, from whom descended the Kinel- 
n-Echen, i. e. Ua Biasta, Ua Bli, Ua Cais- 
leorach, Ua Ruanuidhen, and Ua Fion- 
nucain. Fergus, from whom Kinel Fer- 
gusa of Echtge, i. e. Ua Brain, Ua Bru- 
achain, Ua Conrethe, and Ua Cairriodha, 
chiefs of Kinel Fergusa. Ere Derg, from 
whom Kinel Ere Derg in Connaught. Dur- 
thacht. Criomthann. Caol-Carna, Esse (or 
Esille, from whom Tuath Esille). Aongus, 
from whom Kinel n-Aongusa, of Gal- 
way, i. e. the O'Hallorans, Avith their 
branches. Tenedh, from whom Corco- 
Tenedh, and Muichead, from whom Cor- 
co-Muichead. Dealg. Bior. Cana. from 
whom the O'Cananans in Uaithne. Neach- 



ajup Heaccain 6 eca Op Neaccain tain, from whom Tir Neachtain. with their 

cona ppineaoaib. Cljup oa Caipbpe collateral branches. Two Carbrys, viz. : 

.l.Ccupbpe Conpie, &ia z.z(x 6aippe Cop- Carbry Conrith, from whom is descended 

caije an naorii, ajup Caipbpe Qipcean, St. Barry of Cork; and Carbry Aircheann, 

Oia eeaio Ui 6piuin TCaca la h-iapiap from whom the Hy-Briuin Eatha, in the 

Conacc. Cpi Conuill.i. Conull Oipipin west of Connaught. Three ConaUs, viz., 

6 ccaio pip UrhuiU, ajup Conall ^lun Conal Oirisin, from whom the men of Umal- 

o ccaib U! Tllannacain .1. raoipi^ nu crpi lia. Conall Glun. from whom the O'Mona- 

c-Cuac, lp Conall Copcaine, 6 ccaio Ui bans, i.e. the chieftains of the three Tuathas. 

TTIaoilDuib, ajup Cocuid, 6 zed Cmel Conall Cortaine, from whom UiMaoilduibh. 

n-Gacach, ajup Pe6limio 60I5, ajup Eochaidh, from whom Kinel n-Eachach. 

Gnna Garhalach a quo Cmel n-Ganna, Felemy Bolg and Enna Eamalach, from 

ajup Ouac ^clac perhpuice, an popap, whom Kinel n-Eanna. DuachGalach a: 

6 ccuib pio jpaio Rara Cpuacan." said, the youngest, from whom the ki: 

Rath Cruachan are descend 
Book of Bally mo!.-. foL 54. and Ogyg. p. 3 74. 

The following list of the " Christian" kings of Connaught, or " Rath Cruac; 
was compiled by Peter O'Connell, a learned, but neglected antiquary of the last cent 
from various ancient authorities, aided by the collections of the venerable Charle> 
O'Conor. It is here printed from the compiler's autograph, which is preserved in the 
Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy: 

" Siopuna. 


"1. Amhalgaidh Mac Fiachrach, Mic Eochaidh Maighmcdhoin. &c. 20 bliadhain 
do, go ttorchair lais na Deisibh Breagh, no a eug iar san re sin. 9. 

" 2. Olioll Molt Mac Daithi, Mic Fiachrach, Mic Eochaidh Maighmhedhoin, 
19 mbliadna, go ttorchair a ccath Ocha la Lughaid Mac Laoghaire, la Muirchearta 
Mac Earca, la Feargas Ceirbheoil agas la Fiachraidh (Mac Caolbhaidh I >ail- 

Araidhe. 40. 

"3. Duach Galaclr 4 Mac Briain, Mic Eochaidh Maighmcdhoin, ic. 19 mblifl 

o-o ttorchair a ccath Seaghsa la Muircertach M c . Earca. Seajap .1. uon c 

coipppleibcib. Duach Tenguma. — Se do thuit a ccath S a X. B. 

" +. Eoghan 

A Vel Tengumha, as in Ballviuote. Vide Keating in the reign of LugaiJ Mac Laoghaire. 


" 4- Eoghan Beal Mac Ceallaigh, Mic Oiliolla Muilt, Mic Daithi, &c. 35 bliadna; go 
ttorchair a ccath Sligigh la Feargas agas la Domnall, da mhac Muircertaig Mic Earca, 
la Hainmhire Mac Seadna, agas la Ninnedh Mac Duach Tengumha. 37. 

" 5. Oilioll an Bhanna Mac Eoghain Beal, Mic Ceallaigh, Mic Oiliolla Muilt, Mic 
Daithi, Mic Fiachrach, &c. 9 mbliadna ; go ttorchair a ccath Cuile Conaire a Ceara e , 
la Fergas, agas la Domnall, da mhac Muircertaigh Mic Earca. 1 1 . 

" Aodh Fiontain, the brother of Oilioll an Bhanna, was slain together with 
Olioll an Bhanna himself, in the battle of Seghas. So in the copy or roll 
from Ballymote. 

" Fearghas Mac Muiredaigh Mail, Mic Eoghain Sreimh, Mic Duach Galaigh, Mic 
Briain, Mic Eochaidh Muighmedhoin. 7. No more of him, nor is he set down at all 
as king in (the Book of) Ballymote. 

" 6. Duach Teangumha, Mac Ferghais, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, Mic Eoghain Sreimh, 
Mic Duach Galaigh, Mic Briain, Mic Eochaidh Muighmedoin, &c. 7 mbliadhna do go 
ttorchair la Heochaidh Tirmcharna, a bhrathair. 7. Thus both copies. An error, 
but the copy from Ballymote adds, or as others will have it, he was slain in the 
battle of Seaghas by Muirccartach Mac Earca. The battle of Seaghais was fought 
A. D. 530. — O'Conor. 

" 7. Eochaidh Tirmcharna Mac Ferghasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, Mic Eoghain 
Sreimh, Mic Duach Galaigh, Mic Briain, &c. Aon bhliadhain agas eug ad bath. 1. 

" 8. Aodh Mac Eochaidh Tiormcharna, Mic Fergusa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, Mic 
Eoghain Sreimh, Mic Duach Galaigh, 25 bliadna, agas Ui Briuin ros rnharbh a ccath 
Binne Bugha, no Binne Baghna. 5*". 

" 9. Maol Catha Mac Fogartaigh, Mic Cathail, Muiredaig Mail, Mic Eoghain 
Sreimh, Mic Duach Galaigh, Mic Briain. 7 mbliadna do. 

" 10. Aodh, the brother of Maol Catha, after a Reign of 7 years, was slain by 
Uadha, son of Aodh. 

"11. Uadha Mac Aodha, Mic Eochaidh Tirmcharna, Mic Ferghasa, Mic Muiredaigh 
Mail, Mic Eoghain Sreimh, Mic Duach Galaigh, &c. 9 mbliadna. 

" 12. Colman Mac Cobthaigh, Mic Goibhnionn, Mic Conaill, Mic Eoghain, Mic 
Eochaidh Brie, Mic Daithi, Mic Fiachrach, &c. 2 1 bliadna ; go ttorchair la Raghallach 
Mac Uadhach, a ccath bhinn Gubha. 2 1 . 


Fought A. D. 565 C. O'Conor. This and the two following Kings are copied in 

f " 5. in Ballymote. The 25 inserted are from the list from Ballymote, being left out in 
from O'Conor 's copies, by his own authority. the other copy." 

i 3 o 

» 13. Raghallach Mac Uadhach, Mic Aodha, Mic Eochaidh Tirmcharna. Mic F-.r- 
ghasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, &c. 25 bliadna; go ttorchair la Corca Culla, ag 
Diarmaid Mac Aodha Slaine [a ccath Conaill, is the only difference between the two 

Rolls]. 25- 

" 14. LaighneanS Mac Colmain, Mic Cobthaigh, Mic Gobbhnionn, Mic Conadl, 
Mic Eoghain, Mic Eochaidh Bhric, Mic Daithi, Mic Fiachrach, &c 7 mbliadna. 
ttorchair iaramh. 7. He died by eating herbs. Thus from Ballymote. 

« 1 5 Guaire Aidhne Mac Colmain, Mic Cobthaigh, Mic Goibhmond, Mic Conaill, 
Mic Eoghain, Mic Eochaidh Brie, Mic Daithi, Mic Fiachrach, fee, 3° ******* *», 

agas a eug. 8. . 

« Donnchadh Mac Ceallaigh, after a reign of 20 years, was slain by a cast 

of a javelin. The copy from Ballymote, in which alone I find this man, 

places him in this order. 

« ,6 Ceann Faolaidh Mac Colgan, Mic Aodha", Mic Seanaigh, Mic Duagh Tean- 

gumha Mic Feargasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, Mic Eoghain Sreimh, Mic Duach Ga- 

laigh, &c. 35 bliadna do; agas Ceallach Mac Adhamlinan; i. Righ Conmhaicne, da 

mhar'bhadh, no Donnchadh Mac Ceallaigh ros marbh. 32. 

"Cathal Mac RaghaUaigh, Mic Uadach, Mic Aodha, Mic Eochaidh 

Tirmcharna, Mic Feargasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail. Mic Eoghain Sreimh, 

Mic Duach Galaigh, 7 mbliadna, agas eug ad bath iaramh. The folio 

copy alone gives this man, and in this order it gives him. Qu*re a' 

him. Ragallach had Feargas, Cathal, and Ceallach. 

« i 7 Donnchadh Muirescc', Mac Maoil-Doibh, Mic Tiobraide, Mic Fiachaidh 

EaWidh, Mic Daithi, Mic Fiachraidh, Mic Eochaidh Maighmhedhoin, Ac. 4 bhadhn.; 

go ttorchair a ccath Corainn, agas Feargas Mac Mail. Righ Chined Gurbre, la Ullach 

Mac Rasallaigh. 3. 

« This King's pedigree must be defective, wherefore O'Conor does no* set 

down his father. 
«i8 Ceallach Mac Ragallaigh, Mic Uadhach. Mk lodha, Mic Eochmdh I 
charna, Mic Fergasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, Mic Eoghain Sreimh, Mic Duach Gab. 
&c. 7 mbliadna do, & a cugiardain. 1 2. 

* « Lairgnean potius, as in the folio." m.c NaiCl, ;c 

k « This Aodh is not in the folio copy ; but in ■< Thus from Balhtn.-tc. Qu.ere , 

Ballymote I find him." 'tis afterwards repeated, the' I follow the P* 

. « Oonncao. muip. mac Cobpa.Oe, gree of Donnead Muires. as 1 found * ,n the 

m.c mao.l ouib, mic F'°ca,6 eal S cn6, folio copy. 

l 3 1 

" 19. Feargal Aidhne Mac Artghaile, Mic Guaire, Mic Colmain, Mic Cobthaigh, 
Mic Goibhnionn, Mic Conaill, Mic Eoghain, Mic Eochaidh Bhric, Mic Daithi, Mic 
Fiachraidh, &c. 7 mbliadna do, agas eug ad bath. 17. 

" 20. Muiredach Muillethan Mac Fergasa, Mic Raghallaigh, Mic Uadhach, Mic 
Aodha, Mic Eochaidh Tirmcharna, Mic Fergasa, Mic Muiredaigh Mail, &c. 27 mbliadna 
do, agas a eug. 7. 

" Here the folio copy ends. 

" zi. Inreactach Mac Donnchadha Muiriscc, Mic Maoil-Duibh, Mic Tibraide, Mic 
Fiachaidh Ealgaidh, Mic Daithi, Mic Fiachraidh, &c. 2 bhliadhain do, agas Fergal 
Mac Loingsigh, righ Chineil Conaill, agas Maol Mai, righ Chineil Eoghain ros marbh. 
Maol Mall after O'Flanagan from Ballymote. 

" 22. Cathal Mac Muiredaigh Muillethain, Mic Fergasa, Mic Raghallaig, Mic 
Uadhach, &c. 7 mbliadna, agas a eug a n-ord Crabhaidh. 

" 23. Donnall Mac Cellaigh, Mic Eaghallaigh, Mic Uadhach, Mic Aodha, Mic 
Eochaid Tirmcharna, &c. 7 mbliadna do, agas a eug. 

"24. Inreactach Mac Muiredaigh Muillethain, Mic Fergasa, Mic Eagallaig, Mic 
Uadhach, &c. 10 mbliadna do, agas a eug. 

" 25. Aodh Balbh Mac Inrectaigh, Mic Muiredaig Muillethain, Mic Fergasa, Mic 
Ragallaigh, &c. 7 mbliadna do, agas a eug. 

" 26. Fergas Rod Mac Cellaigh, Mic Ragallaigh, Mic Uadhach, &c. 3 bliadna do, 
agas a eug. Thus Ballymote gives this King's pedigree. O'Conor only calls him 
Fergus son of Kellach. 

" 27. Oilioll Medhraidhe Mac Inrectaig, Mic Donnchada Muirisce, Mic Maoil- 
Duibh, Mic Tiobraide, Mic Fiachaidh Ealgaid, Mic Daithi, 6 bliadna ; and died of a 
wound he received in battle against Bressal son of Murchadh, in which Bressal was 

" 28. Duibhinreactach Mac Cathail, Mic Muiredaig Muillethain, Mic Fergais, Mic 
Ragallaig, &c. 5 bliadna do, and died of the Bloody Flux. 

" 29. Donnchathach Mac Cathail, Mic Oliolla Medraidhe, Mic Inrectaig ; 5 
bliadna, agas a eug. Ballymote. Query whether Cathal should be in this King's 

" 30. Flaithri Mac Domnaill, Mic Ceallaigh, Mac Ragallaigh, Mic Uadhach ; 5 
mbliadna do, agas a eug. 

"31. Another Flaithri O'Conor. I don't find him in the copy from Bally- 

" 32. Artghal Mac Cathail, Mic Muiredaigh Muillethain, Mic Fergais, &c. 4 
bliadna do ; agas a eug, a Naoi Cholaim Chille, a n-ord chrabhaid. 

S 2 "33 

1 3 2 

" 33. Muirgheasi Mac Tamaltaig, Mic Murgaile, Mic Lnreactaigh, llic Muiredaigh 
Muillethain, &c 30 mbliadna, agas a eug. 

" 34. Tiobraide Mac Taidg, 5 bliadna do; agas a eug. Thus Mr. O'Conor calls 
this King, whose authority weighs more with me than the copy from Ballymote, 
which calls him Tibrady son of Murgeas. I know no more about him. Mr. O'Conor 
places Tibrady first, and Muirgeas last here, who knew best. 

" 35. Diarmaid Mac Tomaltaigh, Mic Murgaile, Mic lnreactaigh, Mic Muired . 
Muillethain, &c. 1 8 mbliadna, agas a eug. 

" 36. Cathal Mac Muirgheasa, Mic Tomaltaigh, Mic Murgaile, Mi- for 
&c. 1 7 mbliadna, agas a eug. 

" 37. Murchadh Mac Aodha, 1 1 bhliadna, agas a eug. 

" 38. Feargas Mac Fathadh, 4 bliadna, agas a eug. Quere. of what race were these 
two Kings, viz., 37 and 38. 

" 39. Fionnacta Luibhne no Luimhne Mac Tomaltaigh, Mic Murgaile. Mic In- 
rectaigh, Mic Muiredaigh Muillethan, &c. deag a n-ord chrabhaidh, ar ttregion an 
shaoghail do, A. D. 846. Thus Mr. O'Conor, upon whose authority alone I ini 

this King. 

" 40. Conchabhar Mac Taidg, Mic Muirghesa, Mic Tomaltaigh, fcc. 30 mblia 
do, agas a eug. Mughron a ccomhflaitheas ris 27 mbliadna, _ 

leth Connact. 

" 41. Aodh Mac Conchair, Mic Taidg. Mic Muirghesa, Mic Tomaltaig. 6 bliadna 
do, agas a eug. He fought under Flann, monarch of Ireland, and was killed in bftttk 
against the Danes, A. D. 885. (O'Conor.) 

"42. Tadg Mac Conchabhair, Mic Taidg. Mic Muirgesa, Mi romaltaig, 22 bli- 
adna, agas bas anabaidh ros fuair. 

« 43. Cathal Mac Conchabhair, Mic Taidg, Mic Muirg sa, M r« maltaig, &c 21 
bliadna, agas bas anabaidh ros tug. 

"44. Tadg an Tuir Mac Cathail, Mic Conchabhair. Mic Taidg, Mic Muii£ - 
Mic Tomaltaig, &c. 3obliadain, agas bas anabaidh ros tug. 

» 45. Senf hearghal .i. Senfergal ua Euairc, Mac Ain. Mic Ruairc, Mic Tighernain. 
Mic Sealachain, Mic Cearnachain, Mic [ ], "> mbliadna do, 

agas Domnall Mac Conghalaigh Righ Breagh da mharbhadh. 

J " Quaere, whether this Muirges had a son TTIupjaile, mic lnpeccai5, mic ITIui- 

called Muiredach Maighe Haoi, that had a claim pe5cil£ ITluiUeram. "C. set down for Mui- 

to the government, for in the folio copy I find, redach Muillethan. I don"t find him anj where 

after FergalAidhne, muipeOacTTlaije haoi, else; and there h § 5 27 .irs reign.'" 
mac muip^eapa, mic Uomalcui^, mic 


" 46. Conchabhar Mic Taidg an Tuir, Mic Cathail, Mic Conchabhair, Mic Taidg, 
5 bliadna do, agas a eug. 

"47. Cathal Mac Taidg an Tuir, Mic Cathail, Mic Conchabhair, Mic Taidg, &c. 
Tri laithe do, agas a mharbhad a ccath Ceise Corainn, la Murchadh Ua Flathbertaigh, 
Eigh Kineil Eoghain. (Thus O'Conor.) 

" 48. Cathal Mac Concabhair, Mic Taidg an Tuir, Mic Cathail, Mic Concabhair, 
30 bliadhain do, agas a dhul a nord crabhaidh, agas a eug da bliadhain na dhiaidh. 

" 49. Art Oirnidhe Mac Aodha, Mic Senfherghail Ui Euairc, &c. 15 bliadna, 
agas a mharbhadh la Kineal Conaill Golban. N. B. Art O'Euirc was living A. D. 
102 1, and entered that year the province of Connaught, together with Malachy 
O'Neill and Donagh son of Brien, &c, and caused the hostages of that province to be 
given to Malachy. Annals Inisfal. This king is not universally allowed. 

" 50. Tadg an eichghil Mac Cathail, Mic Concabhair, Mic Taidg an Tuir, &c 20 
bliadain do, agas a mharbhad la Malsechlainn O'Mal Euanaidh. N. B. Tadg com- 
manded the forces of Connaught at the battle of Clontarf, A. D. 1014; and is stiled 
King of Connaught. Supposing this year to be the first of his reign, he must have 
been 36 years king when his son Aodh succeeded him. An. Inisfallen. 

"51. Aodh an Ghai-bhernaigh, Mac Taidg an eich-ghil, Mic Cathail, &c. 17 mbli- 
■adna ag dreim ris righe do chosnadh, gor marbhadh e a ccath Turlaigh Enaigh (san 
Ccorann) la h-Aodh Mac Airt Oirnidhe Ui Euairc. 

" 52. Aodh Mac Airt Oirnidhe Ui Euairc, 37 mbliadna, agas a mharbhadh a 
ccath Anachla, la Euidhri na Soighe buidhe. Mac Aodha an ghaoi-bernaigh Ui Chon- 
chabhair. N. B. Conachail is near Bealan atha fada in Corann. He reigned but 20 
years, according to the Annals of Inisfallen. 

"53. Euaidri na Soighe buidhe Mac Aodha an ghaoi-bheruaigh, 4 bliadna do, 
agas a shuile do bhuain as la Flaithbertach Ua Flaithbertaigh, Eigh Iarthair Connact. 

" 54. Do ghabh Flaithbertach ua flaitlibertaigh an Eighe Mi do, gor ros marbh 
Siol Muireadaig a ndioghail Euaidri na soighe buidhe a ccionn an resin. 

"55. Domnall Mac Tigernain, Mic Ualghairg, Mic Neill, Mic Airt Oirdnide, Mic 
Aodha, mic Senfherghail ui Euairc, &c. 3 bliadna do, agas a mharbhadh la Muintir 
Eolais. This was the third indisputable King of Connaught of the name of O'Euairc. 

" 56. Domnall Mac Euaidri ne Soidhe buidhe (agas an Mac ba sine lais) 4 bliadna 
do, agas k Muircertach Ua Briain, Eigh Erionn go ffreasabhra, a ccenn an re sin da 


k " Muirchertach Mac Toirdhelbaig Mic Taidg Lachlaind ruled in the north. The one ruled in 
ruled in the south; Domnall Mac Ardgail, Mic Leith Moghe, the other in Leth Cuinn." 


inorbadh, agas og gairm righ Connact do Thoirdhelbhach Mhor Mac Ruaidri na Sk g 
buidhe, da bhrathair a naois a chuig mbliadan deag. 

« 57 . Toirdhelbhach Mor Mac Ruaidri na Soighe Buidhe, fee. 4 7 bhadna na ngfa 
Connact agas Erionn agas a eug a n-Dun Mor. 

» c8 Ruaidhri Mac Toirdelbhaigh Mhoir. Is an i4amhadh bliadam do fhutheas 
an Ruaidhri so os Connact, agas is an 4 amhad bliadain da f hlaitheas os Erinn, mn 
mbliadhain 1 169. tangadar na ceadgoill shexancha go h-Enum"-^,. MS. 

No list of the kings of Connaught has, until now, been published. The 1 
is inserted, as the most complete, so far as it extends, that the Editor has met with 

But the future historian may find it necessary to subject it to c! ^mnrtu .; and 

m so doing, he will be aided by the labours of the late Doctor O Conor, m 
Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, and the various authorities there referred 
catalogue of the Irish provincial kings, continued after the- Anglo-V-rman inva. 
will be found in O'Ferrall's Book of Pedigrees, preBerved in the Office of Arms, Dut 


The following genealogical and hitherto unpublished account of 1 1 
compiled by the venerable Charles O'Conor, has been communicated by the emptier 
grandson, the late Matthew O'Conor, Esq., to the Editor. 

« Achay Moymedon (Eochy Moyvanc). who died king of Irela: $«H bri 

several sons. The principal were Brian. Fiacra, and NialL from whom deecended 
mU es of Hy-Brune, Hy-Fiacra, and Hy-NialL From the fourth to the thirn 
centurj this race o Achay Moymedon was the most powerful xn the kmgdom. 
2 ing 'that whole period Z Hy-Brune had vast patrimonial domains in Connaugh, 
and generally had the suffrages of the provincial states in the electtons of provmetal 

^^ir IT^rune family subdivided into several branch,, th. rful 

.ranch was distinguished by the particular name of Clan Murray (ot 5 

Murray), from Murryach Mullethan. who died King of Connaught A. D. ,02. I 
LJI century, Teige.chtef of the Clan Murray race (and King oi *--£££ 
030) took the sirname of O'Conor, and that sirname has continued in the fcnulj 

ever since. 

^Tn^he twelfth century the 0' Conors became very powerful in Ireland; from 
being provincial Kings of Connaught. they aspired to the throne of the ^kingdom .and 
seeded. In „ S 6 Torlagh the Great had sufficient influence to get *-^ec£ 
Kin, of Ireland by a majority of the states. History gtves him a great character. He 

reig ri^rSet S " oftioghtheG^ andfrom being King of Con 


l 35 

naught, was elected King of Ireland, A. D. 1166. In his reign the kingdom was in- 
vaded by Henry II. King of England. Koderick, deserted by most of the provinces, was 
finally, in 1 1 75, obliged to enter into a convention with the King of England, wherein he 
yielded to become that monarch's vassal for the province of Connaught alone. Thus 
ended the Irish monarchy. 

" From Cathal Crovedarg, the younger son of Torlogh the Great, descended the 
most powerful branch of the 0' Conor family, as the succession of their history in the 
annals of the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries amply testifies. 
From that Cathal Crovedarg, who died King of Connaught in 1 224, is descended, in the 
sixteenth generation, Brigadier Thomas O'Conor, for whom we have drawn up the 
following genealogy. 

" We have drawn out this genealogy from the most authentic materials in the 
archives of Ireland, and from the antient annals, as well as modern documents, now 
preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. To this noble repository of 
antiquities we had daily access thro' the indulgence of Dr. Thomas Leland, the present 
librarian, and one of the Senior Fellows of the University. The accounts in the Herald's 
Office in the Castle of Dublin could not be guides to us in the following genealogy ; 
as they do not reach farther back than the 12 th century. The later accounts in that 
office are only taken from the originals that we have perused. 

" Having premised thus much, we now proceed to our genealogical line from Achay 
Moymedon to the Brigadier Thomas O'Conor, marking as we go along the principal 
evolutions in power and prosperity. C. O'Conor. 

" Hy Brune. 
" 1. Achay Moymedon, King of Connaught, was elected King of Ireland A. D. 358, 

and died A. D. 366. 
" 2. Brian, the common father of the Hy-Brune race, and Prince of Connaught, died 

A.D. 397. 
" 3. Duach Galach, Prince of Conaught, died 438. 
" 4. Eogan Sreve, Prince of Connaught, died 463. 
" 5. Murryach Mai, Prince of Connaught, died 489. 
" 6. Fergus, Prince of Connaught, died 517. 
" 7. Eochy Tirmcarna, Prince of Connaught, died 543. 
" 8. Aodh, Prince of Connaught, was elected King of Connaught by the states in 

556, and died in the battle of Benbow, A. D. 577. 
" 9. Uada, King of Connaught, 597. 
" 10. Reilly, King of Connaught, 645. 
"11. Fergus, Prince of Connaught, 654. 

" Clan 

i 3 6 

" Clan Murray. 

" 12. Murryach Mullethan was elected King of Conaught A. D. 696, and died A. D. 
702. From him the principal Hy-Brune branch took the name of Clan- 
Murray, otherwise Siol-Murray. 

" 13. Inrachtach, died King of Connaught, 723. 

"14. Murgaly, Prince of Connaught, 751. 

"15. Tomaltach, Prince of Connaught, 774. 

" 16. Murglas, died King of Connaught, 813. 

" 17. Teig, Prince of Connaught, died 841. 

" 18. Concovar, King of Connaught, 879. 

" 19. Cathal, Prince of Connaught, 925. 

" 20. Teige of the Tower, King of Connaught, died A. D. 956. 

"21. Concovar (otherwise Conor), 973. 

"22. Cathal, 10 10. 


-23. Teige (of the white steed), died King of Connaught, 1030. Be 1 first 

who took the surname of O'Conor. 
" 24. Aodh (of the broken spear), died King of Connaught, 1067. 
" 25. Roderick (of the yellow hound), 1 1 18. 
« 26. Torlogh the Great, King of Connaught, and elected King of Ireland 1 136. died 

1 156. 
« 27. Cathal Crovedarg, elected King of Connaught, over which he reigned wr 

reputation 33 years. He died A. D. 1 224. 
" 28. Aodh died, King of Connaught, 1228. 

<« 29. Roderick, Prince of Connaught, was drowned in the Shannon, 1244. 
" 30. Eogan (of the palace), King of Connaught, 1274. 

« 3! Aodh, King of Connaught, 1309. After the battle of Athenry in 1317. the 
provincial power of the O'Conors in Connaught was much reduced, the 
English having wrested near one-half of the province out of their juris- 
diction. , 1 . - -1 1 
« 32. Turlogh, King of Connaught ; he was called Torlogh Don, and his famdy took 

from him the surname of O'Conor Don, 1345. 
" 33. Aodh, King of Connaught, 1356. 
" 34. Torlogh Og, King of Connaught, 1406. 
« 35. Fedhm Geancach (Prince of the Plains of Connaught), killed in a skirmish 

treacherously, 1474- 
» 76. Eoo-an Caoch (Prince of the Plains of Connaught), 1485. 

i u 3 -_ 

l Z7 

" 37. Carbry (Prince of the Plains, &c), 1548. 

" 38. Dermod (Prince of the Plains), died in his castle of Ballintobber. He married 

the daughter of Torlogh Koe O'Conor, otherwise O'Conor Eoe, 1585. 
" 39. Aodh (Prince of the Plains of Connaught), who compounded for his country 
of the Plains with Queen Elizabeth's Lord Deputy, Sir John Perrot, died 1627. 
" 40. Hugh Og of Castlerea, Commissioner for the province of Connaught in the 
Council of Kilkenny, A. D. 1642, died 1655." 

" From this Hugh Og descended Thomas O'Conor, Esq., an officer of great repute in 
the service of His Most Christian Majesty." — See Dissertations on the History of Ire- 
land, p. 282. 

" The Hy-Brune, or Clan Murray O'Conors, were descended from Teig, who 
first took that surname, and governed the province of Connaught in the year 1030; 
and from him, in the fifth generation, descended Eoderic O'Conor, King of Connaught 
in the year 1 157, and elected King of all Ireland in the year 1 166, on the death of his 
predecessor Murkertach O'Laghlin, in the battle of Literluin. 

" In the year 1 175, Roderic yielded to such terms as Henry II., King of England, 
proposed to him. In 11 86 he resigned the provincial government of Connaught, 
which, after many contests, devolved finally on Cathal Crove-darg, Roderic's youngest 

" From this Cathal Crove-darg, who died in the year 1224, descended the O'Co- 
nors of Ballintobber, otherwise the O'Conors Don. Hugh O'Conor, the chief of this 
name, in 1586, submitted to Queen Elizabeth's Government, and the composition 
between him and the Queen's Lord Deputy, Sir John Perrot, is still preserved in the 
Rolls Office in Dublin. 

" This Hugh O'Conor Don, of Ballintobber, gave the lands and castle of Belana- 
gare, with other estates, to his third son, Cathal Og, otherwise Charles O'Conor, who 
died on the ninth of February, i6"3[ ]. And these estates were confirmed to Major 
Owen O'Conor, the said Charles's eldest son, in the Act of Settlement made in Ireland, 
soon after the Restoration of King Charles II. 

" Major Owen O'Conor died without issue male in 1688. The confusions which 
followed subjected his estate to a dismemberment, on account of the forfeiture of one 
of his co-heirs. What remained, being two-thirds, devolved on his nephew, Denis 
O'Conor, who died at his house in Belanagare, February 1, 1750. 

" To him succeeded Charles O'Conor of Belanagare, still alive, and for him we have 
drawn up the following genealogical line, down from the time of Cathal Crove-darg 
O'Conor abovementioned : 
" 1. Cathal Crove-darg O'Conor died in the abbey of Knockmoy, A. D. 1224. 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 15. T " 2. 

»3 8 

2. Hugh, his son, succeeded to the government of the Irish province in Connaught 
[namely, the countries yielded by the English monarchs to the O'Conor-. 
a government, independent of that established in favour of the first English 
adventurers]. This Hugh was killed in the court of Jeffrey Marsh, Lord 
Justice of Ireland, A. D. 1228. 

' 3. Roderic, Hugh's son. 

' 4. Eogan, Roderic's son, succeeded to the government of the Irish of Connaught for 
three months, and was murdered in the monastery of the Fryers Prodi 
in Roscommon, A. D. 1274. 

' 5. Hugh, Eogan's son, succeeded governor of the Irish of Connaught, and was killed 
by his own kindred, A. D. 1 309, at Kell-an Clochan in Breffiny. 

' 6. Torlagh, Hugh's son, obtained the government of the Irish province in C 
naught, and was killed at Fiodh-Doruda in Munter Eolus, A. 1). 1345. 

' 7. Hugh, Torlagh's son, obtained the government of the Irish province of his an- 
cestors; was deposed A. D. 1350, and murdered in Baly-loch-Decar. by 
Donagh O'Kelly, the chieftain of Hy-Many, A. D. 1356. 

' 8. Turlogh Og, Hugh's son, obtained the provincial government of his 
and was killed in Clanconrey, A. D. 1406. 

' 9. Feidlim Geancach, a minor when his father died, succeeded in his advanced 

to the patrimonial possessions of his father, and lived in the 1 B*l- 

lintobber. He was killed in a skirmish with the O'Kellys of By-Mi 

A. D. 1474. 

10. Eogan Caoch, Feidlim's son, died, chief of his name, at Ballintobber. Edania, 

the daughter of Daniel O'Conor of Sligo, his wife, died in 1476. and he died 
himself A. D. 1485. 

11. Carbre, the son of Eogan Caoch and Edamia, died in his castle of Ballint..: 

A. D. 1546. He married Dervorgilla, the daughter of Feidlim Fin:. « « 
nor, his own kinswoman. 

12. Dermod, the son of Carbre and Dervorgilla, succeeded t.> th< .llin- 

tobber; married Dorothy, the daughter of Teig boy O'Conor Roe, and died 
at Ballintobber, A. D. : he lived in 1585. 

13. Hugh, the son of Dermod and Dorothy O'Conor, married Mary O'Kuark. 

daughter of Bryan na Murrtha O'Ruark (who was executed in London in 
1590). He compounded with the Queen's Lord Deputy, Perr-.t. lor his 
patrimonial estates, and died in his castle of Ballintobber, A. I>. 162-. 

14. CathalOg, otherwise Charles, the third son of Hugh and Mary O'Ruark. 

tained the castle and estate of Belanagare from his lather, on his inter- 

x 39 

marriage with Anne O'Mulloy, the daughter of William O'Mulloy of 
Oghtertire, Esq. He died on the 9th February, 1634. 
" 15. Cathal Og, or Charles, the second son of the aforesaid Cathal Og and Anne 
O'Mulloy, married Cecilia O'Flynn, the daughter of Fiacra O'Flynn of Balin- 
logh, Esq., and the chief of his name. This latter Cathal Og, or Charles 
O'Conor, died at Belanagare, A. D. 1696. 
" 16. Denis, the son of the said Charles and Cecilia, married Mary O'Ruark, the 
daughter of Col. Tiernan O'Ruark (the grand-nephew of the abovementioned 
Bryan na Murtha, who forfeited). He left issue of that marriage, viz., 
Charles his eldest son, now living, and born in 17 10 ; Daniel, born in 1727; 
and Hugh, in 1729." — Orig. MS. 
Charles, born in A. D. 171 o, was the venerable author of the " Dissertations on 
the History of Ireland," &c, and he also compiled the foregoing account of his own 
name and family. He was great-grandfather of the present Denis O'Conor Don, M. P. 
for the County of Roscommon. 

The kings of Connaught, from an early period, were inaugurated on the hill of 
Carnfraoigh, near Tulsk, in the present County of Roscommon. The duties of some 
of the chief officers on that occasion appear in an Irish manuscript, preserved in the 
library of the Duke of Buckingham, at Stowe, in England, codex iii. fo. 28, beginning 
" Gjup up e uct lTlaolconcnpe, 7c." 

" It is O'Maolconar's [Mulconry's] right to present the wand to the king, and it is 
not lawful for any of the nobles of Connacht to be present in company on the cam, 
excepting O'Maolconar, who inaugurates, and O'Connachtan, who guards the entrance 
of the earn. The King's horse and clothes become the property of the successor of 
Daconna, and he follows O'Conor on that horse; and an ounce of gold is paid to 
O'Connachtan, who is obliged to smooth the Carn at every inauguration." — Cat. Stow. 
MSS. p. 168. For the original of this fragment, see Rerum Hib. vol. i. prolegomena 2, 
p. 91. O'Ferrall, in his Book of Irish Pedigrees, preserved in the Office of Arms, 
Dublin, under the O'Conor family, notes, " that the King of Connaught kept twelve 
prime officers, of the chief families of his country, in his court, attending his person, 
as his councell; and to rule and govern as well his household, as to manage the affairs 
of his kingdom, in war and peace, and were called, in Irish, Cuoipi£ na Cpuacan, 
which officers were hereditary from father to son. These were O'Flannagan, Mac 
Oireachty (Geraghty), O'Mulbrenin, O'Finaghty, O'Fallon, O'Flin, O'Manachain, 
O'Concanon, Mac Branan, O'Hanly, O'Heyn, O'Seachnusy." These chief lords had 
from the king the following stipends for their services, viz. : "Fifty cows and fifty 
sheep on the day of Baal's fire to Mac Geraghty ; fifty cows and fifty pigs every Samin's 

T 2 day 


day to him also; his surety in the district of Umhal; — fifty suckling calves and fif) 
sheep on Baal's fire day to CPFionacfdy ; and fifty pigs and fifty cows every 6 
day to him; and his surety in Luighni of Connacht; — fifty calves and fifty sheep to 
(J Maolbrennan every Baal's fire day; fifty cows and fifty pigs 

him also ; and his surety in the district of Fiachrach, ; — fifty calves and fifty 

sheep on Baal's fire day to 0' Flannagan ; fifty suckling calves and fifty pig - m's 
day to him also; and his surety in Ti rawly and Irrus. O'Conor's high stewardship 
belongs to (J Flannagan, in preference to the three other chiefs, lords of Connaught. 
The guardianship of his hostages and prisoners, and the command of the securities for 
the provision of his fleet, from Sliabh-an-Iron [Iron mountain^ to Limerick, b 
CPHanly ; — the body guards of O'Conor, and the joint stewardship, and the X< 
be under the control of Mac Brennan ; — the straw for the encampment, the furniture, 
and beds for O'Conor's house, to be provided by the Clan Dockrey, and also tin- 
making of the encampment, whenever his fort is to be fitted up; — the guar', 
of the preys of O'Conor, when he pitches his tents, belongs to 0' Flannagan. (>'];■ 
and 0' 'Dockrey ; — the guards of O'Conor, and their profits, from the Curra 
neticlt eastward, to Cenantus, are subject to the command of Mac Brentum;— 
guards from that Currach westward, to Cruaeh Patrick, belong! 
O'Flin; — the command of the fleet to CPFhherii and Of Mali, whenever hi _ 
or on high sea. The chief of the house-hold of O'Conor is <>"/', .,,, [now Tighej, and 
he is mareschal of the household ; — the steward of the hor- ie O'Flin; — the steward 
of the jewels is QP Kelly ; — the chief marshal of the armies is Mat Dermott; — the 
carver is O'Bern; — the door-keeper O'Fionnacktij — the chief poet, WMaolcoi, 
Each of these lords has tAventy-four towns, as a domain for his own ne 
from O'Conor; and each of the other four royal lords has eight and fbrtj 
namely, (J Flannagan, Mac Gerachty, O^FionnachU, and OPMadbrennan. The chief 
officers and champions, patient of fatigue, are the Galengs, the I 
Conmaenians, the three Luighnis, and the men of Cei are the ch 

spearsmen of the armies, for they are It would be tedious to write all : 

there is not a lord, nor prince, nor governor of a district, from Ballyshan 
from Ernes, the district of the Damnonii, to Usneach in Meath, and to Dul 
monastery of Cianan, and from Loch- Erne to Lough-Derg, and to Birr, wh 
subject to the laws and usages, the customs and the power, of O'Conar 1 ," fc. — I 
Stow. MSS- p. 1 68. The foregoing is taken from Torua O'Mulconry, chief poet of 
Connaught, who attended at the inauguration of Felini O'Conor, on the hiD of Cam 
Fraogh, A. D. 1 3 15. See also Irish Writers, p. 94; and Rerum Hib. vol. i. proL 2. 

p. 92. Here 

1 This extract seems to be in some places mistranslated by Dr. O'Conor. 

I 4 I 

Here the Editor takes an opportunity of correcting an error respecting the situ- 
ation of Rath Cruachan, the palace or ancient residence of the kings of Connaught. 
This error occurs in the History of Galway, where it is incorrectly stated, p. 33, after 
Beauford, that Rath Cruachan was situate between the towns of Boyle and Elphin, in 
the County of Roscommon. But that was a gross mistake, for although there is a well- 
known hill, called the hill of Croghan (Cpuacan), situate about mid-way between those 
towns (see the Statistical Survey of the County, pp. 282-4), yet it never was the resi- 
dence of our provincial princes. The late Dr. O'Conor has, however, pointed out the 
true situation of Rath Cruachan, viz., in the parish of Kilcorky, and barony of Ballin- 
tobber: " Cruachan Arx Regia Connacias, cujus vestigia adhuc nianent, distat duobus 
circiter miliaribus a Belanagare, et tribus a Castello de Ballintober. Vox ipsa Cruachain 
denotat, i. e. Col/em Annuli, sive collem circularem." — Tig. p. 310, n. 76. Near it, to 
the south, is situate Roilig na Riogh, or the Cemetery of the Kings. Here a remarkable 
upright stone, about seven feet over ground, called Ifa beapj, or the red stone, is 
pointed out as the monument of Dathy, the last of the Irish pagan kings. That 

prince is said to have been killed by lightning at the foot of the Alps, in A. D. 428 

See the Four Masters at that year, and Ogyg. p. 160. The monument is alluded to 
by Mac Firbis, in his Book of Genealogies, p. 173, as follows : " Uujao copp Odci 
£0 Cpuacain jjup haibnaiceab e 1 pelj na Rioj 1 Ccpuacain, 1 ppail, a paoaoap 
Riojsjpaib Siol Spearhoin bo upmop, aic a ppuil, gupaniu, an Caippce beapj mup 
liaj opa li£e na leacc, le \Za\6 Cpuacan, ^up a nopa, 1666." This, and other 
curious vestiges of antiquity in the locality, are entitled to the first attention of the 
future topographer or historian of this interesting county. 

Among the " Depositions of Protestants," &c, preserved in the Manuscript Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, F. 2. 2., " Elizabeth Holly well, relict of William Holly well, 
clerke, of the town of Roscommon, saith that it was an ordinary and a common report, 
by and amongst the rebells of the county of Roscommon, that Charles O'Connor Dun 
of Ballentubber, Esq., was made king of Connaught ; and one Christopher de la Hyde, 
Esq., a justice of peace and a Papist, told deponent, that all the rebell soldiers 
thereabouts were gone to Tulks, to make the said Charles O'Conor Dun king of Con- 
naught." — Jurat, 10th April, 1643. Of the inclination to achieve the purpose here de- 
posed to, there can be no doubt ; for it is a curious fact, that after a period of nearly two 
hundred years a similar project was contemplated in the very same district. During 
one of the late agrarian disturbances there, a deputation of the people waited on the 
late Mr. Matthew O'Conor, uncle of the present O'Conor Don, and announced to him, 
that at a general meeting of the barony it was proposed, and unanimously resolved, 
that he should be proclaimed King of Connaught. Not anticipating any dissent on 
his part from this wise resolve, the deputies respectfully requested him to appoint a 



time for the performance of the ceremony, on the hill of Camfree. How the singular 
proposal was entertained may be easily anticipated. Mr. O'Conor himself related this 
circumstance to the Editor. 

The old Book of Rights and Privileges, entitled " LeaJjhar na g-ceart" (attributed 
to St. Beinin, who died A. D. 468 ; but enlarged and continued to a much later period), 
preserved in the Books of Lecan and Ballymote, contains an account of the rigfe 
revenues, and privileges of the kings of Connaught; and the subsidies paid by the: 
their subordinate chieftains. This begins: " ' Opa acap Cuanapoad Conoacc .1. 
mop cfp Conoacc icep biacao acap coimioeacc. Ceoumup co Opuucan.' The re- 
venues and subsidies of Conaght, i. e. the great rents of Conaght, both food (or enter- 
tainment) and attendance. First to Cruachan.' " An account is then given of the 
rights and privileges of the Conaght kings, beginning " 6>r ci S P fc r eanda r nat 
puaill." " Hear ye a story not to be contemned." This is followed by an account 
of the subsidies paid by them to their chiefs, beginning " Cuapapcal cuicio Con- 
oacc." " The stipends of the province of Conaght." — See Irish Writer-, p. 30 ; Book 
of Lecan, fo. 187; and Book of Ballymote, fo. 147. With these, the following extracts 
will be found, in the main, to agree. 

"The rights and tributes paid at Cruachan, the King's residence, annually, viz. : 
From the territory of Umkatt, 100 milch cows, 100 hogs, and 100 cask? of beer 
(hand); from Greagruia 'he 100 bullocks. 100 milch cows, 6b hogs, and 60 mai. 
(brat); from Conmhaicne 240 mantles, 200 cows, and 80 hogs ; froi I Ae 100 

cows, 100 bullocks, 60 red mantles, and 60 hogs ; from Luighne 300 cows ererj May- 
day, and 1 50 hogs; Romantics every All Saints eve (la samhna), together with 150 bul- 
locks for the plough ; from the Corcaibh 140 cows, 310 sheep [700. in Lib. Letmm] 
ho^s, 350 oxen; from the Dealbhnas, for the freedom of their country. 1 50 red maul 
1 50 hogs, and 150 oxen; from Imaine, for their lands, 70 mai' - .-. The 

free princes are those of I Briuin, Sil Muireadhaigh, 1 Fiachrach, and Cmeal-aodha 
(Kinalea). These are free from any tribute, and are a£ - the king (com saerafri 

Rig). But if the monarch should war upon the King of Connaught, those princes are 
to aid the King with their forces. They are not to march their armies into the field 
without pay, nor fight a battle without consideration, and if any of their men be 
killed, they are to have restitution (Eric) for the same. When the sovereign" 
not in the progeny of Aodli or Guaire. they (the latter) are to Bit by ti 
shoulder (Guala), and the best of them by Ids right shoulder (Guala deas).— See the 
dan or poem Cipcij le Seanccrp, 7c. 

" What the King of Connaught is obliged to pay to his tributaries, for their ser- 
vice, tributes, and loyalty.— To the chieftain of Siol Muireadhaigh his own ring and 
battle dress (fail agus en-id), together with a shield, a sword, and a - . to the 



King of Umhall 5 horses, 5 ships, 5 swords, and 5 corselets ; to the King of Dealbhna 

6 shields, 6 swords, 6 horses, 6 cloaks, and 5 cups; to the King of Conmhaicne 4 
cloaks, 4 swords, 4 slaves, 4 women, 4 corselets, 2 mantles, and 2 pair of tables 
(fttkil), 10 cups, and 10 horses; to the King of I Maine 7 robes, 7 cloaks, 7 horses, 

7 greyhounds; to the King of Luigne 10 horses, 10 robes, 10 cups, and 10 grey- 
hounds; to the King of / Briuin 5 horses, 5 mantles, 5 swords, 5 corselets, 10 cups, 
1 o slaves, and ten pair of tables ; to the King of North I Fiachrach 3 cups, 3 swords, 

3 horses, 10 rings, and 10 pair of tables; to the Prince of Cineal-n-Aodka 7 slaves, 
7 women (mna daera), 7 cups, 7 swords, and 7 greyhounds ; to the Prince of Par- 
traighe 3 cloaks, 3 cups, and 3 horses. Thus the tributes and gifts of the kings and 
chieftains of Connaught are settled." 

" The King of Cruachan is obliged to give the monarch of Ireland, at his feast, 40 
keeves (dabach) full of liquors, with other necessaries ; and not to go unattended to 
invite him. He is obliged to have, in return, from the monarch, at Tara, 40 cows, 
200 horses, 4 rings, 4 cups gilt with gold, all to be left at his habitation at Cruachan. 
And, as an additional gift, 4 red shields, 4 helmets of the same color, 4 corselets, and 

4 spears. He is obliged to keep Cruachan inhabited, and not to leave it to go west- 
ward more than three times in one year. The King of Cruachan ( C Conor) is obliged 
to give the King of Imanie (JJ 1 Kelly) 4 shields, 20 cows, 20 horses, and clothing for 
200 men; to the King of / Flagkragh (CDowda) 4 ships, 10 women, 20 slaves, and 
3 cups ; to the King of Tuath 20 beeves, 20 hogs, and 20 tuns well filled ; to the King 
of Luignie 4 shields, 4 robes with gold borders, and 4 ships. He (0' Conor) is no 
further liable to his tributaries, and they are all obliged to accompany him to Tara." 

The foregoing extracts from the " Book of Rights" are here introduced as a 
curious elucidation of part of our provincial history. It must, however, be confessed, 
that they cannot be considered so perfect as might be wished, owing to the dif- 
ficulty of obtaining a copy of that ancient book, which could be relied on. Several 
transcripts of it are extant, but they differ so much from each other, particularly in 
the enumeration of the various articles of cios, or tribute, that it is not easy to de- 
termine which is genuine. For an instance of this see the " Rights and tributes 
paid at Cruachan" (Cios Ri Connachi) given in Rerum Hib. Scriptor. vol. i. proleg. 2. 
p. 90, from an ancient manuscript at Stowe, which will be found to vary from our 
original. A corrected copy, therefore, of the Book of Rights, published with the various 
readings, would be a useful addition to Irish literature. 

When the Anglo-Normans landed in Ireland in the twelfth century, the Cuigeadk, 
Fifth, or Province, of Connaught, was inhabited by several tribes or families of Milesian 
descent ; whose chieftains, and the territories which they ruled, have been recorded by 
one of the most learned of our antiquaries, Shane Mor O'Dugan, in a tojuographical 



poem still extant. This valuable piece, like most of the other evidence'- of IxiA 
history, still remains unpublished. A small part, consisting merely of the prose pre- 
faces to the descriptions of the several provinces, has been translated by the learned 
author of Cambrensis Eversus, and inserted in that work, see p. 25. The portion re- 
lating to Connaught is here printed from a valuable copy of the original, in the hand- 
writing of Cucoigcriche O'Clery, one of the Four Masters, preserved in the Library of 
the Royal Irish Academy. The publication of the entire, which extends to the whole 
of Ireland, will, it is hoped, be achieved by the Irish Archaeological Society. 

"CuioChonachc ino yo coCeicc. " In tk Portion ofComumght 

" O'Conchobaip Qipopi Conachc. 
O'pianajain, OTTluoil TTlopoa, O'Cup- 
caij, agup O'lDu^poin ceirpe caoipi^ 
cloinne Carail ; O'TTIaoilbpendinn ctp 
cloinn Chonchubaip ; O'Caculain ap 
cloinn Pajapcai^; 051^ OTTlaonaij ap 
cloinn Tllupcuile ; ajup TTla^ Oipeach- 
caijapmuinnpRoouib; O'Pmachca ap 
cloinn Conmaij; ajup O'Pmachcu eile 
ap cloinn IDupchaDa ; ajup O'Conn- 
ceanaino apLlib Oiapmacu; asup nia; 
TTIupchaoap cloinn Comolcai^: O'Pall- 
arham ap cloinn Uaoach ; TTlac t)iup- 
mooa ap rip n-Oilealla, aj^up up cip 
Uuarail, a;up ap epic Peap Uipe, ajup 
ap cloino Chuain, ajup ap rip Neach- 
cainn, ajup ap ctp n-Gnoa. 

" Cuit) na bpeipne. 

" O'Ruaipc aipo-pi^ 6peipne. TTlac 
Cireapnam ap Ceallach n-t)uncliuoci ; 
nias Sampaoain ap Ceallach n-6ach- 
naich ; ajup mac Ca 5 a6ain ap cloinn 
peapmaije ; a;up mag t>opchai6e ap 
cenel tuachain; agup lTlaj pianncliaoa 
ap Ohapcpoije ; O'PinO ajup O'Ceapb- 

" O'Conor supreme King of Connaught. 
O'Flannagan, O'Maoil-Mordhs, OXarthy, 
and O'Mughroin (Moron), the four chief? 
ofClan-Cathail; I >'Maoil-Breanainn (Mid- 
renin) chief of Clan-Connor: O'Cahalan 
of Clan-Fagharta (J ; ' PMai 1 

(Mooney) of Clan-Murthuilc : M 
achty (Geraghty) of Muintir-Eoduibh, 
O'FinachtyofClan-' [ ' inamoo)\ 

another O'Finachi -Murchadha; 

O'Conceanainn (Co/>r,> „t,>,„) of Hy-Diar- 
msda ; Mac Murchadh of Clan-Tomultach; 
O'FaUamhain (CFaUon) of Clan-Uad 
Mac Diarmada of Tir-Oilleull (T,remll)\ 
Tir-Tuatliail ( TYrootZ) the countxy - f Fear- 
tire, Clan-Chuain. Tir Neachtain, and 

"In the Portim 

" O'Ruairc (Bourlm 1 supreme King 
Breifny. Mac Tighearnan (Ticman) chief 
of Teallach Donchada (Tuttylamco in Co- 
van); Mac Samhradain (Mac Gaum?,) 
of Teallach-n-Eachach : Mac Consnamha 
(Mac a \ f dan-( iona- 

oth (Clan Kenny); Ma Agmdain 
Keegan) of Clan-Fearmaighe (GLmfm 

[ 45 

aill ctp Chullpoi^e ; O'Ra^allaig ap 
muincip Dlaoil lTlliopoa; O'Cuino ap 
muinnp n-^yollajain; ajup fflaj fflaoil 
lopa ap mui j m-&peacpaije ; ajup lilac 
TTlaj Ra^naill ap muincip n-Boluip; 
ajup OTfluoilmiaoai^ ap TTloijneipe ; 
ajup Ui Cuinn ap mufncip peap- 
£ail; O'lTlaolcluiche ap oa Chaipbpe; 
O'h-BabpaajupO h-Uuchmapain^ijup 
O'Ceapnachain, ajup O^Jaohpa ci£- 
eapnaoa f-Ui^ne ; O't)obelein ajup 
O'Ouinncachai^ ; ci^eupnaoa an Clio- 
painn; niajGocha ajjjup Dlaj ITIaonai^, 
ajuplTlagpiuBcn^ cpi pean caofpijj; lTlu- 
i^e £mp5 iaopi6e ; O'Ouboa, ci^eapna 
O'b-piacpach an Cuaipcipc, O'Robba 
co Coonai^; O'ffluipeaohai^, O'^op- 
ttioj ajup O'Cijeapnai^ ap Clieapa; 
O'ftipnap riiufncip TTIhanbachain ; lilac 
6panam ajup O'maoil-TTI'cil ap Ohop- 
ca Gachlann ; 0"h-Qinli ce ap cenelOob- 
chaij; ; O'Ceaceapnai^ a^up O'Ceipin 
ap Chiappal^e nun^e; O'maolmuaio 
ap damn Uaibj ; ajup O'pioinn ap 
damn TDaoil puain ; O'Rodam ap 
chaille pochai^ ; TTluc Scaicjil ap 
Chopcomoja; ajup O'&paoin ap loch 
n-jealjopa ; O'lllaille ap &a Uriiall; 
O'Calchapain ap Chonmaicne cuile; 
a;$up O'Cabla ap Conmaicne rhapa ; 
lilac Conpoi ap ^no moip ajup O'llab- 
nai6 ap ^no m-bicc ; TTIac Qooa ap 
cloinn Copjpai&e ; O'piairbeapcaij ap 
muineip TTlupcba&a ; OTleibin ajuf 
niac ^iolla Ceallaij ajup h-Ui Cle- 
ipt^ ap uib Piachpach Pinn ; ajup 
O'Duibjiolla ap cenel chino ^hariina ; 

Mac Dorchey (Darcy) of Cineal-Luach- 
ain (at the foot of Slieve an Ierin) ; Mac 
Flanchy (Clancy) of the Dartry; O'Finn 
and O'Carroll of the Callraighe (Calry); 
O' Reilly of Muintir -Maoilmordha; O' Quinn 
of Muintir-Gilligan (in Longford); Mac 
Maoiliosa of Moy Breacraighe; Mac Finbar 
of Muintir-Geradan ; Mac Raghnaill (Rey- 
nolds) of Muintir Eoluis; O'Mael-Miadh- 
aigh ( O'Mulvey) of Moyneise (in Leitrim) ; 
O'Quinn of Muintir-Ferrall ; O'Mul-Clui- 
che (Stone) of the two Carbries ; O'Headhra 
((THara), O'Huamarain, O'Cearnachan, 
and O'Gara, lords of Luighne (Leyny); 
O'Dobhelein (Develin) and O'Duncathy, 
lords of Coran; Mac Keogh, MacMeany; 
and Mac Riavy (Mac Creevy), the three 
ancient chieftains of Moylurg; O'Dubhda 
(O'Dowda), lord of North Hy-Fiachrach 
from (the River) Roba (in Mayo) to Cod- 
naigh (at Drumcliffin Sligo) ; O'Muireadh- 
aigh (0' Murray), O'Gormog, andO'Tighe- 
arny ( O'Tierny), chiefs of Ceara ( Carra ba- 
rony) ; O'Beirn, chief of Muinter Manach- 
ain; MacBranain a.ndO'Maol-Michil(i/w/- 
ville, Melville, Mulvihil, Mitchell), chiefs of 
Corca-Eachlann ; O'Hanly of Cineal-Dobh- 
tha ; O'Kearney and O'Kerin of Kerry of the 
Plain; O'Molloy of Clan-Teige ; O'Flinn 
of Clan-Mulruain; O'Rothlain (Rowly) of 
Caill Fothaigh ; Mac Sgaithghil (Skahill) 
of Corcomogha (Corcomoe); O'Broin of 
Lochgealgosa; O'Maille of the two Umhalls 
(Oicles); O'Talcarain of Conmaicne- Cuile 
(Kilmaine barony) ; O'Cadhla (CfKealy) 
of Conmaicne-mara ; Mac Conry of Gno- 
more, O'Adhnaidh ( G'B.einey) of Gnobeg ; 
Mac Aodh (Hughes) of Clan-Cosgraighe ; 
U O'Flaherty 


05"^ lTlac Piachpa ap ojaib fteachpa ; 
ajup O'Carain ap chenel Seona ; ajup 
OTTIa^naap Chaenpibe ; O'Seaclinapui^ 
ujup O'Cacuil, Du cijeapna ceneoil 

O'Fkherty of Muintir Murehadha ; 
O'Heidhin (O'Heyne, now Spies), Mac 

Kilkelly, and O'Clery of Hy-Fiachra- 
Finn; O'Duibgioll (DoweH) of Cineal Kin- 
gamhna : Mac Fiachry of Oga Beathra : 
O'Cathain (Kane) of Cinel-Sead: . 
O'Maghnaof Kaenry; O'Shaughnessy and 
O'Cahill, the two lords of Cineal- Aodha. 

" /// the Portion ofHy-Maine. 

" O'Kelly supreme lord. O'Conaill lord 
of the territory from Gran to Ceann- 
Muighe (head of the plain); I rNeachtain 
and O'Maoilaloidh ((/MuBaBy), the two 
lords ofMaenmoy; O'Mainnin, Clan-an- 
Bhaird (Ward), O'Scurru, O'Leannain, 
O'Cassan, O'Giallain, and « •' Maigin, which- 
ever of these seven happened to be lord, 
was chieftain over the other tribe- during 
his supremacy ; I PCahuT, O'Mugroin, and 
O'Mulroney, three lords of Crumthann 
(Cruffan); < »'Laodog lord of the Caladh 
O'Madadhain (O'Madden), chief of - 
Anmcha : O'Hualkchain (Cuolao/.- 
Mac Eideadhain, chief of Clan-Dermot 
North and South: Mac Gilla-Finagan and 
O'Cinaoith (CPKenny), d * lan- 

Flathamain: O'Donnellan, chief of Clan- 
Breasail ; O'Donchadha of Clan-Corn. 
Maonmoy ; O'Dugan of the twelve town- 
lands of O'Dugan; O'Docomhlan of the 
Eidnigh; CTGawran of Dal Druithne: and 
( ►'Maol-Bride, chief of Moy-finn." 

"Cuio ua TTldine. 

" O'Ceallai 5 aipo-rijeapna OTTlaine. 
O'Conaill ap Ojeapna 6 ^hpein co 
Ceano muije; O'Neachcain ajupO'lTla- 
oilaloib, oa ci^eapna maonmuijqe ; 
O'niamoin, agupclann an 6haipo, agup 
O'Sccuppa, ajup O'teanouin, ajup 
5 in, jipe haca bup cigeapna ay oipfj 
e pop an luce naile pe heao a pi^e; 
O'Cacail, OTTluspoin, a^up O'lDaol- 
puana cpi cijeapnuioe ; 
O'Caoboj uippi£ "" Chalaio ; O'lDa- 
oabuin ap piol n-Ctnmchaoa ; ajup 
O'h-Uallachain beop ; ajup lTlac eioe- 
aoain ap clomo Diupmaca cuaio ajup 
ceap; a 5 up TTIac frolla pinnagAin a 5 up 

O'Chionaoir, ap cloinn piaireamuin; 

axupO'Dorhnallain ap cloinn 6peupail; 

uxupO'Oonnchaoha cp chloino Chopp- 

maic maonmuije ; ajup O'Duib^ino ap 

oa bailey onDuibjmo; usupO'Docom- 

lain ap an Giom^; a 5 up O'gabpain ap 

Dhaln-Dpuirne; ajupO'ITkioilbpijoe 

Caoipeac TTIuije finn." 

See Appendix I. for the chief inhabitants ofConnaught, and their possessions. 

towards the close of the sixteenth century, when the Irish tenures ceased, and t 

principal lords surrendered to Queen Elizabeth. 


f 47 

NOTE B. See page 2, note d . " Barony of Clare." 

The plains of Magli Seola, which form the present barony of Clare in the County 
of Galway, were the inheritance of the O'Flaherties and their ancestors, for upwards 
of 800 years antecedent to the thirteenth century. This district is frequently men- 
tioned in our annals, and other, old writings. The Four Masters commence their 
celebrated work by stating, that the " antediluvian nymph" Ceasoir died at Cuil Cesra 
in Connaught, and that she was interred at Carn Cesra. In our author's Ogyg. 
p. 162, it appears that Cnoc Meadha Siud, a well-known hill, now called Knockmaa, 
near Tuam, in this barony of Clare, was supposed to be, " fertur fuisse," Carn Cesra ; 
and that Cuil Cesra was near it : and to this day, an ancient earn, or monumental pile of 
stones, may be seen on the summit of that hill. In this district was fought, in the 
third century, the famous battle of Magh Mucruimhe, on a plain lying immediately to 
the west of the town of Athenry ; in which battle Art, King of Ireland, was killed. The 
spot where he fell is still shewn, and is called Turloch Airt. See ante, p. 43, note e . 
Our author, in Ogyg. p. 329, points to it as situate " inter Moyvoelam et Kilcornan.'' 
The old castle of Moyvoela is still standing, and to the south of it lies Turloch Airt. 
It has been observed, that many less remarkable places have been distinguished by 
monuments in other countries. 

Not long after this occurrence, the territory or plains of Moy-Seola appear noticed 
as the scene of some of the apostolic labours of St. Patrick. An old unpublished history 
of Ireland, preserved in the Library of the lioyal Irish Academy, informs us, " that 
St. Patrick arrived in Connaught in A. D. 434, and making towards the twenty-four 
sons of Brian," see ante, p. 127, "Echean, the eldest of them, mounting his horse, 
set spurs to him, and advised the rest of his brethren to do the same, and not to 
countenance the blessed clergyman ; which they all did, save only Duach Galach, the 
youngest, who, staying on foot, courteously saluted St. Patrick, and tendered him 
respect and obedience. The holy man went still after Echean, and having overtaken 
him, asked if he were the man, which he denied ; but St. Patrick, notwithstanding, 
cursed him, saying: 'if you be Echean, I deprive both you and all your brethren 
about you of all royalty and felicity, except him only who honoured and cherished 
me, for my Lord Jesus Christ his sake.' Then Duach Galach replyed, that if he was 
the eldest son he would have farther pleased the holy man. St. Patrick blessed him 
saying, you and your posterity shall be kings over your brethren." And so it came 
to pass, for the future kings of Connaught, and the O'Flaherties of Iar- Connaught, 
and several other great families, were descended from this Duach. The story is, however, 
variously told ; for which see Ogyg. p. 375 ; the Pedigree of the Hy-Briuin Aoi, by 
Duald Mac Firbis; and the Tripartite Life, Trias Thaum. p. 203 ; and part ii. ch. 52. 
But St. Patrick afterwards blessed the sons of Brian, u suaque sacra benedictione mn- 

U 2 nivit 


nivit filios Briani ;*' the 0' Flaherties, and all the people of Hy-Briuin Seola, " ?entem- 
que de Hua-Briuin.'" Here also he built the church of Domnach-mor, now called 
Domnach Patruig, on the banks of Loch- Sealga, of which considerable remains may be 
seen at the present day. 

Loch-Sealga is now called Lough-Hacket, wliich name it received from one of 1 
English families planted in Moy-Seola, in the thirteenth century, by the Earl of 
Ulster, when the O'Flaherties were driven westward by the power of the De Bur. 
Hist. Galway, pp. 51, 219. In A. D. 1300, some of these " Hackete" accompam 

Earl Richard de Burgo on the expedition to Scotland Cal. Rot. Pat. 3 1 Edw. I. 

No. 21, and they continued retainers of the De Burgos to a later period Id. R^t. Pat. 

3, 4. Edw. II. No. 127. By them was built the castle called Castle Hacket. In 
A. D. 1584, 29 Jan. it was found by inquisition, that •' the sept of the Hackets wa> 
seised of the island called Ilan-Hacket in Moynter Murcho," i. e. in M - : -and 
of 12 quarters of land there, called Magherylary." — Tnq., Bolls Off. In the composi- 
tion for the territory of Clanrickard in that year, it appears that *' the land of Shane 
bwye's sept of Castell M c Hackett were 34 quarters.'" — See Appendix, rf< . I., and for 
more of this family of Hacket, see Rot. Pat. 15° Jac. I., p. 2, and 17 , p. 2. 

The district now forming Clare barony, was thickly castellated lv. ttlers 

above alluded to, during the thirteenth, and the three succeeding, centuries. The fol- 
lowing enumeration of those castles, with their proprietors. &c., i~ extracted 
" The Division of Connaught, A. D. 1586," preserved in the British Museum. ( 
Titus, B. xiii. p. 399: "The Baronie of Clare, conteininge Moyntagh M'- i 
Moynter Moroghowe, and Maghere-reogh, x miles long and vi broade ; and i«. 

like rate, plowlands xvi John Burke fitz- Thomas and M c C reamon (Redmond) chief 

in the same. — Parishes. Vicarage of Clare, vicar, of Kilmillayn, vicar, of Lekagh, vicar. 

of Kil , vicar, of Bealclarhome Gent, and castles. TherleofClanricard, Clarv; 

Ullig Reogh, DromghrifKn ; John Lynch fitz- William, Yowghule; ". 
Loscananon ; Mac Walter .called Thomas M c Henry, BallendurTe: MoylerM'S 
Cloynebow; Walter fitz-Ab. fitz- Ed., Masse ; Nicholas Lynch, Anaghcoyn< ; '.' 
fitz-Edmond, Leagkagh; MP Reamon, Cloghenwoyr; Ullig M c Reamon, Castle Hackett ; 
Walter Burke, Kilnemanegh; M c Walter's sept, Cahermorise; M^vkr M c Reamon. 
Anashkyne; Wil. Grana M c Ric, Cloghran ; Redmund M c Moyler M e Roe. Bealclarhome; 
Redmund M c Walter, Aghkyne; Ullig M c Richard, Comor: William Gaynard. Ca- 
rigin; Meyler M c Rickard, Tawmagh ; Richard Burke, Coroflyny; James fitz- An. 
Anbale ; Thomas Balue, Qworanonyn; Thomas Ballagh, Beallabeanchere; John Burke 
fitz-Thomas of Ballindere, and of Deremaclaghlyn ; Murrogh M Swyne, K] 
Edmund Owhny, Achrym ; Walter Boy, Grange: Johnoge fitz-John fitz-Ed., Cai 
Richard Burke fitz Tho., Beallauea; Tirlagb Garagh M c Swyne, Cahirnefieke; F 
Castle. Cas. 33." 


Most of these thirty-three castles, which we here find inhabited in the barony of 
Clare, in A. D. 1586, were erected by the De Burgos, but they are now all in ruins. 
The Four Masters state, that the castle of Coroffyny, Coradhfinne, now Corofin, was 
built in A. D. 145 1, by Mac William himself, i.e. Ulick, son of Ulick an fhiona, and 
father of Ulick, who, A. D. 1503, defeated O'Kelly [Melaghlin], lord of Hy-Many, and 
destroyed his castles of Garbh-doire [Garballg], Muine-an Mheadha [Monivea], and 
Gallach r ~ Castleblakeney], places now (1844) well known in the county of Galway. The 
Four Masters add, that O'Kelly complained of those outrages to the Lord Deputy, 
Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare; and that his complaint occasioned the memorable battle 
of Cnoc-Tuadh [the Hill of the Hatchets], fought in this barony of Clare, in A. D. 1 504. 
But that such was the cause of that great and disastrous outbreak, does not seem cre- 
dible, or consistent with the general policy of the English rulers at the time ; which 
was, not to afford any aid to the native Irish chieftains, or to redress their wrongs, 
but rather to root them out and seize their lands. And we are elsewhere informed 
that "the Burkes be of Englishe nacion;" and "berith mortal hate to the Kelleys." — 
State Papers, ii. p. 451. But the " Book of Howthe" expressly states, that the battle 
of Cnoc-tuadh was occasioned by a private quarrel between the Lord Deputy and De 
Burgo. As the singularly curious account of that battle, one of " the most bloody 
that stains the Irish annals," contained in the old Book of Howth, has not been pub- 
lished, I am induced to insert it here, from a manuscript in the Library of the Royal 

Dublin Society, stated to have been taken from that Book, fo. 108, a See King's 

Collections preserved in that Library. 


" After this the Earl [of Kildare] married another daughter of his to a great man 
in Connaught [Mac William of Vlanrickard], which was not so used as the Earl could 
be pleased with; and said he would be revenged upon this Irishman, who stood at 
defiance with the Earl and all his partakers. The Earl sent to all the Irish lords that 
were his friends, as O'Neil, O'lieily, O'Conor of O Faly, and all the power of the 
English Pale, so many as he could possibly make. For the Earl understood that all 
the Irish in Ireland were divided between him and his adversarys. They were a great 
number, whereof he had good experience. Therefore he made better provision of all 
things; and the best men in all the English Pale, both spiritual and temporal. And 
being 20 miles off Knocktow, he called the noblemen to councell. Amongst all were 
certain bishops and men of law. When O'Neill saw them he said: ' My Lord of 
Kildare, command the bishopps to go home and pray, for bishop's councells ought not 
to be taken in matters of warr, for their profession is to pray and preach, to make fair 
weather, and not to be privy to man-slaughter or bloodshed, but in preaching and 



teaching the word of God. And I assure you, it is a presumption for any prowd 
prelate to come where such matters are to be done, for it is contrary to his religion.' 
And so, O'Connor asked the Earl, what he would do with the judges and men of law 
in his company. ' Wee have no matters of pleading, nor matters of arguments, nor 
matter to debate, nor to be discussed by pen and ink, but by the bow, speare, and 
sword, and the valiant host of gentlemen and men of warr, by their fierce and lofty 
doings ; and not by the simple, sorry, weak and doubtful stomachs of learned men, 
for I never saw those that were learned ever give good counsaile in matt' 
warr. For they were alway doubting, staying, or persuading men, in frivolous and 
uncertain words, that Hector or Lancelot's doings. Away with them, they arc over- 
bold to press among this company, for our matter is to be decided by valiant and 
stout stomachs of prudent and wise men of warr, practised in the same faculty, 
and not matters of law, nor matters of religion.' The Baron of Delvin. called 
Richard, said, his learning was not such that with a glorious tale he could utter 
his stomach ; ' but I promise to God and to the Prince, I shall be the first that 
shall throw the first speare among the Irish in this battle. Let him speak now 
that will, for I have done.' The lord of Gormanston said, that it was good I 
advised what was to be done; 'for, after a good advisement, there ?hall come a . 
end, for a hasty man never lacked woe. Let us understand the matter ere m 
the weighty matter in hand ; for many perills may fall unless wee take the 
hold thereof. Let us understand the quarrell again, and debate the matter whether 
we shall proceed or no ere wee begin; and let the King be privy to this weighty and 
uncertain enterprise, for wee may put the whole realm in hazard if wee speed not 
well, for I understand that they arc many against us, and this is >o much as I at this 
time mean to say.' 

" This counsaill was at three of the clock in the afternoon before the day of battle, 
then within a few miles from the field appointed. Sir Nicholas, lord of Houth. 
' The sayings of O'Neill and O'Connor are not to be disallowed. Let it be as they 
said. And my lord of Gormanston's opinion is good, so it had been spoke before 
our coming to the field; and for that, here is my opinion, seeing the time is short:' 
for at this time appeared upon a hill above two hundred horsemen. When 
Gerot, the Earl's son, would have been at them, and asked of the counsell to 
them; but the lords of the councell said that none should go until they had gone all; 
and, so staid this lusty and worthy gentleman, at which young Gerot was very sorry, 
as though he never should have his fill of fighting. ' Well,' said the Lord of Howth. ' to 
answer the Lord of Gormanston, this matter was determined before we came hither 
deliberately by the councill, and if it were not, the time is not now to ar^ue die 
our enemies being in sight; and for the displeasure of our Prince, if wee win this battle. 

1 5 l 

as I am sure we shall, though the King frown a little with his countenance, his heart 
will rejoice. And admit he will be offended upon losing this field, he that shall live 
let him beare the blame or burthen, as for my part I am assured to win this battle or 
to loose my life, and then all the world is gone with me, vayell que vayell pourya, 
for I will be afoot in the wayward that day myself. But to the matter. Let us 
send away our sons and heires to revenge our quarrell, if need so require; and pre- 
scribe our battles in perfect order this night, that every man shall know to-morrow 
his charge. For it is not when we shall go to fight, that we should be troubled with 
discussing the matter.' 

" ' Well,' sayed the Earle, ' my dear cousin, you have well spoken; be it as you 
now have said.' ' No,' said young Gerot the Earl's son, ' by God's blood I will not go 
hence and leave so many of my friends in battle, for I mean to live and die among 
you.' ' All well,' said the Lord of Houth, ' boy, thou speakest natural, for ever this 
kind is such from this first generation, and first coming into Ireland, so thou art to 
be born withall, thou worthy gentleman and lyon's heart.' The lords of Killeen and 
Trimelston thought the number of Irishmen to be very great, as they were certainly 
informed by certain spies, which brought them word, that the number of the English 
side were not the sixth man to a man ; and said in plain terms, ' that a good giving 
back were better than an evill standing, and in further time better provision might 
be made to serve such a turn.' ' It is well spoken,' said the Baron of Slane, and 
Lord of Dunsany. ' Good God,' said the Lord of Houth, ' by our Lady that is blessed 
in the north church of Houth, you four might have spoken those words in some 
other ground than this is, and our enemies now being in sight, and the night at hand.' 

" ' Well,' said the Earl, ' call me the Captain of the Gallowglass, for he and his 
shall begin this game, for it is less fair of them four, than it is of our younger men.' 
' I am glad, said the Captain, ' you can do me no more honour ;' and took his axe in 
his hand and began to flourish. ' No,' said the Lord of Houth, ' I will be the 
beginner of this dance, and my kinsmen and friends ; for we will not hazard our 
English good upon the Irish blood. Howbeit it is well spoken by the Captaine of 
the Gallowglass, nor shall they not be mixed among us.' Then all things was 
according to the matter prepared; the bowmen put in two wings, of which the Lord 
of Gormanston and Killeen had the charge, being good men that day. The bill-men 
in the main battle, of which the Lord of Houth was leader; and in the wayward 
himself. The Gallowglass and the Irish in another quarter. The horsemen on the 
left side the battle, under the guiding of the worthy Baron of Delvin, by reason 
there was a little wall of two foot high of the other side the battle, which would 
somewhat have troubled the horse. After all things put in order, they went to 


J 5 2 

supper, and after, their lodging to rest the residue of the night. The ground was 
appointed, and all such things as were necessary for such a purpose. 

" At midnight, a horseman came from the Irish camp to the Earl, and willed him 
to get him away, and save his life; and said, it was but folly to fight. For this man 
was, afore this time, a horse-boy to the Earl, and gave him first horses. The Earl 
came incontinent to the Lord of Houth, being in a sound sleep, to tell it him, and a 
long while he was e're he could wake him, for he called upon him divers times; at 
which the Earl marvelled, for he could not awake him by his voice, he slept BO sound: 
and at length he awoke by stirring of hint, and blamed him, who answered, that 
all things before were determined in his mind, and so nothing else in hie mind to 
trouble him but sleepe. ' For it must be ours or theirs,' said the Lord of li 
' therefore my mind is settled, but before this I could net rest well.' ' V, 
the Earl, 'how is the business? This man is come to me as a trusty friend," and so 
told the whole matter, as he told the Earl before. ' Well,' said the Lord of Houth, 
' suffer him to pass, and I pray you tell this tale to no more, for it will rather do 
harm than good.' And with that he arose and incontinent after the day appeared. 
And so they went and prepared themselves in good order of battle, and did appoint 
young Gerot, a valiant young gentleman, with a choice company for relieJ 
so great a number of enemies would inclose them about in number 

than the Irish, as O'Kelly, M c William, O'Brene, and the r< 

"All that night was watching, ami drinking, and playing at cards, who should 
have this prisoner or that prisoner, and thus they passed the night over : and at nv 
they prepared for battle, in such order as their custom was. They setl forward their 
Gallowglass and footmen in one main battle, and all their horse on their left side, and 
so came on. The Earl of Kildare, after his battle set, willed that they should 
within that little wall of two foot high, that was made afore by those that dwelt 
there for safeguard of their horses; and rode upon a black horse, and madi 
oration : 

" 4 My friends and kinsmen, I say to you that here is against us a great uu: 
of people, without weapons; for a great number of them have but one speare and a 
knife, without wisdom or good order, they march to battle as drunken as swine to 
a trough, which makes them more rash and foolish men, than wise and valiant. 
Remember all that wee have done rests upon this day's service; and also the honour 
of our Prince, and remember how we are in a country unknown to the most number 
of us, and farr from our townes and castles.' The Earl did not well finish these 
words, when they heard three great cries that disturbed his oration. A company of 
tall worthy gentlemen being in the fore part of the English battle, amongst all was 



Hollywood of Artain, which seldom heard the like. ' What meaneth this cry,' said 
he, ' do they think that we are crows that we will fly with crying ;' and sware by the 
holy St. Nicholas that blesses Artain, ' they shall find lis men ere we depart.' With 
that, the Irish gallowglass came on, to whom the English archers lent such a shower 
of arrows, that their weapons and their hands were fastened together. M c Swine, 
captain of the Irish gallowglass, came foremost, and asked where was great Darcy ? 
Darcy answered that he was at hand, which he should well understand. With that, 
M c Swine struck Darcy such a blow upon the helmet that he put him upon his knees. 
With that, Nangle, Baron of the Nowan, being a lusty gentleman, that day gave 
M c Swine such payment, that he was satisfied ever after. They fought terrible and 
bould awhile. The Irish fled, among whom there came a horseman running among 
the English, and asked who had the Earl of Kildare and the rest of the lords of the 
English Pale prisoners. With that one Skynvors \_Squyvors in another cop?/'], a souldier 
out of Dublin, struck him with a gun, with both his hands, and so let out his brains. 
The young Gerotthis time being left for reliefe, seeing the battle join, could not stand 
still to wait his time, as he was appointed by the Earl his father, but set on with the 
foremost, in such sort that no man alive could do better with his own hands, than he 
did that day, for manhood of a man. But by reason of his hastyness not tarrying in 
the place appointed, all the English carriage was taken by the Irish horse, and a few 
of the English gentlemen taken prisoners that was on that side the battle. When the 
battle was done, and a great number of Irish slain, as it was reported nine thousand, 
the Lord of Gormanston said to the Earl, ' Wee have done one good work, and if wee 
do the other wee should do well.' Being asked what he meant, sayed he, ' wee have, 
for the most number, killed our enemies ; and if wee do the like with all the Irishmen 
that wee have with us, it were a good deed.' 

" This battle was fought the 19th day of August, 1504, at Knocktow, which is 
from Galway 5 miles. The hill is not high but a great plain. The greatest of the 
Irish was Eichard Burke, father to Ulick ne Kyen. M c William Eytragh, that is also 
of the Bourkes, at this time was with the Earl. The O'Briens was with M c William. 
The Baron of Delvin, a little before the joining of the battle, took his horse with his 
spurs, and threw a small spear among the Irish, and slew by chance one of the Bourkes, 
and returned. The Earl said to him that he kept promise well, and well did and 
worthy, saving that after his throw he retired back. After, they went to Galway, 
where the Irish gathered again, and said they would give to the Earl another field ; 
but they durst not ever fight a battle with the English Pale. The Earl bestowed 30 
tun of wine among the army. There was a sore fight after between M c William east, 
and M c William of the west. By reason at that field aforesaid, they held not together ; 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. NO. 1 5. X but 


but he of the east had the worse. The Earl of Kildare was made knight of the garter, 
after the fight of Knocktow." 

The foregoing description of the celebrated " field ofKnocktoe," in the old histori- 
cal romance style, was apparently penned by a friend or retainer of the Howth family 
(probably some troubadour of the Pale), who flattered his patrons, but perverted the 
truth. That the narrator was ignorant of many leading facts connected with the 
subject, or that he has wilfully misrepresented them, appears from contemporaneous 
evidence of the highest authority. Thus, he has described the An;_do-Norman Clan- 
rickard as a mere Irishman ; and has next asserted that " O'Neill" was engaged in 
the battle, on the side of the lord deputy ; but the contrary of this is recorded in the 
Annals of Ulster, A. D. 1504. Thither (to Knocktow) "went O'DonneL O'Reilly. Mac 
Mahon, O'Farrell, O'Connor Faly, and all the Gaedhil of Leath Chuinn, eif 
O'Neill, alone, — 7 ^aeoil leice Cuinn uile, ace rhuo O'Neill urhuin." See the copy 
of these Annals in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Ware reduces the number 
of slain at Knocktow, from nine thousand to two thousand. — Annals, A. D. 1504. The 
speeches attributed to the leaders, and the night scene between II' wth and Kildare. 
are all imaginary, and well adapted for dramatic representation. 

The Book of Howth, from which the narrative has been taken, is a 
compilation of the sixteenth century ; supposed to have been made for Christopher, 
the blind Baron of Howth, who died A. D. 1 589 ; and who was grandson of that " lord 
of Howth," who is said to have performed so conspicuous a part in the battle. This 
book, for more than a century past, was supposed to be lost, but it has been re 
discovered by Mr. O'Donovan, among the Carew MSS. preserved in the library of his 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, London, where it lay catal 1 
under a wrong title. The recovery of this book may be useful, if onl j 
origin of those fables, which Hanmer, Stanihurst, Cox, Leland, and other writers have 
advanced as true historical facts. From it, Hanmer published his accoi. 
John De Courcy, and Sir Armoric St. Lawrence, ancestor of the Howth family. It 
likewise appears to have been consulted by Ussher and Wai S • MS. F. 4, 4. 

Trinity College Library, Dublin. Also F. 4, 30, for "Extracts out of the Book of 
Howth, penes Thomas Stafford, Esq., very false in many particulars." By those best 
acquainted with our records and history, it has never been considered of authorir 
held in any other light than as a compilation of Anglo-Irish fables, ini 
and anruse the inhabitants of the Pale. 

NOTE C. Seepage 3, note c . " EnachJun." 

In the sixth century, Aodha, the son of Eochy Tirmcharna. King of Connai. _ 

bestowed Enachdun on God and Breanuinn (St Brendan of Clonfert). " Qoda mux 

l 55 

Garac Ciopmcapna riiic pheapjupa po chioonuic Gunacouin do tDhia ajup oo 
61ipeanuinn ap cup." — Book of Balli/mote, p. 54. The first ecclesiastical foundation 
here was a nunnery of canonesses of the order of St. Augustine, dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary (Ware), established by St. Brendan, who placed his sister Briga over it; 
and died here himself, according to the Annals of Tigernach, in A. D. 577 ; but according 
to the Four Masters (who here anticipate the common era by one year) on the 16th 
of May, A. D. 576. See Ussher, in Primord. p. 955, who states that Enachdun was 
" in provincia Connachtarum in plebe HiiahruinP An abbey of Canons Eegular, or 
Prsemonstratenses of the order of St. Augustine, was also founded here at an early 
period ( Ware), but by whom is not stated. Enachdun was afterwards erected into a 
bishop's see, probably by the chiefs of Hy-Briuin Seola, the progenitors of the O'Fla- 
herties ; but there is no regular list or account extant of its ancient bishops. It is not 
named among the five sees of Connaught regulated at the synod held at Bath Breasaill, 
in Leaghes (the present Queen's County), A. D. mo. Those sees were: 1. Tuaim da 
Gualan; 2. Cloinefeart Brenuin; 3. Conga; 4. Cilalladh; 5. Ardcharna. The see of 
Cong soon after this ceased ; or, as is most likely, the episcopal chair was transferred 
to Enachdun, which is but a few miles distant. This synod made the following decree 
respecting Connaught: "If the clergy of Connaught be satisfied with the division, we 
are well pleased, but if not, let the division be made according to their own pleasure; 
onlie they shall have but five bishops in the province of Connaught." Harris, in 
Ware, was in the dark with respect to this synod; and even Dr. Lanigan himself 
appears not to have been fully informed on the stibject. Seech. 25, ss. 13, 14. An 
account of this synod will be found in an old unpublished History of Ireland, preserved 
in manuscript in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Ware, in his 
Antiq., cap. xvi. mentions exantiquo codice, "Tuathal O'Connaigtaigepiscopus Huam- 
bruin, i. Enachdunensis," as present at the synod of Kells, A. D. 1152, but Ware's 
explanation of Huambruin by Enachdun is doubtful; besides, no such bishop appears 
in the lists of Keating or Colgan, which are acknowledged accurate. Ware also states, 
in his Annals, since the coming of the English, that Concors, Bishop of Enachdun, 
with other Irish prelates, was present at the British Council held in A. D. 1 189. See 
also Lanigan, c. 31, s. 7. At A. D. 1201, the Four Masters record the death of Conn 
O'Mellaigh (C-'Malle?/), bishop of this see, and a bright ornament of the Church. 

A. D. 1238, the Cloic Ceac, tower or steeple of Enachdun, was built Id.; but no 

trace of it now remains. A. D. 1241, Muircheartach O'Flaherty, Bishop of Enachdun, 

died — Id. A. D. 1 250, Thomas O'Meallaigh, Bishop of Enachdun, died Id. On 

the death of the latter, Bishop Concord was consecrated, but Florence Mac Flin, Arch- 
bishop of Tuam, entered on the see, and retained it against him. See Harris in Ware, 

X 2 who 

i 5 6 

quotes from Prynne some of the documents connected with this long continued dispute, 
particularly Archbishop Mac Fliu's extraordinary petition to Hen. III. A. D. 1251, 
which states that " the church of Enachduin was but a parish church belonging to 
Tuam." In A. D. 1268, Hugh, the son of Connor O'Flaherty, official of Enachdun, 
died. — Four Masters. By the Close Eoll, 2 Edw. II., A. D. 1309, it appear; that one 
Gilbert, a Friar Minor, was elected to this see by the Dean and Chapter, but without 
license; and that the King, for a fine of £300, restored the temporalities. — Calendar, 
p. 7, No. 12. This bishop is not mentioned by Ware, Harris, or Lanigan. In A. D. 
1328, Thomas O'Malley, Bishop of Enachdun, died at Rome, according to the Four 
Masters; but the Annals of Loughkee, quoted by Ware, state that he died at Avignon, 
in A. D. 1328, which was after the union of the see of Enachdun to Tuam. — Ware. 
In A. D. 1400, the church of Annadown (EnacJidun), was built by O'Flaherty (llnuh 
Mor), chief of his name. — See an entry to that effect in the Herald's Office. Dublin ; 
but it is probable that the church was only repaired, or partially re-edified, at the 
time. In A. D. 141 1, the monastery was burned. — Four Masti ra In A. D. 1484 the 
parish church of St. Nicholas of the town of Galway, being in the diocese of Enachdun, 
was erected into a collegiate church, and endowed with several ecclesiastical benefices 

which formerly belonged to that see Hist. Galway, p. 234 Alter the Suppree 

the possessions of Enachdun were granted to the Earl of Clanricarde and otii 
Archdall, 789. All the buildings there are now in ruins. 

The following Bulls of Popes Innocent VIII., Alexander VI.. and Julius II.. A. D. 
1487-1511, relating to the diocess of Enachdun, have been transcribed by the Editor 
from the originals preserved in the old Collegiate Library of Galway : and tl. 
inserted for the cogent reason assigned by De Burgo, for introducing similar docu- 
ments: "Ne pro consueto Hibernorum infortunio, ne dicam negligentia. prorsus de 
memoria hominum deleantur." — Hib. hum. p. 440. 


" Bulla pro Par. de Gnowceg, A. D. 1487 
" Lecta in audientia. A Zenus, locum tenen- 

"Innoceutius episcopus servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis Johanni de Burgo et 
Nemee Magnelly canonicis ecclesie Enachdunensis ac officialibus Enachdunensibus, salu- 
tem et apostolicam benedictionem. Apostolice sedis providentia circumspecta ad ea 
libenter intendit per que in singulis ecclesiis continue benedicatur altissimus, ac per- 
sone ecclesiastice in illis divinis laudibus insisteutes. temporalium rerum. sine quibus 
spiritualia diu subsistere non possunt, ubertate fxuantur. Cum itaque. sicut acce- 



pinms, rectoria parrochialium ecclesiarum de Gnobeg, Enachdunensis diocesis, invicem 
unitaram que de jure patronatus laicorum existet, ex eo quod dilectus films Mauritius 
Offlaghart, olim rectoriam predictam, tunc certo modo vacantem et canonice sibi colla- 
tam, assecutus, illamque per annum et amplius pacifice possidens, se non fecit, impedi- 
mento cessante legitimo, nullaque per eum super hoc dispensacione obtenta ad aliquem 
ex sacris ordinibus promoveri, vacet ad presens, et tanto tempore vacaverit quod ejus 
collatio, juxta Lateranensis statuta concilii, est ad sedem predictam legitime devoluta, 
licet prefatus Mauritius, rectoriam predictam, sic vacante, nullo titulo, nullove juris 
adminiculo sibi de novo quesito, sed temeritate propria et de facto per nonnullos annos 
detinuerit, prout adhuc detinet indebite occupatam. Et ut exhibita nobis nuper, pro 
parte dilectorum filiorum moderni rectoris, Guardiani nuncupati, et octo presbiterorum 
ecclesie Sancti Nicholai ville Gallvie, dicte diocesis, inibi inter se collegium auctoritate 
apostolica constituentium, petitio continebat si rectoria predicta masse communium 
fructuum, reddituum et proventuum dicte ecclesie Sancti Nicholai, qui inter rectorem 
et octo presbiteros prelates, qui inibi juxta dicti collegii institucionem in divinis 
deservire tenentur, dividuntur, et ad ipsorum sustentacionem non sufficient, perpetuo 
uniretur, annecteretur, et incorporaretur, ex hoc profecto commoditatibus rectoris et 
octo presbiterorum predictorum plurimum consuleretur, pro parte rectoris et presbi- 
terorum offerentium masse quadraginta, et rectorie predictarum duodecim marcharum 
sterlingorum fructus, redditus et proventus, secundum communem estimationem valo- 
rem annuuin non excedere, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut rectoriam predictam 
eidem masse perpetuo unire, annectere et incorporare, aliasque in premissis oportune 
providere, de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos igitur, qui dudum inter alia, 
voluimus, statuimus et ordinavimus, quod quicunque beneficium ecclesiasticum tunc 
per annum immediate precedentem pacifice possessum, et quod certo modo vacare pre- 
tenderet, deinceps impetraret quot annis illud ipse possessor possedisset in hujusmodi 
impetratione exprimere deberet et teneretur, alioquin impetracio predicta, et quecuu- 
que indesecuta, nullius existerent firmitatis, quamque de predictis certam noticiam non 
habemus, prefatos rectorem et presbiteros ac eorum singulos a quibus excommunica- 
tionis, suspensionis et interdicti, aliisque ecclesiasticis sentenciis, censuris et penis, a 
jure vel ab homine, qua vis occasione vel causa latis, si quibus quomodolibet innodati 
existunt, ad effectum presentium duntaxat consequendum, harumserie absolventes, et 
absolutes fore censentes, necnon tempus per quod prefatus Mauritius dictam rectoriam 
detinuit pro expresso habentes, hujusmodi supplicationibus inclinati, discretioni vestre, 
per apostolica scripta, mandamus, quatenus vos vel duo aut unus vestrum, si vocatis 
dicto Mauritio et aliis qui fuerint evocandi, rectoriam predictam, ut premittitur, vel 
alias quovis modo aut ex alter ius cujuscunque persona, seu per liberam resignationem 


i 5 8 

dicti Mauritii, vel alicujus alterius de ilia extra Romanam Curiam, etiarn coram notario 
publico et testibus sponte factam, aut constitutionem felicis recordationis Johannis 
Pape XXIL, predecessoris nostri, que incipit ' Execrabilis,' vel assecutionem alterius 
beneficii ecclesiastici, ordinaria auctoritate, collati, vacare et quoad unionem hujus- 
modi premissa fore vera reppereritis rectoriam predictam, etiam si disposition! si 
lice specialiter reservata existat, et super ea inter aliquos lis cujus statum presentibus 
haberi volumus, pro expresso pendeat indecisa, dummodo tempore dati presentium non 
sit in ea alicui jus specialiter quesitum, et ad id dictorum patronorum et aliorum, 
quorum interest, expressus accedat assensus, cum omnibus juribus et pertinenciis 
suis, eidem masse, auctoritate nostra, perpetuo unire, annectere et incorporare curetis. 
Ita quod liceat extunc rectori et presbiteris prefatis, per 6e vel alium seu alios, 
corporalem rector ie, juriumque et pertinenciarum predictorum, possessionem propria 
auctoritate libere apprehendere ac perpetuo retinere, illorumque fructus, redditus et 
proventus in suos ac masse et rectorie predictorum usus utilitatemque convertere. 
diocesani loci et cujusvis alterius licentia, alias super hoc minime requisite. Hon ob- 
stantibus voluntate, statuto et ordinacione nostris predictis. ac pie memorie Bonifacii 
Pape VIII. etiam predecessoris nostri, et aliis apostolicis constitutionibus contrariis 
quibuscunque. Aut si aliqui super provisionibus sibi faciendis, de hup 1 aliis 

beneficiis eccle»ia>tieis in illis partibus, speciales vel generates, diet' iegatorum 

ejus litteras impetrarint, etiam si per eas ad inhibitionem, r -• i . utionem et decretum, 
vel alias quomodolibet sit processum, quae qoidem litt>-ras et processus fa 
easdem ac indesecuta quecunque ad rectoriam hujusmodi volumus non extern 
nullum per hoc eis, quo ad assecutionem beneficiorum aliorum, prejudkium generari, 
et quibuslibet aliis privilegiis, indulgentiis et litteris apostoli( . _ - 1 spe- 

cialibus, quorumcunque tenorum existent, per que presentibus non e.\; I tota- 

liter non inserta, effectus earum impediri valeat quoniodoliKt vel differri. et de quibus 
quorumque totis tenoribus habenda sit in nostris litteris mencio specialis. 1 ' 
qood propter unionem, annexionem et incorporationem predictas, si ille, vigore ] 
tium, fiant, et effectual sorciuntur, dicta rectoria debitis non fraudetur obseqi. 
animarum cura in ea nullatenus negligatur, sed ejus cougrue supportentur onera con- 
sueta. Nos enim ex nunc irritum decemimus et inane, si secus super hiis a quoquam, 
quavis auctoritate, scienter vel ignoranter, contigerit attempteri. Datum Rome apud 
Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis Domiuice, millesimo, quadringentesimo octua- 
gesimo septimo. Quarto Idus Februarii, Pontiiicatu> nostri anno quarto." 

[SvA plumbeo sigiBo pendente a filo canabeo~\. 



" Bulla pro Skryne et Muchulin, A. D. i^gz. 

" Innocentius episcopus, servus servorum Dei, ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Ex 
injuncto nobis de super apostolice servitutis officio, ed ea libenter intendimus, per que 
personarum ecclesiasticarum, presertim in ecclesiis quibuslibet divinis laudibus insis- 
tencium, commodo et utilitati consuli possit, et hiis que propterea perinde facta fuisse 
dicuntur, ut firma perpetuo et illibatu persistant libenter, cum a nobis petitur, apos- 
tolici adjicirnus muniminis flrmitatem. Sane pro parte dilectorum filiorum, universo- 
rum presbiterorum et clericorum ecclesie Sancti Nicholai ville Galvie, Enachdunensis 
diocesis, nobis nuper exhibita petitio continebat: quod alim perpetuis vicariis parrochi- 
alium ecclesiarum de Shejne et Maguily^, Tuamensis et dicte Enachdunensis diocesum, 
tunc certo modo vacantibus, venerabilis frater noster modernus Archiepiscopus Tua- 
mensis, et Episcopus Enachdunensis attendens exilitatem fructuum, reddituum et 
proventuum collegii presbiterorum et clericorum predictorum, qui in dicta ecclesia 
Sancti Nicholai continue divinis ofnciis insistunt, vicarias predictas, sic vacantes, 
eidem collegio, ordinaria auctoritate, perpetuo univit, annexuit et incorporavit, prout 
in quibusdam litteris autenticis dicti Archiepiscopi et Episcopi desuper confectis, dicitur 
plenius contineri. Cum autem, sicut eadem petitio subjungebat, a nonnullis de juribus 
unionis, annexionis et incorporationis predictarum beneficetur, pro parte presbiterorum 
et clericorum predictorum asserentium, quod ipsi unionis, annexionis et incorporationis 
predictarum vigore, dictarum vicariarum possessionem assecuti fuerunt, quodque 
fructus, redditus et proventus dictarum vicariarum quatuordecim marcharum sterlin- 
gorum, secundum communem extimacionem, valorem annuum non excedunt, nobis fuit 
humiliter supplicatum ut unioni, annexioni et incorporationi predictis, pro illaruni 
subsistencia firmiori, robur apostolice confirmacionis adducere, ac potiori pro cautela 
dictas vicarias eidem Collegio de novo perpetuo unire, annectere et incorporare,- alias- 
que in premissis oportune providere, de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos igitur, 
qui dudum inter alia volumus,quodpetentes beneficia ecclesiastica aliis uniri tenerentur 
exprimere verum valorem, secundum commuuem extimationem etiam beneficii cui 
aliud uniri peteretur. Alioquin unio non valeret, et semper in unionibus comissio 
neret ad partes vocatis quorum interesset, et idem observaretur in confirmationibus 
unionum factarum, prefatos presbiteros et clericos eorumque singulos a quibusvis ex- 
communicationis, suspensionis et interdicti, aliisque ecclesiasticis sententiis, censuris et 
penis, a jure vel ab homine quavis occasione vel causa latis, si quibus quomodolibet 
innodati existunt, ad effectum presentium duntaxat consequendum harum serie, absol- 
ventes, et absolutos fore censentes, ac verum ultime dictarum vicariarum vacationis 



modum, etiam si ex illo quevis generalis reservatio resultet, ac fructuum, reddituum 
et proventuum illarum verum annuum valorem, presentibus pro expressis hal^entes, 
hujusmodi supplicacionibus inclinati, unionem, annexionem et incorporationem pre- 
dictas, ac prout illas concernunt omnia et singula in dictis litteris contenta, et inde 
secuta quecunque, auctoritate apostolica, tenore presentium, approbamus et confir- 
mamus, ac, presentis scripti patrocinio, communimus, supplentes omnes et singulos 
defectus, si qui forsan intervenerint in eisdem. Et nichilominus potiori pro cautela, 
vicarias predictas, quovis modo, et ex cujuscunque persona, seu per liberam resigna- 
tionem alicujus de illis, extra Bomanam curiam, etiam coram notario publico, et testibus 
sponte factam aut constitutionem felicis recordationis Johannis Pape XXII. predeces- 
soris nostri que incipit ' Execrabilis,' vel assecutionem alterius beneficii ecclesiastici. 
dicta ordinaria auctoritate collati, vacet, etiam si tanto tempore vacaverint quod earum 
collatio, juxta Lateranensis statuta concilii (est), ad sedem apostolicam legitime devo- 
luta, ipseque vicarie dispositioni apostolice specialiter reservate existant. et super eis, 
inter aliquos lis cujus statum presentibus haberi volumus pro espresso pendeat indecisa, 
dummodo tempore dati presentium non sit in eis alicui spcialiter jus quesitum, cum 
omnibus juribus et pertinenciis suis, eidem collegio, auctoritate apostolica prefata. 
earundem tenore presentium, de novo perpetuo unimus annectimus et incorporamus. 
Ita quod liceat presbiteris et clericis prefatis, per se vel abum seu alios, corporalem 
juriumque et pertinentiarum predictarum possessionem, propria auctoritate libere 
apprehendere, ac perpetuo retinere, illorumque fructus, redditu- et proventus in suos 
ac collegii et vicariarum predictarum usus, utilitatemque converters diocesani loci et 
cum suis alterius licentia super hoc minime requisita. Non obstantibus voluntate 
nostra predicta, ac pie memorie Bonifacii Pape VIII. etiam predecessoris nostri, et 
aliis apostolicis constitutionibus contrariis quibuscunque. Aut si aliqui super provisi- 
onibus sibi faciendis, de hujusmodi vel aliis benefices ecclesiasticis in illis partibus, 
speciales vel generales, dicte sedis vel legatorum ejus, litteras impertrarunt, etiam si 
per eas ad inhibitionem, reservationem et decretum, vel alias quomodolibet sit preniB- 
sum, quasquidem litteras ac processus habitos per eadem, et inde secuta quecunque, ad 
dictas vicarias, volumus non extendi, sed nullum per hoc eis quoad assecutionem bene- 
ficiorum aliorum prejudicium generari, et quibuslibet aliis privilegiis, indulgentiis et 
litteris apostolicis, generalibus vel specialibus, quorumcunque tenorum existunt, per 
que presentibus non expressa, vel totaliter non inserta, effectus eorum impediri valeat 
quomodolibet vel differri, et de quibus quorumque totis tenoribus habenda sit in nos- 
tris litteris mentio specialis. Proviso quod propter unionem, annexionem et incorpo- 
rationem predictas, dicte vicarie debitis non fraudentur obsequiis et animarum cura 
in eis nullatenus negligatur, sed illarum congrue supportentur onera consueta. N - 



enim exnunc irritum decernimus et inane, si secus super hiis a qtioqam, quavis aucto- 
ritate, scienter vel ignoranter, contigerit attemptari. Nulli ergo omnino hominuni 
liceat hancpaginam nostre absolutionis, approbationis, confirmationis, communicationis, 
suppletionis, unionis, annexionis, incorporationis, voluntatis et decreti infringere, vel 
ei, ausu temerario,contraire. Si quis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem 
omnipotentis Dei, et beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus, se noverit incursu- 
rum. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis Dominice, millesimo, 
quadringentesimo, nonagesimo secundo. Quarto Non. Junii, Pontificatus nostri anno 

\_Subplumbeo sigitto pendente a filo canabeo.~\ 


" Bulla pro Serine et Clonbirn. 
" A.D. 1495. 

" Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilectis filiis Magonio O'Maynar et 
Johannem O'Beryn ac Nemee Magnell, canonicis ecclesie Tuamensis, salutem et 
apostolicam benedictionem. Vite ac morum honestas, aliaque laudabilia probitatis et 
virtutum merita, super quibus dilectus iilius Johannes Bremechian clericus Tuamensis 
diocesis, apud nos ride digno commendatur testimonio, nos inducunt ut sibi reddamur 
ad gratiam liberales. Cum itaque, sicut accepimus, vicaria de Scryn, custodia reli- 
quiarum sancti Yerlahey nuncupata m , et alia de Cloinberyn alias de Bocherayn, par- 
rochialium ecclesiarum dicte diocesis perpetue vicarie, vacent ad presens, et tanto 
tempore vacaverint, quod earum collatio, juxta Lateranensis statuta concilii, est ad 
sedem apostolicam legitime devoluta, licet rector, Wardianus nuncupatus, ac Colle- 
gium presbiterorum ecclesie ville Galvye, Enachdunensis diocesis, de Scryn, et Donaldus 
O'Hirraley, qui pro presbitero se gerit, dilecti filii de Cloinberyn, ecclesiarum vicarias 
hujusmodi, nullo titulo, nullove juris adminiculo eis desuper suffragante, sed temeri- 
tate propria, et de facto, per certum tempus detinuerunt, prout adhuc detinent, 
indebite occupatas. Nos, qui dudum inter alia voluimus, statuimus, et ordinavimus, 
quod quicunque beneficium ecclesiasticum tunc per annum immediate precedentem 
pacifice possessum, et quod certo modo vacare pretenderet, extunc deinceps impetraret 
quot annis illud ipse possessor possedisset, in hujusmodi impetratione exprimere de- 
beret et teneretur, alioquin impetratio predicta, et quecunque inde secuta, nullius ex- 
isterent firmitatis, volentes prefato Johanni, qui ut asserit in decimo septimo sue etatis 
anno constitutus existit, ac non obstante defectu natalium quern patitur de conjugato 

m Vide War. De Praesul. Hib. 



genitus, et soluta clericali caractere rite insignitus fuit, premissorum meritorum suorum 
intuitu, graciam facere specialem, ipsumque Johannem a quibuscunque excommunica- 
tionis, suspensionis et interdicti, aliisque ecclesiasticis sentenciis, censuris et penis, a jure 
vel ab homine quavis occasione vel causa latis, Biquibusquomodolibet innodatusexistit, 
ad effectum presentium duntaxat consequendum, harum Berie absol ventes, et absolutum 
fore censentes, ac verum ultime dictarum vicariarum vacationis, modum etiani 
illo quevis generalis reservatio resultet, necnon tempus per quod rector ac presbiteri 
De Scryn, necnon Donaldus prefati de Cloinberyn, vicarias hujusmodi detinuerunt. 
presentibus pro expressis habentes, discretioni vestre, per apostolica scripts, man- 
damus, quatenus vos vel duo aut unus vestrum, si vocatis rectore ac pr< 
Donaldo prefatis, ac aliis qui fuerint evocandi, Vicarias predictae quibusvis modi? it 
ex quorumcunque personis, seu per liberas resignationes aliquorum de illi?. extra 
Romanam curiam, etiam coram Notario Publico et testibus sponte factas, aut i 
tutionem felicis recordationis Johannis Pape XX1L, predecessoris nostri, que incipit 
' Execrabilis,' vel assecutionemalterius beneficiiecelesiasiK iordiuaria auctoritate eollati. 
vacare repperitis, illas quarum insimul fructus, redditus et proventus octo marcharuni 
sterlingorum, secundum communem estimationem valorem annuum, at idem Johannes 
etiam asserit, non excedunt, etiam si disposition] Apostolice specialife i .te ex- 

istant, et super eis inter aliquos lis, cujus statum presentibus haberi nolumus. pro 
expresso pendeat indecisa, dummodo tempore dati presentium non sit in eis alicui 
specialiter jus quesitum, cum omnibus juribus et pertinenciis >uis prefato Johaani, 
auctoritate nostra, conferre et assignare curetis, inducentes per nos vel aliu: 
alios eundem Johannem, vel procuratorem suum ejus nomine, in corporalem \ 
sionem vicariarum, juriumque et pertinentiaram predictorum, et defendent 
ductum, amotis a De Scryn rectore et presbiteris, necnon a de Clonbervn eoclesuram 
vicariis hujusmodi, Donaldo predictis et quibuslibet aliis i 1 1 1 < - 
facientes Johannem, vel pro eo procuratorem predictum, ad vicarias hnjosmodi at 
est moris admitti, sibique de illarum fructibus, redditibus, proventibus, juri; 
obventionibus universis integre responderi, contradictores auctoritate nostra, 
latione postposita, compescendo. Non obstantibus voluntate priori, statuto et ordi- 
natione nostris predictis, necnon pie memorie Bonit'acii Pape VIII. i-tiani predei 
nostri, et aliis apostolicis constitutionibus contrariis quibuscunque. Aut si aliqui. 
super provisionibus sibi faciendis, de hujusmodi vel aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis in 
illis partibus, speciales vel generales, dicte sedis vel legatorum ejus litteras impe- 
trarint, etiam si per eas ad inhibitionem, reservationem et decretum, vel alias quomo- 
dolibet sit processum, quibus omnibus eundem Johannem, in dictarum vicariarum 
assecutione, nolumus anteferri, sed nullum per hoc eis, qui - ationem bene- 



ficiorum aliorum, prejudicium generari. Seu si venerabili fratri nostro archiepiscopo 
Tuamensis, vel quibusvis aliis, communiter vel divisim, ab eadem sit sede indultum, 
quod ad receptionem vel provisionem alicujus ininime teneantur, et ad id compelli, 
aut quod interdici, suspendi vel excommunicari possint, quodque de hujusmodi, vel 
aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis, ad eorum collationem, provisionem, presentationem, seu 
quamvis aliam dispositionem, conjunctim vel separatim, spectantibus, nulli valeat 
provideri per litteras apostolicas, non facientes plenam et expressam, ac de verbo ad 
verbum de indulto hujusmodi mentionem, et qualibet alia dicte sedis indulgencia, 
generali vel speciali, cujuscunque tenoris existat, per quam presentibus non expressam, 
vel totaliter non insertam, effectus hujusmodi gratie impediri valeat, quomodolibet, vel 
differri, et de qua cujusque toto tenore habenda sit in nostris litteris mentio specialis. 
Aut quod dictus Johannes natalium, et etiam ad obtinendum vicarias predictas, si sibi 
vigore presentium conferatur, ex nunc recipere et retinere, libere ac licite possit, de- 
fectibus predictis, acPutanensis \_Pictaviensis?~\ et Lateranensis generalis conciliorum, 
aliisque constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, ceterisque contrariis nequa- 
quam obstantibus, auctoritate Apostolica, tenore earundem presentium de specialis dono 
gratie dispensamus. Proviso, quod dicte vicarie debitis propterea non fraudentur obse- 
quiis, et animarum cura in eis nullatenus negligatur. Et insuper, ex nunc irritum 
decernimus et inane, si secus super hiis a quoquam, quavis auctoritate, scienter vel 
ignoranter, contigerit attemptari. Datum Urbeveteri, Anno Incarnationis Dominice 
millesimo, quadringentesimo, nonagesimo quinto. Pridie Non. Junii, Pontificatus 
nostri anno tercio. \_Sub plumbeo sigillo pendente, a filo canabeo.~] 


" Pro ecclesia de Meculyn. 
" A. D. 1496. Lecta in audientia. 
" Alexander Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, venerabili fratri episcopo Clon- 
fertensi, et dilecto filio Davidi de Burgo canonico ecclesie Clonfertensis, salutem et 
apostolicam benedictionem. Humilibus supplicum votis libenter annuimus, eaque 
favoribus prosequimur oportunis. Exhibita siquidem nobis nuper, pro parte dilec- 
torum filiorum Guardiani secularis et collegiate ecclesie sancti Nicholai ville Galvie, 
Enachdunensis diocesis, et octo perpetuorum vicariorum in eadem, peticio continebat, 
quod licet perpetua vicaria parrochialis ecclesie de Meculyn, dicte diocesis, eidem 
ecclesie sancti Nicholai perpetuo canonice unita existit, tamen dilectus hiius Mauritius 
O'Flahartay, pro clerico se gerens, falso asserens vicariam predictam ad se, pretextu 
quarundam litterarum apostolicarum seu alias, pertinere de jure, eosdem wardianum 
et vicarios super hoc, inter alia, petendo vicarias hujusmodi sibi adjudicari, coram 

Y 2 dilecto 


dilecto filio Milero O'Kenudy canonico Tuamensis, quern judicem super hoc compe- 
te]! tem, auctoritate apostolica, deputatum esse dicebat, traxit in causarn, et idem 
Milerus in causa ipsa perperam procedens, diffinitivain pro dicto Mauritio. et contra 
Guardianum et vicarios prefatos sententiam promulgavit iniquam, a qua pro parte 
wardiani et vicariorum eorundem ad sedem fuit apostolicam appeUatmn ; sed ipsi 
Guardianus et vicarii legittimo, ut asserunt impediments detenti, appellacionem 
hujusmodinon fuerunt, infra tempus debitum, prosecuti, quare, pro parte Guardiaui 
et vicariorum eorundem, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut, lapsu dicti temporis 
non obstante, appellationis predicte, ac post et contra illam attemtatorum et innova- 
torum quorumcunque, ac predictarum et quarumlibet aliarum litterarum, per ipsiim 
Mauritium super hoc, quovis modo, impetratarum, surrepti 
illarumque ac processus et sententie hujusmodi, aliorumque omnium et singulorum 
per Mylerum et Mauritium predictos, ac quoscunque alios judicee et ] 
Guardiani et vicariorum, ac ecclesie sancti Nicholai prejudicium. circa pren 
quomodocunque gestorum, nullitatis et invaliditatis totius, quoque principal 
necnon omnes et singulas quas Guardianus et vicarii predicti, contra dictum Mauri- 
tium, ac dilectos filios nobiles viros Willielmum de Burgo et ejus d 
domicellos, et certos earum consanguineos, ac Thadeum M c Breyn Ylahartuv. Bicardnm 
alias Ristardum etiam de Burgo et quoscunque alios clericos et laicos Buper rectoria 
et vicariis hujusmodi, impedimenti*qm'. moleetationibus, dan 
Guardiano et vicariis, ac ecclesie sancti Nicholai, super hujusmodi et aliis 1 
perpetuis vicariis ac beneficiis ecclesiasticis, eidem ecclesie sancti Nicholai similiter 
unitis, et illorum occasione indebite illatis, ac aliis rebus communiter vel divisiin 
movere intendunt, causas aliquibus probis viris in partibus illis committere, et alia in 
premissis oportune providere, de benignitate mur. N - 

hujusmodi supplicacionibus inclinati, discretioni v<. 1 pta, man- 

damus, quatenus vos, vel alter vestrum, si vocatis .Mauricio ac clericis et laii 
ac aliis qui fuerint evocandi, quod de impedimen to hujusmodi propoaitur, \< 
fulcitur, auditisque hinc inde propositis, etiam de principal] a hujusmcxl. 
noscentes legitime quod jus turn fuer it, appellatione remota, d> 

decreveritis, per censuram ecclesiasticam, firmiter observari. . qui 

fuerint nominati, si se gratia odio vel timore substraxerint. ceusura siniiJi, appella- 
tione cessante, compellatis veritati testimonium perhibere. Non obstaatibtu 
dicti temporis, necnon felicis recordationis Bonefacii Pape octavi, pred< 
qua inter alia cavetur, ne quis extra suam civitatem et diocesim. nisi u 
casibus, et in illis ultra unam dietam a tine sue diocesis ad judicium evocetar; >cu n«r 
judices ab eadem sede deputati, extra civitatem et diocesim in quibus deputati 


1 6 S 

fuerint, contra quoscunque procedere, seu alii vel aliis vices suas committere pre- 
sumant, dummodo ultra duasdietas aliquis, auctoritate presentium, non trahatur, et aliis 
constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis contrariis quibuscunque. Aut si Mauricio 
et clericis et laicis predictis, vel quibusvis aliis communiter vel divisim, ab eadem sede 
sit indultum, quod suspendi, interdici, vel excommunicari, aut extra vel ultra certa loca, 
ad judicium evocari non possint per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et ex- 
pressam, ac de verbo ad verbum, et inde indulto, hujusmodi mentionem. Datum 
Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis Dominice, M° cccc mo nonagesimo 
sexto, tercio Idus Aprilis, Pontificatus nostri anno quarto. 

\_Sub plumbeo sigillo pendente ajilo canabeo.~\ 


" Bulla pro Furanmor et Meray. 
li A. D. 1496. Lecta in audientia. 
" Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, venerabili fratri episcopo Clon- 
fertensi et dilecto filio Davidi de Burgo, canonico ecclesie Clonfertensis, salutem et 
apostolicam benedictionem. Humilibus supplicum votis libenter annuimus, eaque 
i'avoribus prosequimur oportunis. Exhibita siquidem nobis nuper, pro parte dilec- 
torum nliorum Guardiani secularis, et collegiate ecclesie Sancti Nicholai ville 
Galvie, Enachdunensis diocesis, et octo perpetuorum vicariorum in eadem, petitio 
continebat quod, licet rectoria de Furanmor et etiam de Furanmor et Meray, perpetue 
vicarie parrochialium ecclesiarum dicte diocesis, eidem ecclesie Sancti Nicholai per- 
petuo canonice unite, annexate et incorporate existant ; tamen dilectus filius Ricardus 
alias Ristardus de Burgo, pro clerico se gerens, falso asserens rectoriam et vicarias 
hujusmodi ad se, pretextu quarundam litterarum apostolicarum, seu alias, spectare 
de jure, eosdem Guardianum et vicarios super hoc inter alia, petendo rectoriam 
et vicarias hujusmodi sibi adjudicari, coram dilecto filio Florencio O'Graidon ca- 
nonico Clonfertensi, quern judicem super hoc competentem, auctoritate apostolic:;, 
deputatum esse dicebat, traxit in causam, et idem Florencius in causa ipsa per- 
peram procedens, difinitivam pro dicto Ricardo, et contra Guardianum et vicarios 
prefatos, sententiam promulgavit iniquam, a qua, pro parte Guardiani et vicari- 
orum eorundem, ad sedem fuit apostolicam appellatum ; sed ipsi Guardianus et 
vicarii, legitimo ut asserunt impedimento detenti, appellationem hujusmodi non 
luerunt, infra tempus debitum, prosecuti, quare, pro parte Guardiani et vicariorum 
eorundem, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut, lapsu dicti temporis non obstante, 
appellationis predicte, ac post et contra illam, attemptatorum et innovatorum quorum- 
cunque, ac predictarum et quarumlibet aliarum litterarum, per ipsum Ricardum 



super hoc, quovismodo, impetratarum, surreptitionis et obreptionis illarumque ac 
processus et sententie bujusmodi, aliorumque omnium et singulorum, per Florencium 
et Ricardum predictos, ac quoscunque alios judices et personas, in Guardiani et vica- 
riorum, ac ecclesie Sancti Nicholai prefatorum, prejudicium, circa premissa, quo- 
modocunque gestorum, nullitatis et invaliditatis totius, quoque principalis negotii, 
necnon omnes et singulas, quas Guardianus et vicarii predicti. contra dictum Ricar- 
dum, ac dilectos filios nobiles viros Willielmum de Burgo et ejus natos ac frat: 
domicellos, et certos eorum consanguineos, ac Thadeum Mac Breyn Vlahartay, Mauri- 
tium O'Flahertay, et quoscunque alios clericos et laicos, super rectoria et vicarii:- 
hujusmodi, impedimentisque, molestationibus, damnis et injuriis, eisdem Guardiano et 
vicariis, ac ecclesie Sancti Nicholai, super bujusmodi et alii? rectoriis et perpetuis 
vicariis ac beneficiis ecclesiasticis, eidem ecclesie Sancti Nicholai similiter i 
illorum occasione indebite illatis, ac aliis rebus conjunctim vel divi^im movere in1 
dunt, causas aliquibus probis viris in partibus illis committere, et alias in prem- 
oportune providere, de benignitate apostolica, dignaremur. X'- igitur. bujusmodi 
supplicationibus inclinati, discretioni vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, qua- 
tenus vos, vel alter vestrum, si vocatis Ricardo ac clericis et laicis predicti- et aliis qui 
fuerint evocandi, quod de impedimento bujusmodi proponitur, veritate fulcitur audi- 
tisque bine inde propositis, etiam de negocio principali bujusmodi cognoscente*-. .• . 
time quod justum f tier it, appellatione remota, decernatis, facientefl cjuod decreveriti-. 
per censuram ecclesiasticam, firmiter observarL T( utee i litem qui fuerint nomi: 
si se gratia, odio vel timore subtraxerint. censura simili, appellatione a om- 

pellatis veritati testimonium perhibere, Non obstantibus lapsu dicti tempori>. 
felicis recordationis Bonifacii Pape VIII., predecessoris nostri. qua inter alia cav»tur, 
ne quis extra suam civitatem vel diocesim, nisi in certi- exceptu casibus, et in illis 
ultra unam dietam a fine sue diocesis ad judicium evocetur; seu ne judices ab eadem 
sede deputati, extra civitatem et diocesim in quibus deputati fuerint, contra <, 
cunque procedere, aut alii vel aliis vices suas committere presumant, dummodo ultra 
duas dietas aliquis, auctoritate presentium, non trahatur. et aliis con>titutionibi.- 
ordinationibus apostolicis contrariis quibuscunqua Aut si Ricardo et cleric - 
laicis predictis, vel quibusvis aliis communiter vel divisim, ab eadem sede sit indultum. 
quod interdici, suspendi, vel excommunicari, aut extra vel ultra certa loca, ad judi- 
cium evocari non possint, per litteras apostolicas non facientes plenam et e.v 
ac de verbo ad verbum, de indulto bujusmodi mentionem. Datum Rome apud 
Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis Dominice millesimo quadringentcsimo no- 
nagesimo sexto, tertio Idus Aprilis, Pontificatus nostri anno quarto. 

[Sub plumbeo iigillo pendente afilo canal" 




" Excommunicalio contra Malefactores in Collegium. 
"A.D. 1501. 
" Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei, venerabilibus fratribus archiepis- 
copo Tuamensi, et Clonferetensi ac Milopotamensi episcopis, salutem et apostolicam 
benedictionem. Significav^ nobis dilecti filii wardianus et capitulum ecclesie Sancti 
Nicolai ville Kanole, Annotanensis \_Galvie, Enachdunensis~\ diocesis, quod nonnulli 
iniquitatis filii, quos prorsus ignore, quedam gravia damna et impedimenta in bonis 
et fructibus mense capitularis dicte ecclesie, ac ipsis wardiano et capitulo inique intu- 
lerunt, necnon decimas, fructus, redditus, proventus, calices, ornamenta ecclesiastica, 
oblationes, terras, domos, possessiones, aquarum decursus, molendina, vini, bladi, 
frumenti, auri, argenti monetati, et non monetati, olei et aliarum rerum, quantitates, 
vasa argentea, erea, cuprea, stannica, pannos lineos, laneos, sericeos, vestes, jocalia, 
domorum utensilia, libros, scripturas publicas et privatas, testamenta et alia docu- 
menta, equos, boves, oves, et alia animalia, debita, credita, legata, mutua deposita, 
pecuniarum summas, jura, jurisdictiones, et nonnulla alia mobilia et immobilia bona 
ad mensam capitularem ejusdem ecclesie legitime spectantia, temere et maliciose, oc- 
cultare, et occulte detinere presumunt, non curantes ea prefatis wardiano et capitulo 
exhibere, ac de damnis hujusmodi satisfacere, in animarum suarum periculum, et 
ipsorum wardiani et capituli ac ecclesie non modicum detrimentum, super quo iidem 
wardianus et capitulum apostolice sedis remedium implorarunt. Quo circa fraternitati 
vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus omnes hujusmodi darnnorum ilia- 
tores, ac decimarum, censuum, calicum et aliorum bonorum predictorum detentores 
occultos, ex parte nostra, publice, in ecclesiis coram populo, per vos, vel alium seu 
alios, moneatis, ut infra competentem terminum, quem eis prefixeritis, ea prefatis war- 
diano et capitulo, a se debita restituant et revelent, ac de ipsis et damnis hujus- 
modi plenam et debitam satisfactionem impendant, et si id non adimpleverunt infra 
alium competentem terminum, quem eis ad hoc peremtorie duxeritis prefigendum, 
extunc in eos generalem excommunicationis sententiam proferatis, et earn faciatis ubi et 
quando expedire videritis, usque ad satisfactionem condignam solemniter publicari. 
Quod si non omnes hiis exequendis potueritis interesse, duo aut imus vestrum ea 
nichilominus exequantur. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, Anno Incarnationis 
dominice millesimo quingentesimo primo, septimo Idus Januarii, Pontificatus nostri 
anno decimo. 

\Sub plumbeo sigillo pendente a Jilo canabeo.~\ 



" Bulla pro Rectoria de Tiraglas, et Vicariis de Kynmara et Ballindnre. 
" A. D. 1502. Lecta in audientia. 
" Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei. dilectis filiis Florencio O'Genwayn. 
Thateo Machyachayn ac Hoberto Macmyloid, canonicis ecclesie Clonfertensia, salutem 
et apostolicam benedictionem. Vite ac morum honestas, aliaque laudabilia probitatis 
et virtutum merita, super quibus dilectus filius Ristardus de Burgo, canonicu^ 
Enachdunensis, apud nos fide digno commendatur testimonio, nos inducunt ut sibi 
reddamur ad gratiain liberales, illaque sibi favorabiliter concedamus, que suis com- 
moditatibus fore conspicimus oportuna. Cum itaque, sicut accepimus. canonicatu» 
ecclesiarum parvarum prebenda nuncupata ecclesie Diu de Tiraglas rectoria, 

necnon de Kynmara et de Ballenclare, parrochialium ecclesiarum perpetue vicarie 
Enachdunensis, Laonensis et Duacensis diocesium, certo modo vacent ad pxesena, et 
tanto tempore vacaverint, quod eorum collatio, juxta Lateral, uta conciliu 

est ad sedem apostolicam legitime deroluta, licet Philippns O'Hanle qui pro p 
bitero rectoriam, ac Teodericus O'Beren qui pro clerico, se gerunt, canonicatuin et 
prebendam de Kynmara, necnon wardianus et capitulum ea - ncti Nicholai 

ville Galvie, Enachdunensis diocesis, dilecti filii de Ballanclara vicarius hujoflm 
nullo titulo, nullove juris adminiculo, sed temere et de facto per certum tern] 
nuerunt, prout adhuc detinent, indebite occupatos. E I hibita nobis, pro j 

dicti Ristardi, petitio continebat si rectoria et vicaria predicte eisdem canonicatui 
et prebende, si sibi vigore presentium conferantur, quamdiu illosobtinuerit. anil 
tur, annecterentur et incorporarentur, ex hoc profecto dicti Ristardi comoditatibu> 
non parum consuleretur, pro parte ipsius Ristardi nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum. 
ut rectorium et vicarias hujusmodi, eisdem canonicatui et pi -ur. 

unire annectere et incorporare, aliasque in premissis oportune piOTideie, de 
tate apostolica dignaremur. Nos enim qui dudum inter alia volumus. quod - 
in unionibus commissio fieret ad partes, vocatis, quorum interesset, ac stotuimi 
ordinavimus quod quicunque beneficium ecclesiasticum, tunc per annum immed 
precedentem pacifice possessum, et quod certo modo vacare pretenderet. extunc de- 
inceps impetraret gradum et nobilitatem possessoris ejusdem, et quot annis 1 
ipse possedisset in hujusmodi impetratione exprimere deberet et teneretur. ahoqui 
impetracio predicta, et inde secuta quecunque, nullius existerent finnil 
Ristardo, qui, ut asserit, canonicatum et de Furamnor, nuncupatam prebendai:. 
Enachdunensis, obtinet de alicujus subveutionis auxilio providere, premissonun me- 
ritorum suorum intuitu, specialem gratiam faoere volentes, ipsmnque Ristardum 



quibusvis excommunicationis, suspensionis et interdicti aliisque ecclesiasticis senten- 
tiis, censuris et penis, a jure vel ab homine quavis occasione vel causa latis, si quibus 
quomodolibet innodatus existit, ad effectum presentium duntaxat consequendum, 
harum serie absolventes, et absolutum fore censentes, ac obtentorum et illis annexorura 
hujusmodi fructuurn, reddituum et proventuum veros annuos valores, necnonverum et 
ultimum canonicatus et prebende ac rectorie vicariarum predictarum vacationis 
modum ac tempus, per quod Tlieodericus canonicatum et prebendam de Kynmara, 
ac Philippus rectoriam, necnon wardianus et capitulum de Ballanclara vicarias 
hujusmodi detinuerunt, necnon gradum et nobilitatem possessorum eorundem si 
qui sint, presentibus pro expressis habentes, ac de premissis certam notitiam non 
habentes, hujusmodi supplicationibus inclinati, discretioni vestre per apostolica scripta 
mandamus, quatenus vos vel duo aut unus vestrum, si vocatis Theoderico et Philippo 
ac wardiano et capitulo predictis, et aliis qui fuerint evocandi, canonicatum et eccle- 
siarum parvarum nuncupandum prebendam, ac rectoriam et vicarias hujusmodi, 
quorum insimul triginta duorum marcharum sterlingorum fructus, redditus et pro- 
ventus, secundum communem extimationem, valorem annuum, ut dictus Ristardus 
similiter asserit non excedunt, quibusvis modis, et ex quorumcunque personis, seu per 
liberam resignationem quorumvis de illis, extra Romanam curiam, etiam coram notario 
publico et testibus sponte factam, aut rectoria et vicarie predicte per constitutionem 
felicis recordationis Johannis Pape XXII. predecessoris nostri, que incipit ' Execrabilis,' 
vel assecutionem alterius beneficii ecclesiastici, ordinaria auctoritate collati vacare, 
ita esse reppereritis, ut dispositioni apostolice specialiter reservati existant, et super 
eis inter aliquos, lis cujus statum presentibus haberi volumus pro expresso pendeat 
indecisa, dummodo tempore dati presentium non sit in canonicatu, et ecclesiarum 
parvarum prebenda ac rectoria et vicariis predictis alicui specialiter jus quesitum, 
canonicatum et ecclesiarum parvarum prebendam hujusmodi, cum plenitudine juris 
canonici eidem Ristardo conferre, rectoriam vero et vicarias predictas eisdem canoni- 
catui et ecclesiarum parvarum prebende, si sibi, vigore presentium, conferantur, 
quamdiu prefatus Ristardus illos obtinuerit duntaxat, unire, annectere et incorporare, 
cum omnibus juribus et pertinenciis suis, auctoritate nostra, curetis, inducentes per 
vos, vel alium seu alios, eundem Ristardum, vel procuratorem suum, ejus nomine, in 
corporalem possessionem canonicatus et ecclesiarum parvarum prebende, et annexorum 
juriumque et pertinentiarum hujusmodi, et defendentes inductum, amotis a canoni- 
catu et ecclesiarum parvarum prebenda, et de Kynmara Theoderico, et rectoria 
Philippo, et de Ballenclare vicariis hujusmodi wardiano et capitulo predictis et quibus- 
libet aliis illatis detentoribus, ac facientes eundem Ristardum, vel pro eo procurato- 
rem predictum, ad prebendam ecclesiarum parvarum in dicta ecclesia Duacensis in 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. NO. 1 5. Z canonicum 


canonicum recipiet in fratrem, stallo sibi in choro et loco in capitulo ipsius ecclesie 
Duacensis assignatis, sibique de canonicatibus et ecclesiarum parvarum, ac rectorie et 
vicariarum predictorum, fructibus, redditibus, proven tibus, juribus et obventionibus 
universis integre responderi, contradictores auctoritate nostra, appellatione postposita, 
compescendo. Non obstantibus voluntate, statuto et ordinatione nostris premissis, et 
felicis recordationis Bonefacii Pape VIII. etiam predecessoris nostri, et aliis apostolici6 
constitutionibus, ac statutis et consuetudinibus dicte ecclesie Duacensis, juramento, 
confirmatione apostolica, vel quavis firmitate alia roboratis, contrariis quibuscunque. 
Aut si aliqui, apostolica vel quavis alia auctoritate, in dicta ecclesia Duacensis. in ca- 
nonicos sint recepti, vel ut recipiantur insistant, seu si super provisionibus sibi faci- 
endis de canonicatibus et prebendis ipsius ecclesie Duacensis, ac hujusmodi speciales 
vel aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis in illis partibus generales, dicte sedis, vel legatoruni 
ejus, litteras impetrari, ut etiam si per eas ad inhibitionem, reservationem et decretum, 
vel alias quomodolibet, sit processum, quasquideni litteras et processus habitos per 
eosdem, et inde secuta quecumque ad rectoriam et vicarias predictas extendi volentes, 
ipsumque Ristardum in assecutione canonicatus et ecclesiarum parvarum prebende 
hujusmodi omnibus volumus anteferri, sed nullum per hoc eis quoad assecutionem 
canonicatuum et prebendarum aut beneficiorum aliorum prejudicium generari : Seu 
si venerabilibus fratribus nostris Enachdunensis, Laonensis, et Duacensis episoo] 
dilectis filiis capitulo dicte ecclesie Duacensis, vel quibusvis aliis, communiter vel 
divisim, ab eadem sit sede indultum, quod ad receptionem vel provisionem alicujus 
minime teneantur, et ad id compelli, aut quod interdici, suspendi vel excommunicari 
non possint, quodque de canonicatibus et prebendis ipsius ecclesie Duacensis, ac hujus- 
modi vel aliis beneficiis ecclesiasticis, ad eorum collationem, provisionem, presentatio- 
nem seu quamvis aliam dispositionem, conjunctim vel separating spectantibus, nulli 
valeat provideri per litteras apostolicas, non facientes plenam et expressam, ac de vtrbo 
ad verbum, de indulto hujusmodi mentionem ; et quibuslibet aliis privilegiis. indul- 
gentiis et litteris apostolicis, generalibus vel specialibus, quoruincunque tenorum exis- 
tunt, per que presentibus, non expressa vel totaliter non inserts, effectna hujusmodi 
gratie impediri valeat quomodolibet vel differri, et de qua cuj usque toto tenore ha- 
benda sit in nostris litteris mentio specialis. Aut si dictus Ristardus presens non 
fuerit, ad prestandum de observances statutis et consuetudinibus dicte ecclesie Dua- 
censis solitum juramentum, dummodo in absentia sua per procuratorem ydoneum. ct 
cum ad ecclesiam ipsam Duacensis accesserit corporaliter illud prestet. volumus autem 
quod propter unionem, annexionem et incorporationem predictas, si ille, vigore presen- 
tium, fiant et effectum sortiantur, rectoria et vicarie predicte debitis propterea non 
fraudentur obsequiis, et animarum cura in eis nullatenus negligatur, sed earuii. 


1 7-i 

grue supportentur onera consueta. Quodque cedente vel decedente dicto Ristardo, 
seu canonicatum et ecclesiarum parvarum prebendam predictos alias quomodolibet 
disconnectente, unio, annexio et incorporatio predicte dissolute sint et esse censeantur, 
dicteque rectoria et vicarie impristinum statum revertantur, et per dissolutionem 
hujusmodi vacare censeantur, eo ipso, et insuper, ex nunc irritum decernimus, et 
inane, si secus super hiis a quoquam quavis auctoritate, scienter vel ignoranter, conti- 
gerit attemptari. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum Anno Incarnationis Dominice 
Millesimo quingentessimo secundo, Nono Kalendas Decembris, Pontificatus nostri 
anno undecimo. 

\_Sub plumbeo sigillo pendente ajilo canabeo.~\ 


" Pro Ricardo De Burgo, canonico Duacensi. 
"A.D. 1 5 1 1 . Lecta in audientia. 
" Julius episcopus, servus servorum Dei, dilectiis filiis Thome Mac lfoyn [sic, perhaps 
for floyn or Flyn] Enachdunensi, et Cornelio O'Leynayn Elfinensi, canonicis, ac officiali 
Duacensi, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. "Viteet morum honestas, aliaque lau- 
dabilia probitatis, et virtutum merita, super quibus dilectus filius Ristardus de Burgo, 
canonicus Duacensis, apud nos fide digno comendatur testimonio, nos inducunt ut ejus 
votis, per que suis commoditatibus consuli possit, annuentes, sibi reddamur ad graciam 
liberales. Cum itaque, sicut accepimus, Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum canonica- 
tus, ac de Chilmayn Tuamensis, et de Chiltelscel nuncupate prebende Clonfertensis pre- 
dictarum, necnon que de jure patronatus laicorum existit, de Donnayre ac de Annari, 
Clonfertensis et Tuamensis diocesum, parrochialium rectorie, necnon perpetua vicaria 
ejusdem de Annarri, ecclesiarum, quod quondam Theobaldus de Burgo Tuamensis et 
Clonfertensis cannonicus, ac parrochialium rector necnon de Annarri ecclesiarum, 
hujusmodi perpetuus vicarius, ex dispensatione apostolica, dum viveret obtinebat, per 
obitum ejusdem Theobaldi, qui extra Romanam curiam diem clausit extremum, vacent 
ad presens, et tanto tempore vacaverint quodeorum collatio, juxtaLateranensisstatuta 
Concilii, est ad sedem apostolicam legitime devoluta, licet dilecti filii Walterus de 
Burgo canonicatus et prebendas, et Thomas etiam de Burgo senior de Donayre, ac 
Thomas similiter de Burgo junior de Anari, rectorias necnon vicariam predictas, nullo 
titulo seisiti, juris adminiculo eis desuper sufiragante, sed temeritate propria et de 
facto, per certum tempus detinuerint et detineant indebite occupatos. Et sicut ex- 
hibita nobis nuper, pro parte dicti Ristardi petitio continebat, si rectoria et vicarie 
predicte eisdem canonicatui et prebende dicte ecclesie Tuamensis, quandiu idem Ris- 
tardus illos postquam de eis sibi provisum, et ipse illos assecutus fuerit, obtinuerit, 

Z 2 unirentur, 


unirentur, annecterentur et incorporarentur, ex hoc profecto ejusdem Ristardi commo- 
ditati non parum consuleretur, pro parte ipsius Ristardi asserentis, se canonicatum et 
prebendam ecclesie Duacensis, inter alia, obtinere, ac vacantium canonicatuum et pre- 
bendarum, necnon rectoriarum et vicarie predictorum, insimul fructus, redditus et 
proventus nonaginta maicharum sterlingorum, secundum communem extimationem 
valorem annuum non excedere, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum ut rectorias et vica- 
riam predictas, canonicatui et prebende ecclesie Tuamensis hujusmodi, quandiu ipse 
Ristardus illos, si sibi vigore presentium conferantur, obtinuerit, unire, annectere et 
incorporare, ac alias in premissis oportune providere, de benignitate apostolica, digna- 
remur. Nos igitur, qui dudum inter alia voluimus, quod semper in unionibus voca- 
rentur quorum interesset, ac etiam statuimus et ordinavimus, quod quicunque benefi- 
cium ecclesiasticum, tunc per annum immediate precedentem pacifice possessum, et 
quod certo modo vacare pretenderet, extunc deinceps impetraret gradum et nobilitatem 
possessoris ejusdem, et quot annis ipse possessor illud possedi^et, in hujusmodi impe- 
tratione exprimere deberet et teneretur, alioquin impetratio predicta, et quecunque 
inde secuta, nuliius existerent firmitatis, prefato Ristardo, premissorum meritorum 
suorum intuitu, specialem graciam facere volentes, ipsumque Ristarduni a quibusvis 
excommunicationis, suspensionis et interdicti, aliisque ecclesiasticis sententiis, eensuris 
et penis, a jure vel ab homine quavis occasione vel causa latis, signibus quomodolibet 
innodatus existit, ad effectum presentium dumtaxat consequendum, harum serie absol- 
ventes, et absolutum fore censentes. Necnon omnia et singula alia beneficia ecclesias- 
tica, cum cura et sine cura, que dictus Ristardus etiam, ex quibusvis dispensationibus 
apostolicis, obtinet et expectat, ac in quibus et ad que jus sibi quomodolibet com petit, 
quecunque, quocunquo et qualicunque sint, eorumque ac obtentorum canonica" 
prebende predictorum, fructuum, reddituum, et proventuum veros annuos valores, ac 
hujusmodi dispensationum tenores, necnon gradum et nobilitatem dktorum Walterii. 
et Thome senioris, ac Thome junioris, si qui sint, ac tempos per quod vacantes canoni- 
catus, et prebendas ac rectorias et vicariam predictos, respective, detinuerunt. pre- 
sentibus pro expressis habentes, hujusmodi supplicationibus inclinati, discretioni 
vestre, per apostolica scripta, mandamus, quatenus vos, vel duo aut unus vestrum. si 
vocatis Waltero, et Thoma seniore, ac Thoma jtmiore, et aliis qui iuerint evocandi, 
canonicatus et prebendas ac rectorias et vicariam predictos. ut premittitur. sive alia* 
quovis modo, aut ex alterius cujuscunque persona, seu per liberam resignationem 
cujusvis de illis extra dictam curiam, etiam coram notario publico et testibus sponte 
lactam, aut rectorie et vicaria predicte, per constitutionem felicis recordations 
Johannis Pape XXII. predecessoris nostri, que incipit 'Execrabilis." vel assecurionem 
alterius beneficii ecclesiastici, ordinaria auctoritate collati, vacare reppereritis, vacantes 



canonicatus et prebendas eidem Ristardo conferre et assignare, rectorias vero ac vica- 
riam predictos, eciam si disposition! apostolice specialiter reservati existant, et super 
eis inter aliquos lis cujus statum presentibus haberi volumus, pro expresso pendeat 
indecisa, dummodo tempore dati presentium non sit in eis alicui specialiter jus quesi- 
tum, et dicte rectorie de Donnayre collatio devoluta sit, ut prefertur, canonicatui et 
prebende ecclesie Tuamensis hujusmodi, quandiu prefatus Eistardus illos, si sibi ut 
prefertur conferantur, obtinuerit, duntaxat unire, annectere et incorporare, cum pleni- 
tudine juris canonici, ac omnibus juribus et pertinentiis suis, auctoritate nostra, 
curetis, inducentes per vos, vel alium seu alios, eundem Eistardum, vel procuratorem 
suum ejus nomine, in corporalem possessionem vacantium canonicatuum et prebenda- 
rum ac rectoriarum et vicarie unitarum, juriumque et pertinentium predictorum, et de- 
fendentes indue turn, amotis dictis Waltero, et Thoma seniore, ac Thoma juniore, et qui- 
buslibet aliis illicitis detentoribus ab eisdem, ac facientes Eistardum vel pro eo procu- 
ratorem predictum, ad vacantes prebendas hujusmodi, in utraque dictarum Tuamensis 
et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum, in canonicum recipi et in fratrem, stallo sibi in clioro, et 
loco in capitulo utriusque ipsarum Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum, cum dicti 
juris plenitudine, assignatis; sibique de vacantium canonicatuum et prebendarum, ac 
unitarum rectoriarum et vicarie predictorum, fructibus, redditibus, proventibus, 
juribus, et obventionibus universis, integre responderi, contradictores, auctoritate 
nostra, appellatione postposita, compescendo. Non.obstantibus voluntatibus prioribus, 
ac statuto et ordinatione nostris predictis ; necnon pie memorie Bonifacii Pape VIII. 
etiam predecessoris nostri ilia presertim qua, inter alia, cavetur ne quis extra suam 
civitatem vel diocesim, nisi in certis exceptis casibus, et in illis ultra unam dietam a 
fine sue diocesis, ad judicium vocetur, seu ne judices, a sede predicta deputati, extra 
civitatem et diocesim in quibus deputati fuerint, contra quoscunque procedere, seu alii 
vel aliis vices suas committere presumant. Et de duabus dietis in concilio generali 
edita, dummodo aliquis auctoritate presentium ultra tres dietas non trahatur, et aliis 
apostolicis constitutionibus, ac Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum predictarum 
juramento, confirmatione apostolica, vel qua vis firmitate alia roboratis, statutis et con- 
suetudinibus contrariis quibuscunque. Aut si aliqui, apostolica vel alia quavis auc- 
toritate, in Tuamensis vel Clonfertensis ecclesiis predictis in canonicos sint recepti, vel 
ut recipiantur insistant, seu si super provisionibus sibi faciendis de canonicatibus et 
prebendis ipsarum Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum, ac hujusmodi vel aliis 
beneficiis ecclesiasticis in illis partibus, speciales vel generales, dicta sedis vel Legato- 
rum ejus litteras impetrarint, etiam si per eas ad inhibitionem, reservationem et de- 
cretum, vel alias quomodolibet sit processum, quasquidem litteras et processus habitos 
per easdem ad rectorias et vicariam predictas nolentes extendi, eundem Eistardum in 



assecutione vacantium canonicatuum et prebendarum predictorum volumus anteferri, 

sed nullum per hoc eis, quoad assecutionem canonicatuum et prebendarum seu benefi- 

ciorum aliorum, prejudicium generari. Aut si venerabilibus fratribus nostris Tuam- 

ensi et Clonfertensi Episcopis, ac dilectis dictarum Tuamensis et Clonfertensis 

ecclesiarum capitulis, vel quibusvis aliis communiter vel divisim, ab eadem eit 

sede indultum, quod ad receptionem vel provisionem alicujus minime teneantur. et 

ad id compelli, aut quod interdici, suspendi vel excommunicari, aut extra vel ultra 

certa loca ad judicium evocari non possint. Quodque de canonicatibus et pre- 

bendis ipsarum Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum, ac hujusmodi vel aliis bene- 

ficiis ecclesiasticis ad eorum collationem, provisionem, presentationem 6eu qua: 

aliam dispositionem, conjunctim vel separatim, spectantibus, nulli valeat provideri per 

litteras apostolicas, non facientes plenam et expressam, ac de verbo ad verbum de in- 

dulto hujusmodi, mentionem, et quibuslibet aliis privileges, indulgentiis et litteri- 

apostolicis, generalibus vel specialibus, existant, per que presentibus non 

expressa, vel totaliter non inserta, effectus earum impediri valeat quomodolibet vel 

diflferri, et de quibus quorumque totis tenoribus habendo sit in nostris litteris mentio 

specialis. Seu si dictus Ristardus presens non fuerit, ad prestandum, de observandis 

statutis et consuetudinibus Tuamensis et Clonfertensis ecclesiarum predictarum. solita 

juramenta, dummodo in absentia sua, per procuratorem ydoneum, et ecclesias 

predictas accesserit corporaliter ilia prestet. Volumus autem quod propter unionem, 

annexionem et incorporationem predictas, si vigore presentium fiant, rectorie ac 

vicaria predicte debitis non fraudentur obsequiis, et animarum cura in eis nullatenus 

negligatur, sed earum congrue supportentur onera consueta. Ac quod dicto Ristardo 

cedente vel decedente, seu canonicatum et prebendam ecclesie Tuamensis hujusmodi 

alias quomodolibet dimittente, unio, annexio et incorporatio predicte dissolute sint et 

esse censeantur, ipseque rectorie et vicaria in pristinum statum revertantur, eo ips< 

insuper, ex nunc irritum decernimus et inane, si secus super hiis a quoquam. quavis 

auctoritate, scienter vel ignoranter, contigerit attemptari. Datum Rome apud Sanctum 

Petrum, Anno incarnationis Dominice millesimo quingentesimo undecimo, quinto Id. 

Januar. Pontificatus nostri anno nono. 

[Sub plumbeo sigillo pendente a filo canabeo.'] 

" Processus de Gnobegge, fyc. 

" A.jD. 1497. 

" Reverendissimo in Christo patri domino, domino Willielmo, miseracione divina, 

Archiepiscopo Tuamensis, Matheus, eadem miseracione, Episcopus Clonfertensis, ac 

David de Burgo Canonicus cathedralis ecclesie Clonfertensis. ac in causa rectorie de 



Gnobeg, ac vicariarum de Mychullyn, et Kylcommyn, et Kybrowan, ac Rafiun, Enach- 
dunensis diocesis ; contra et adversus Mauri tium O Flahartt super vicar ia de Gnobeg, 
ac Rodricum O Kennewayn super vicariis de Kylcommyn et Kylrowayn, et contra 
Odonen O'Flaharthit, ad instanciam Wardiani, et octo perpetuorum vicariorum ecclesie 
collegiate Sancti Nicholai ville Galvie, dicte diocesis, omnibusque aliis et singulis ad 
quos dictarum vicariarum et rectorie collacio, provisio, presentacio seu quevis alia dis- 
posicio, de jure vel consuetudine, spectare dinoscitur, salutem, et nostris ymo verius 
apostolicis firmiter in hac parte obedire mandatis, litteras siquidem sanctissimi in 
Christo patris ac domini, domini Alexandri, digna Dei providencia Pape, sexti, cum 
cordula canapis, more Romane curie, bullatas, sanas, integras, non viciatas, non cancel- 
latas, nee in aliqua sui parte suspectas, sed omnino prorsus vicio et suspicione carentes, 
prout, prima facie, nobis apparebat, per prefatos wardianum et vicarios nobis, cum ea 
qua decuit reverencia, presentatas, nos noveritis recepisse, quarum litterarum tenor, 
de verbo ad verbum, sequitur, et est talis. Alexander Episcopus, servus servorum 
Dei, venerabili fratri nostro episcopo Clonfertensi, ac dilecto filio Davidi de Burgo 
canonico ecclesie Clonfertensis, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Humilibus 
supplicum votis libenter anuimus, eaque favoribus prosequimur oportunis. Exhibita 
siquidem nobis nuper, pro parte dilectorum filiorum wardiani secularis et collegiate 
ecclesie Sancti Nicholai ville Galvie, Enachdunensis diocesis, et octo perpetuorum vica- 
riorum, peticio, continebat quod, licet perpetua parochialis ecclesie de Mykullyn dicte 
diocesis, eidem ecclesie Sancti Nicholai, perpetuo canonice unita existit, tamen di- 
lectus films Mauricius O'flahartt, pro clerico se gerens, falso asserens vicariam pre- 
dictam ad se, pretextu quarundam litterarum apostolicarum, seu alias, pertinere de 
jure, easdem wardianum et vicarios super hoc, inter alia, petendo vicarias hujusmodi 
sibi adjudicare, coram dilecto filio Milero O'Kennewan canonico Tuamensi, quem 
judicem super hoc competentem, auctoritate apostolica, deputatum esse dicebat ; 
traxit in causam, et idem Milerus in causa ipsa perperam procedens, diffinitivam, pro 
dicto Mauritio, et contra wardianum et vicarios prefatos, sentenciam promulgavit 
iniquam, a qua, pro parte wardiani et vicariorum eorundem, ad sedem fuit apostolicam 
appellatum, sed ipsi wardianus et vicarie, legittimo, ut asserunt, impedimento detenti, 
appellacionem hujusmodi non fuerunt infra tempus debitum prosecuti, quare, pro 
parte wardiani et vicariorum eorundem, nobis fuit humiliter supplicatum, ut, lapsu 
dicti temporis non obstante, appellationis predicte, ac post et contra illam attemptato- 
rum et innovatorum quorumcunque, ac predictarum et qviarumlibet aliarum litterarum, 
per ipsum Mauritium super hoc quovis modo impetratarum, surreptionis et obreptionis 
illarum, et processus et sententie hujusmodi ahorumque omnium et singulorum per 
Mylerum et Mauritium predictos, ac quoscunque alios judices et personas, in wardiani 



et vicariorum ac ecclesie Sancti Nicholai prejudicium, circa premissa quocunque ges- 
torum, nullitatis et invaliditatis tocius, quoque principalis negocii, necnon omnes et 
singulos quos wardianus et vicarii predicti contra dictum Mauritium, ac dilectos no- 
biles viros Willielmum de Burgo, et ejus fratres ac ejus natos domicellos, et ceteros 
eorum consanguineos, ac Thadeum M'breyn Flaharthyt, Ricardum alias Risterdum de 
Burgo, et quoscunque alios clericos et laicos super rectoria et vicariis hujusmodi, im- 
pedimentis, molestationibus, dampnis et injuriis eisdem wardiano et vicariis ac ecclesie 
Sancti Nicholai super hujusmodi et aliis rectoriis et perpetuis vicariis ac beneficiifi 
ecclesiasticis, eidem ecclesie Sancti Nicholai similiter unitis, et illorum occasione, in- 
debite illatis, ac aliis rebus, communiter et divisim ; movere intendunt, causas ali- 
quibus probis viris in partibus illis committere, et alia in premissis oportune providere, 
de benignitate apostolica dignaremur. Nos igitur hujusmodi supplicacionibus inclinati, 
discretioni vestre, per apostobca scripta, mandamus, quatenus vos vel alter vestrum, 
si vocatis Mauritio ac clericis et laicis prefatis, ac aliis qui fuerint evocandi, quod de 
impedimento hujusmodi proponitur veritate fulcitur, auditisque hinc inde propos: 
eciam de principali negocio hujusmodi cognoscentes, legittime quod justum fuerit, ap- 
pellatione remota decernatis facientes quod decreveritis per censuram eeclesiasticam 
firmiter observari. Testes autem qui fuerunt nominati, si se gratia, odio vel tin. 
substraxerint, censura simili, appellatione cessante, compellatis veritati testimonium 
perhibere. Non obstantibus lapsu dicti temporis, necnon felicis recordationis Bone- 
facii Pape octavi predecessoris nostri qua cavetur, inter alia, ne quis extra civitatem 
et diocesim, nisi in certis exceptis casibus, et in illis ultra unam dietam a fine sue dio- 
cesis ad judicium evocetur, seu ne judices ab eadem sede deputati. extra civitatem et 
diocesim in quibus deputati fuerint, contra quoscunque procedere, seu alii vel aliis 
vices suas committere presumerint, dummodo ultra duas dietas. a' presen- 

cium, aliquisnon trahatur, et constitutionibus ac ordinacionibus apoetolicie contrarus 
quibuscunque. Aut si Mauritio et clericis et laicis predict^, \A quihusvis aliis com- 
muniter vel divisim, ab eadem sede sit indultum, quod suspendi. interdici vel ex- 
communicari non possint, aut extra vel citra loca ad judicium evocari non possint, per 
literas apostolicas non facientes plenam et expressam. ac de verbo ad verbum et inde 
indulto hujusmodi mentionem. Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum anno incarna- 
tionis dominice M°.cccc mo nonagesimo sexto, tercio Idiis April is. Pontificatus nostri 
anno quarto. Post quarum quidem literarum apostolicarum presentacionem et recep- 
tacionem nobis, et per nos factas, fuimus per prefatos wardianum et vicarios debita 
cum instancia requisiti, quatenus id executionem predictarum literarum et contento- 
rum in eis procedere dignaremur. Nos igitur mandatum apostolicum volentes exequi, 

ut tenemur, competencie jurisdictionis et vahditatis litterarum ac 


i 7 7 

citacionis citandorum per nos prius interpositis, decretis certis nostris nunciis et ap- 
paritoribus, per nostras patentes literas, dedimus in mandatis, quos predictos Mauri- 
tium, Odonem et Rodericum dictarum vicariarum et rectorie detentores, ad instanciam 
predictorum wardiani et octo perpetuorum vicariorum, predictos Mauritium, Odonem 
et Rodericum citarent seu citari facerent ad certos diem et locum, ipsisque ajjparitoribus 
coram nobis apparentibus, in die et loco prestitis, juramentis de emissione citacionis 
fidem coram nobis facientibus, de personali citacione predictorum Mauritii, Odonis et 
Roderici, corporali prestito juramento, fidem fecerent, et quod ipsis personaliter citatis, 
manifeste ac palam et publice dixerint, et ipsorum quilibet dixit, se nullatenus velle 
comparere, assumptisque nobis ante omnia duobus viris ydoniis, in locum tabellionis 
datis decretis per nos manifeste contumacie predictorum citatorum, proposita peticione 
formali coram nobis per procuratorem predictorum wardiani et vicariorum, de cujus 
procuratoris nobis legittime constabat assignatisque prius modis diversis terminis, pro 
convincenda predictorum manifesta contumacia, ipsisque minime comparentibus, nee 
per se neque per procuratores, in ipsorum manifesta contumacia perseverantes. Mon- 
stratis articulis ex parte wardiani et vicariorum, super veritate petitorum et rela- 
torum, testibus super premissis rite receptis, et ipsorum attestacionibus publicatis, ac 
Uteris vestris, pariter et apostolicis, super unione predictorum beneficiorum facta ipsi 
ecclesie collegiate Sancti Nicholai ville Galvie, ex parte predictorum wardiani et 
vicariorum nobis in judicio exhibitis, et perlectis diligenter, discussis et examinatis, 
invenimus pariter cognovimus luculenter fore probatum, quod prefati Mauritius, Odo 
et Rodericus in rectoria et vicariis predictis, predictos wardianum et vicarios, de facto, 
perturbarunt et inquietarunt, quo minus fructus, redditus et proventus dictarum rec- 
torie et vicariarum percipere possint, ac quod ipsi appellacionem a dilecto filio 

MyleroO'Kennewan per wardianum et vicarios interpositam, et ab ejus sentenciam inno- 
varunt et attemptarunt, fructus, redditus et proventus dictarum rectorie et vicariarum 

insuos usque in prejudicium non modicum die torum wardiani et vicariorum, et 

ecclesie collegiate Sancti Nicholai, dampnabiliter convertendo. Ideoque nos, Altissimi 
nomine invocato, de cujus vultu rectum procedit judicium, cujusque oculi vident equi- 
tatem, predictam sentenciam, auctoritateapostolica qua fungimur in hac parte, infirmamus, 
cassamus et irritamus, et cassam et irritam, ymo verius nullamforeet esse, per presentes 
pronunciamus. Quapropter vobis Reverendissimo domino ac domino Willielmo archie- 
piscopo Tuamensi, in virtute Sancte obediencie precipimus, et precipiendo mandamus, 
quatemis, visis presentibus Uteris, predictos Mauritium, Odonem et Rodericum, auc- 
toritate nostra, ymo verius apostolica, moneatis ut infra sex dies, lecturam presencium 
immediate sequentes, ut a dicta molestacione et perturbacione omnino desistant, 
realiter et cum effectu, qui momtis, vestris ymo verius nostris et apostolicis, non per- 
venerint[s?c] elapsis supradictis vi. diebus, quorum duos pro primo, duos pro secundo re- 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. NO. 1 5. 2 A liquos 

i 7 8 

liquos vero duos dies pro tertio et canonice monicionis termino ipsie aoigmmmai, 

qui in hoc culpabiles reperti fuerunt, auctoritate nostra apostolica, cum suh defeaamboa, 
consiliariis, et fautoribus, majoris excommunicacionis vinculo innodetis, quos eciam nos, 
eadem auctoritate apostolica, innodamus et innodatos fore et esse, per presentes decla- 
ramus. Nichilominus vobis omnibus et singulis in salutacionem contents, precipimus, 
sub penis quibus decet canonicis, et precipiendo mandamus, quatenus predictos per- 
turbatores et molestatores wardiani et vicariorum in dictis rectoria et vicariis, cum 
fautoribus defensoribus suis et consiliariis, omnibus diebus dominicis 
communicatos esse, excommunicatione majori, publice nuncietis, et, licet ex super- 
habundanti exercetis, pulsatis campanis et candelis accensis. Insuper ecianx, vobis 
Eeverendissimo domino ac domino Willielmo archiepiscopo Tuamensi, cui ob reve- 
renciam pontificalem officii in hiis duximus deferendum, precipimus, et precipiendo 
mandamus, quod hunc nostrum processum apostolicum reverenter et hurniliter sus- 
cipiatis, et a vestris suscipi faciatis, necnon sibi et suis preceptis et mandatis infra sex 
dies, a tempore ipsius exhibicionis ot ostencionis vobis facte, humiliter pare., 
respondeatis, et a vestris subditis faciatis integre responded, quorum sex dierum, 
duos pro primo, duos pro secundo reliquos vero duos dies pro tertio et monitorie canonice 
monitionis termino vobis assignamus: qui si monitis nostris, ymo verius ■ 
non parieritis elapsis sex diebus, vos ab ingressu ecclesie interdiciinu-. r alios 

sex dies, supradictos sex dies immediate sequentes, pertinaciter non parieri: 
ab omni pontificali officio interdicimus, et si, quod absit, per alios sex dies, predictos 
xn. dies immediate sequentes, non persisteris indurato, ab omnibus divinis officii*, 
auctoritate apostolica, vos suspendimus, per presentes, omnesque alios et singulos, 
majoris excommunicacionis vinculo, innodamus. Acta sunt hec in ecclesia parochiali 
de Ballaynpatrik, Clonfertensis diocesis, xvi°. die mensis Decembris, Anno Domini 
millesimo, quadringentessimo, nonagesimo septimo." 

"I. H. S. Maria. 
" Et ego vero, Matheus Lorcan Enaehdunensis diocesis. ac publieu*. 
Imperiali auctoritate. notarius, suprascriptum processum apostolicum 
ali initio et principaliter scriptum et subscriptum per duos 
ydoneos, viz., per magistrum David 0' i . canonicum cathe- 

dralis ecclesie Clonfertensis, et dominum Mauritium O'flYne. 
dem diocesis presbiterum, jussu et rogatn prefatorum judicum. de 
verbo ad verbum in hanc publicam formam transumsi fideliter et 
exemplavi, eaque, mei? signis solit.- - ietis. roboravi. unacum 

apposicione sigillorum supradictorum judicum. in fide et robore 
omnium et singulorum premissorum, et requisitus." 



The rarity of original Rescripts from Rome, particularly since the enactment of 
the English Statute 28 Henry VIII. c. 16, and their great value towards a complete 
ecclesiastical history of Ireland, a work which yet remains to be written, will, it is 
hoped, excuse the Editor for inserting those above given. That a general collection 
of these important documents would throw considerable light upon many dark and 
doubtful portions of Irish history is obvious ; but it is to be regretted, that few only 
are to be met with in any of our public repositories or libraries. Even Bishop 
Nicholson, in his Historical Library, affords but little information on the subject. The 
student must, therefore, have recourse to the Roman Bullarium, and to those of the 
Regular Orders, from which De Burgo, in his History of the Dominicans, has drawn 
so largely. Many ancient Bulls and Briefs will be found entered in our diocesan 
archives, particularly in the Registries of Archbishops Fleming, Swain, Prene, &c, 
of Armagh, and Alan of Dublin. They also occur in private collections, and parti- 
cularly among the old Roman Catholic families of Ireland. 

The ecclesiastical division of West Connaught is thus given in the Regal Visitation 

of A. D. 1 61 5, the original of which is preserved in the Chief Remembrancer's Office, 

Dublin : " Decanatus de Mothcullen. 

f Pertinet ad Collegium Gallivie. 

" Rectoria de Mothcullen, < Vicaria ibidem spectat ad idem Collegium. 

LCuratus nullus. 

" Rathana, Rectoria spectat ad idem Coll. 

f Rectoria impropriata. Comes Clanricard firmarius. 
" Rectoria de Kilconyn. J T7 - . -, •, , ., „ „ 

J < V icaria de eadem spectat ad idem Coll. 

L Curatus, Bernardus M c . Gilpatrick. 

f Impropriata. Comes Clanricard firmarius. 

" Rectoria de Killathin, . \ Vicarius ibidem, Bernard M e . Gilpatrick. Minister legens 

L non comparuit. 

" Rectoria de Moyras, re- f Impropriata. Johannes King miles firmarius. 

sidens, | Vicarius de eadem, Keala Dulhy. Valor 55. 

r Impropriata. Johannes King miles firmarius. 

" Rectoria de Ballyandum. j Vicarius de eadem Richardus Brenagh, studii gratia. 

Curatus residens, . . 1 Valor 5s. Ecclesia edificata more patrio. 

LCuratus, Anthonius Blake minister. 

Impropriata. Johannes King miles firmarius. 

Vicarius de eadem, David O'Molavoyle, studii gratia. 

Rectoria de Uma-fahin. 

Vicarius non residens. ^ Valor as 

Curatus residens, 

Curatus idem Blake. 

2 A 2 " Rectoria 


" Rectoria de Ballykilly. rlmpropriata. Idem Johannes firmarius. 

Vicarius non residens. < Vicarius de eadem David O'Molavoyle, studii gratia. 
Curatus residens, . . L Curatus Anthonius Blake. 

'Impropriata. Johannes King miles firmarius. 
Vicarius de eadem Matheus Darsie. studii gratia. 

Valor 45. 
Xuratus, Thomas Kealy, minister legens." 

Ex orig. in Officio Cap. Rem. Scacc. Dub. asservata. 

Eectoria de Rossa. Vi- 
carius non residens. < 
Curatus residens, 

NOTE D. Seepage 10, note*. "Wolves:' 
In a popular work entitled " The present State of Great Britain and Ireland." 
printed in London, A. D. 1738, it is stated that " Wolves still abound too much in 
Ireland ; they pray for the wolves, least they should devour them." A little inquiry 
might, however, have satisfied the worthy author, that there was not then, nor for many 
years before, a wolf to be found in Ireland. 

But that wolves did abound in Ireland in the seventeenth century, and particularly 
in the early part of it, there are several melancholy proofs on record. The following 
curious and hitherto unpublished documents on this subject, have been extrac: 
the Editor from the original Privy Council Books of Cromwell's government in Ireland, 
now preserved in Dublin Castle. 

"Declaration against transporting of Wolfe Dogges."" 
" Forasmuch as we are credibly informed, that "Wolves doe much increase and 
destroy many cattle in several partes of this Dominion, and that some of the enemie's 
party, who have laid down armes, and have liberty to go beyond sea, and others, do 
attempt to carry away several such great dogges as are commonly called wolfe dogges, 
whereby the breed of them, which are useful for destroying of wolves, would (if not 
prevented) speedily decay. These are, therefore, to prohibit all persons whatsoever 
from exporting any of the said Dogges out of this Dominion ; and searchers and other 
officers of the customs, in the several partes and creekcs of this Dominion, are 1 
strictly required to seize and make stopp of all such dogges, and debver them either to 
the common huntsman, appointed for the precinct where they are seized upon, or to 
the governor of the said precinct. — Dated at Kilkenny, 27th April 1652."' — Council 

Book, A. 

We here discover one of the causes of the decay and extinction of these " great wolfe 
doles'' which were peculiar to Ireland ; and a different species from the " Canes 
venaticos quos Grehoundi vocamus," mentioned by Camden, 727. But that the 



" common huntsmen," even with their aid, did not immediately prevent the ravages 
of the wolves, appears from the following declaration, issued the year after the pre- 
ceding : 

" Declaration touchinge the Poore" 

" Upon serious consideration had of the great multitudes of poore, swarming in all 
partes of this nation, occasioned by the devastations of the country, and the habit of 
licentiousness and idleness which the generality of the people have acquired in the time 
of this rebellion, insomuch, that frequently some are found feeding on carrion and 
weeds, some starved in the highways, and many times poore children, who lost their 
parents, or deserted by them, are found exposed to, some of them fed upon by ravening 
wolves, and other beasts and birds of prey ; the said Commissioners conceive it a duty 
incumbent upon them, to use all honest and laudable waies and means for the relief of 
such poore people. — And forasmuch as at present the poverty of the country is so 
great, and the number of poore who (by reason of the wasting of the country) have 
neither friends or habitations to resort unto, are so many, that the ordinary course 
provided by law for their reliefe, cannot be so efFectuall as is desired : the Commis- 
sioners have resolved, and doe hereby order and declare, that subscriptions shall be 
taken in every precinct in Ireland, of all such persons (either civill or military) as shall 
be willing to underwrite any sum of money for the reliefe of poore children or other 
the uses aforesaid, for one year next ensuing, to be paid quarterly, and some part 
thereof to be advanced beforehand. And the said Commissioners have thought fitt to 
publish this declaration in printt, that all such as have received mercy from the Lord 
by being enabled to administer relief unto others, may lay hold on this opportunity, 
to honor him with their substance, by contributing cheerfully to this so publick and 
charitable a work, as faithful stewards of those talents wherewith God hath intrusted 
them. — Dated at Dublin, the 12th May, 1653. — Charles Fleetwood — Edmond 
Ludlow — Miles Corbet — John Jones." — Council Book. 

This was soon after followed by the following 

"Declaration touching Wolves.'''' 

" For the better destroying of wolves, which of late years have much increased in 
most parts of this nation, It is ordered that the commanders in chiefe and commis- 
sioners of the Revenue in the several precincts, doe consider of, use and execute all 
good wayes and meanes, how the wolves, in the counties and places within the respec- 
tive precincts, may be taken and destroyed ; and to employ such person or persons, 
and to appoint such daies and tymes for hunting the wolfe, as they shall adjudge 
necessary. And it is further ordered, that all such person or persons, as shall take, 



kill, or destroy any wolfes, and shall bring forth the head of the woulfe before the said 
commanders of the revenue, shall receive the sums following, viz., for every Bitch 
wolfe, six pounds ; for every Dogg wolfe, five pounds ; for every cubb which prayeth 
for himself, forty shillings ; for every suckling cubb, ten shillings : And no woolfe 
after the last of September until the ioth of January be accounted a young woolfe, and 
the Commissioners of the Revenue shall cause the same to be equallie assessed within 
their precincts. — Dublin, 29th June 1653."— Id. 

The assessments for the useful work here ordered fell heavily on some districts. 
Thus in Deeember, 1665, the inhabitants of Mayo county petitioned the Council of 
State, that the Commissioners of assessment might be at liberty to compound for 
Wolfe-heads ; which was ordered acccordingly. — Id. A great national good was, 
however, effected. Those destructive animals were finally extirpated, insomuch that, 
in the early part of the eighteenth century the appearance of a wolf was considered a 
rarity in Ireland. 

The necessity for destroying the wolves during the foregoing melancholy period, may 
be further estimated from the following order of " the State;" calculated to pre-, 
the " starved" and defenceless "poore vagrants" alluded to, from falli 

'■'■Order touching poore Vagrants'' 

" Upon consideration had of the multitude of persons, especiallie women and children, 
wandering upp and down the country, that daily perish in ditches, and are starved for 
want of relief. It is thought fitt that such women as have able bodyes to worke, and 
such children of about 1 2 years, whose husbands or parents are dead or gone beyond 
sea, or who have not friends to maintain them, or means of their owne to preserve 
them from starving, may be taken up by the overseers of the poore, and that to | 
vent the said persons from starving, the overseers are hereby authorized to treat with 
merchants for the transporting the said persons into some English plantations in 
America. — Dublin, 1st July 1653." — Id. This mandate appears not to have been effec- 
tual, for the year after the following entry occurs: " 13 Dec 1^54. Proposed unto 
his Highenes, the conveniency and good that probably may tend unto the natioi.. 
the yearly transportation of some fitt number of Irish children into England ; to be 
bred in the English customes, and from their superstition, by being distributed into 
such parishes in England and Wales as may be thought meete."" — Id. N 
appears to have been made on this proposal. 

The unpublished annals of Ireland contain some curious notices of Wolves. Those 
of Clonmacnoise, quoted note y , p. 51, ante, state that, in A. D. 688, "a wolf was seen 
and heard to speak with human voice." See also for this, the Annals of the Four 



Masters, at A. D. 690. This wonderful wolf was probably what the old Germans 
called a Were-wolf, for which see Verstegan, p. 237. Cambrensis has inserted this 
notable story in his Topographia. The Book of Lecan, fol. 61, and from it Colgan, 
p. 754, relate how one Lon, who had impiously opposed St. Cormac, going to Sliabh 
Botha Mountain, near Rosargid, was devoured by wolves t)uctcap coin allca e ; and 
a heap or Carncloch was laid on his bones. In the sixteenth century, wolves com- 
mitted great devastation in Munster. After the destruction of Kilmallock by James 
Fitz-Maurice in A. D. 1591, that place became the haunt of wolves. For their ravages 
during Desmond's rebellion, see O'Sullivan in Compend. lib. viii. ch. 6. ; and at 
a later period, Moryson, vol. ii. p. 367, Dub. Ed. See also Lombard, De Regno Hib. 
p. 92. 

NOTE E. Seepage 12, note 3 : "Whales." 
Our Author has noticed the stranding of several whales on the coasts of Iar-Con- 
naught ; and since his time many have been cast ashore there. The following extract 
from a communication made by Lieutenant Burroughs, commander of the Coast Guard 
in the West of Ireland, and embodied in the valuable Fishery Report, alluded to p. 11, 
note 2 , ante, may, on this subject, be considered interesting. " This coast, i.e. the 
west and north-west coast of Ireland ( one of the best fishing coasts in Europe, abound- 
ing, from the most productive Whales, both Spermaceti and Greenland, to the common 
herring), possesses the worst and most ignorant race of fishermen, and (with a few 
exceptions) very indifferent boatmen. But the cause of these remarks may be easily 
accounted for ; their poverty, which prevents them from procuring proper stout 
vessels for so dangerous a coast, and almost total absence of all patronage and support 
to follow up with energy and spirit the unbounded sources of wealth which nature 
has thrown within their grasp. It may appear still more extraordinary to those con- 
nected so extensively in the Greenland and South Sea whale fishery, that they should 
so long have remained in ignorance that those fish abound on the coast which I have 
described. In order to give proof to so bold an assertion, I shall state some circum- 
stances which came under my immediate observation in my own vessels, and at 
a subsequent period in command of a revenue cutter. On a visit, in company with 
the Rev. Mr. Mahon, to the sun fishery at Bofin Island, we strayed on a blustry day 
to observe the coast and breakers ; at a short distance from the shore we saw several 
large fish, which I supposed to be grampusses or finners, that had taken shelter under 
the lee of the island: still looking closely at them, they advanced towards the rocks 
immediately under the cliffs, where we had a perfect view of them at a distance of 
500 yards with a spy-glass, their double tufted heads quite conspicuous, and no 
intervening back-fins; I decided at once on their species. In the month of July, after 

* the 

i8 4 

the sun fishery, a large Spermaceti whale was drifted on shore, dead, at the I 
Bunowen, in Connemara, about two leagues from Clifden or Ardbear Harbour; in 
consequence of the ignorance of the peasantry and boatmen, and their continual squab- 
bling and fighting, three-fourths of the oil was lost ; the surface of the bay was dyed 
with a rainbow tinge from the floating particles of oil. Shortly after an immense fish 
was towed into the Island of Turk, by three of the island fishing-boats ; the m> 
was observed floating about a mile from the island, and had been but recently killed, 
but how could not be ascertained ; this fish completely filled up the small and only 
inlet in the island, and measured in length thirty-three yards ; it was claimed : 
proprietor, I believe the Archbishop of Tuam, who, I had been inform it up 

to the islanders. A small village near the place where they had towed it up to Portly 
became deserted, the inhabitants never calculating on the foetid air i their 

imprudence. The islanders were two months employed in cutting up and launching 
over the cliffs the bones and remains of their prize. About the beginning of A 
in beating down Blacksod Bay, with light airs, and near the Island of Inniskea, two 
large whales came nearly alongside the cutter." 

The Parliamentary Eeport from which the foregoing extra' I 
ciently proves that no part of England or Ireland is better situut 
the endless treasures of the deep, than this of Iar-Connaught. But its population 
derives little benefit from the vast supply of every kind of fish which annualh 
its shores. When the fisheries on the west coast of Ireland shall meet with adequate 
encouragement, the poor, and often destitute, inhabitants of the district will } 
industrious and happy. It has been with many a matter of serious doubt, « . 
the injury entailed on the Irish fisheries by the following royal "1> ■ a" of 

King Edward VI., " to eate flesh at forbidden times," has been count 
the Royal and Parliamentary Acts in their favour, from his time to ti. I day- 

" And where, by the lower and common orders of our Eealme, certain dayes and 
tymes be appointed nott onely to eat ffyshe : Our pleasure by advise aforesaid, is, that 
you, our Deputie, shall and may, by force hereof, graunte to such and as ni~: 
thinke good, full libertie to eate fleshe in all tynies forbidden : Any statu: 
custome to the contrarie, notwithstanding. — To Sir A S ger, Ki.t. L. D. 

of our realme of Ireland, and to the rest of our counsaill there."— Pat J. 
Edw. VI. Rolls Office, Dublin. 

NOTE F. See page 13, note e . " Geology of Iar-Connaught." 

The first development of the Geology of Iar-Connaught was made by the late 
Alexander Nimmo, one of the ablest engineers and geologists of his time. It appeared 


i8 5 

in his Report on the Bogs of Gal way, West of Lough Corrib, printed in the Appendix 
to the Fourth Report of the Commissioners on the Nature and Extent of the Bogs of 
Ireland, ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, 28th April, 1814. The 
geological portion of Mr. Nimmo's Report Avill prove a valuable and appropriate addi- 
tion to the description of West Connaught. 

The Royal Dublin Society, aware of the mineralogical importance of these western 
districts, in A. D. 1825-8, deputed their Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, Sir 
Charles L. Giesecke, to proceed thither, and report the result of his investigations. 
His Reports are incorporated in the Proceedings of the Society. Perhaps no other part 
of Ireland has had the advantage of similar investigations; and we are not altogether 
without a hope that they may ultimately prove advantageous to this long neglected 

NOTE G. See page 1 7, note °. " Lough Measg.'" 

On an island in this lake, Eoghan Beul, fourth Christian King of Connaught, who 
began his reign, according to Tigernach, in A. D. 502, held his residence. See the 
curious life of St. Cormac in the Book of Lecan, fol. 63, and in Colgan, p. 752, for an 
account of the Saint's visit to that king, at his Dun or residence, called Dun Eoghain, 
on the island of Inis-meadhoin (now Inishmean) in Lough Measg. Here an abbey, 
said to have been predicted by St. Cormac, was afterwards erected. — Id. In A.D. 
1223, Maoiliosa, son of Torlogh O'Conor, prior of Inis-meadhoin, died. — Four Masters 
A.D. 1227, the abbey was burned by the forces of Hugh O'Conor, who was leagued 
with the De Burgos — LI. Some ruins of this abbey yet remaining, indicate it to 
have been a small but beautiful building. The site and considerable vestiges of the 
Dun of Eoghan Beul may still be traced. The celebrated Cathal Crovedearg O'Co- 
nor, King of Connaught, was born at the harbour of Lough Mask ; and was fostered by 
Teige O'Concanon, at Hy-Diarmada in the present county of Galway, the ancient 
patrimony of the O'Concanons. Cathal died in A. D. 1224. For a curious notice of 
Eoghan Beul, see " The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach," p. 471, edited by Mr. 
O'Donovan, for the Irish Archaeological Society, A.D. 1844. 

Caislen na Caillighe, or Hag's Castle, on Lough Measg, called by our author "an 
impregnable castle," is frequently mentioned in our annals. In A.D. 1195, Catha 
the son of Dermott led an army from Minister into Connaught ; and proceeded with- 
out interruption until he arrived at Lough Measg and Inis Robha ; where he captured 
the boats or vessels of Cathal Crovdearg O'Conor, King of Connaught, and brought 
them to Caislen na Caillighe. A. D. 1233, Cathal's son and successor, Felim King of 
Connaught, demolished this castle, and others throughout the province, which were 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2B erected 

1 86 

erected by the sons of Roderic O'Conor and the De Burgos. It was afterwards re- 
built by the Bourkes, and continued in the possession of their descendants until 
A. D. 1586, when it was besieged by Sir Richard Bingham, Governor of Connaught. 
It was then considered the strongest fortress in the province, and was defended a. 
him by Risdeard an Chorrain Bourke, and others of his kinsmen, the descendants of 
Richard O'Cuairsci Bourke, who had nocked thither, as well for safety as to avoid 
attending the "English" session (assizes), then first established in this country. The 
Governor attacked it with some four or five vessels manned with the best of his troops ; 
but was obliged to retire, with the loss of one vessel and several men. The Bourkes, 
however, apprehensive of the result, retreated with their wives and children across 
Lough Measg. The Governor thereupon demolished the castle, and caused Richard oge. 
commonly called Falfo Erinn, the son of Mac William Bourke. to be put to death. 
See an account of this transaction in the Four Masters, at A. D. 1586; but it will be 
found more amply detailed in Bingham's, own narrative in Stowe's Chronicle, London, 
1632, fo. p. 720, et seq. The death of this young chief caused a great sensation at the 
time. It formed one of the Forty-three Articles of Complaint against Bingham, de- 
livered to the Lord Deputy of Ireland in A. D. 1595 ; and to it the accused Governor 
gave the following answer : — " Richard oge, commonly called the Perall of Ireland, 
was well and worthily executed likewise, for, pretending to do service, laide a plot in 
deed to bring in Scotts, aud raise a generall rebellion within that County, having 
made his castle for that same purpose, as appeareth by an act then sett down under 
the said Sir Richard's hand, and seven more of the councell of the province, which 
were present at that time, and witness to the whole proceeding ; and likewise with 
the consent of the best gents of the countrie themselves, Sir Richard having no 
meane of ordinary trial at that time, by reason of the great troubles; and that he 
was worthily executed, and the same no manner of discontentment or feare to any, 
appeare by the aforesaid certificate under all their hands; but all those niatn: 8 
Richard hath answered before, and of this is acquitted by the Councell.*' See the 
answers to all the charges, preserved in the Cotton Library, British Museum. Titus 
B. xiii., p. 451. The charges themselves I have not found, but suppose that they 
may be discovered among the State Papers of the reign of Elizabeth. To the futurr 
topographer or historian of this part o\' Ireland, they will be indispensable. 

NOTE H. Seepage 24, note \ " Init an Gha. 

Of the "two chappells" on this island, mentioned by our author, " that dedicated 
to St. Patrick" is the oldest, and, like all the primitive Irish churches, it is divided 
into nave and choir. The other, which was dedicated to the Gall Craibhtheach. literally 


i8 7 

"the devout foreigner," is now called Teampull naNaomh, the church of the Saint, 
and is a highly-finished specimen of the religious houses erected by the Irish from 
the eighth to the eleventh century, but it has suffered much by time. It lies a short 
distance to the south-east of the church of St. Patrick, and an old winding road or 
passage, which led from the one to the other, may still be traced. It is not impro- 
bable that this " devout foreigner" was the holy priest, Egbert, mentioned by Bede, 
1. iii. c. 27. The nave of the church or chapel dedicated to St. Patrick is about 
twenty-two feet long, and thirteen broad. The choir arch is still standing. The 
doorway, three concentric arches, is formed of red grit stone. At the south-east 
corner of the church is a square tomb, probably that of archbishop Muirge.s O'Nioc, 
who died in this island in A. D. 11 28, as mentioned above, and in the Annals of 
Ulster and Four Masters. At a small distance to the southwest is a small perpen- 
dicular headstone of hard granite, three feet over ground, and five inches square, 
which bears the following inscription : " Lie Lugnaedon mace Lmenueh." The stone 
of Lugnaedon, the son of Limenueh. This Limenueh, or Liamain, otherwise called 
Darerca, was sister of St. Patrick; and Lugnaedon is styled his dalta or alumnus in 
the Irish Martyrologies. — See the Book of Lecan, 43 (a, b), Trias Thaum. 226. (p.), and 
Acta SS. 716. This is considered the oldest Christian monument as yet discovered 
in Ireland. The inscription is in the Roman characters of the fifth century. An 
attempt to decipher it may be seen noticed in a publication which was popular in its 
day, entitled the Irish Magazine, printed in Dublin, June, 18 10, p. 256. " It is 
written in the hard Irish, or virgin'''' [by this word was probably meant virgular] 
characters, and is in English : ' Underneath this stone lie Goill, Ardan, and Sionan.' " 
This was utterly unworthy of notice, and would not be alluded to here, except to 
shew the lamentable ignorance which then prevailed, when none could be found ca- 
pable of reading and explaining an inscription, which required but ordinary know- 
ledge of the language and history of Ireland. It becomes necessary here to notice an 
oversight of the learned translator and editor of the Annals of Ulster and the Four 
Masters, Doctor O'Conor. In both these Annals, at the entry of the death of Murges 
O'Nioc, Archbishop of Tuam, A. D. 1128, Imp an ftuill, where he is stated to have 
died, appears translated " insulis Alienigenarum," and in the Annals of Ulster this is 
explained, "(i.e. Ebudibus)" the Hebrides; mistaking it for inp jull, which these 
islands were always called by the ancient Irish. But that this was a mere oversight 
appears from a note to a previous entry in the Annals of the Four Masters, A. D. 
726, which contains the following passage : " Est etiam prope Congam Insula dicta 
Inis-an-Gaill-chrabhuig, Insula Saxonum Eeligiosorum, in qua sunt duas Capellse et 
multa Sanctorum Sepulchra;" though even here " Gaill-chrabhuig" should be ren- 
dered " Saxonis Religiosi." 

2 B 2 NOTE 

NOTE I. See page 28, note x . "Fanatics." 

Other instances of local proceedings, as remarkable as those of the Anaba; 
given by our author, might be adduced ; but it ie necessary to limit this continuation 
of our former note, to one or two incidents of a harmless nature which occ ur red 
here. In A. D. 1655, two disciples of George Fox, " Humpliy Norton and William 
Shaw, being in a peaceable meeting at Samuel Newton's house in Galway, were by a 
guard of soldiers forcibly haled thereout, the meeting broken up, and turned out of 
the town, and not suffered to go in to fetch their Horses." — Compendious Vie* of 
some extraordinary Sufferings of the People called Quakers, 8vo. Dublin, 1731. p. 53. 
The "Quakers," however, persevered. In A. D. 1669, "Solomon Eeeles. being moved 
of the Lord to go as a sign, on the 14th of the 7th month, and that naked, with fire 
and brimstone burning on his head, without the gates of the City, into a j 1 
Mass-meeting, and the Fryar and people being upon their knees, he (in the spirit of 
the Lord) said, 'wo to these idolatrous worshippers; God hath sent me this dav to 
warn you, and to let you see, that if you repent not, what shall be your reward.' 
And so he went over the bridge- into the City, warning them also to repentance ; and 
when done he was had to prison, with his three Friends, Randal Cknutna, Nick. 
dribble, and Henry Bloodworth, who accompanied him in his - . Eliza Harper, 

visiting them in prison, was also there detained, and after -• veral days inipriso;.: 
were all released." — Id. p. 113. It is a curious fact that from that time to the pr 
not a Quaker or Jew has been seen in these western parts of Ireland. 

The following occurrence in this district, recorded in ('ambrm-is Eversu-. will 
shew to what extent the spirit of religious feeling had excited people at that n 
" Nuperrime firmioris et infirmioris sexus et a-tatis multitude ad fbntem Galvi;: 
num lavanda confluxit, ut salubritatem. vel natuni vel S. Augustini (cuju- :. 
gerit) deprecatione aquis ejus inditam hauriret. Ad inuoxiam banc turbam guWr- 
nator Galviensis ducum suorum audacia; satelles prsesidiarios milites eduxit, qui ju>j.u 
ejus plumbeae grandinis nimbo insontes ex improviso perfuderunt ; quorum aliqui 
yravioribus vulneribus affecti, caeteri veste, bonisque nudati in carceres non ducti sed 
tracti sunt." — Epist. Dedic. 

NOTE J. See page 32, note '>. " The Red Earl." 

For rank, possessions, and the exercise of that species of militarv service, called 
by modern usage, " .Martial Law," Richard Burke, the Red Earl of Ulster, who died in 
A. D. 1326, was undoubtedly one of the foremost men of his time in Ireland. He 1- 
commemorated as follows by the noble editor of the Memoirs of the Marquis of Clan- 



ricarde, before referred to, p. 39, note T . " Richard, the second earl of Ulster, 
usually called, from his complexion, the Red Earl, had such large possessions, that he 
was the most powerful subject in Ireland." — Ped. VIII. As our author has, p. 32, 
adduced documents to shew some of the burgagery and manorial rights of this earl's 
immediate descendants, I may here refer to a curious old family record, formerly be- 
longing to Mac William Oughter, head of the Bourkes of Mayo, and treating of them 
alone, and which is now preserved in the MS. Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 
F. 4. 1 3. It is described, " Historia et Genealogia Familias de Burgo, cum Picturis 
et Armis multorum nobilium hujusce Familiaa, in membrana delineatis ; et Rhithmis 
in Lingua Hibernice. Omnia Hibernice — Codex membr." This book contains an 
exaggerated description of the possessions of the " Red Earl," which, it alleges, ex- 
tended o na popbachai^ a n-iuprap Clionnact, an ouraij ihuincip phlarapcuij, 
50 bade rhic Scanlam luirh le Dun oealgan ; ajup o Cucuio a o-Cuaic TTlhurhan 1 
6hpian, 50 6aile-hana\j [6eal aca peanaij] coip na h-Gipne, &c. " From Forbagh 
[a place six miles west of Galway] in Iar-Connaught, the territory of the 0' 'Flaherties, 
to Ballymac Scanlan, near Dundalk ; and from Luchud [now Lowid or Lughid bridge] 
in Thomond [viz. in Kilkeedy parish, barony of Inchiquin], to Ballyshannon, on 
Lough Earn." For the remainder of the exaggerated statement of those possessions, 
see the old volume referred to, fol. 1 . Mac Firbis, in his large and valuable book of 
genealogies, now in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, after fol. 798, has the 
following entry in English to the same effect, and probably translated from the same 
old volume, viz. : " The Red Earle was lord in Demayne and Sarvice, for the most 
parte, from Bealagh-Lughyd in Tuamond to Bailiehany, which is an hundred miles, 
and from the Norbagh \_Forbagh~\ by the sea side, to Bailie Mac Skanlon by Dundalke; 
and also from Limbricke to Waterford, besides all his Lands in four Shires, and in 
the Countie of Kilkenny, and Tipperary." But though it is evident that Mac Firbis 
doubted the extent of the statement, yet that the Red Earl's possessions were widely 
extended there can be no doubt. The following curious and hitherto unpublished re- 
cord may serve to explain how some of those widely extended possessions were 
acquired : 

" [Anglia, SS. Conmac] Placita apud Tristeldermot coram Johanne Wogan Justic. de 
Anno XXXIII. Edw. I, A.D. 1305. 

" Supplicavit nobis dilectus et fidelis noster Ricardus de Burgo Comes Ultonie, 
quod, cum O'Conoghur \_0' 'Conor'] Hibernicus, quiquam plura homicidia, roberias, 
latrocinia et alia enormia diversa, in terra ipsius comitis de Conacia, et aliis terris ad- 
jacentibus, hactenus perpetravit, et de die in diem, in pacis nostre lesione, perpetrare 



non desistit, teneat quandain terram nostram in Conacia que appellatur ScilmortLy 
[Siol Muiredliaigh~\, dictam terrain ipsius comitis ibidem contigua, de nobis ad firmam ; 
velimus dictam terram de Scilmorthy eidem couiiti, vel alicui altero Anglico, concedere: 
habendum pro tanto nobis inde annuatim reddendo, quantum dictus Hibernicus nobis 
inde hactenus reddere consuevit, vel in excambium pro tantis terris et tanti valoris per 
extentum, nobis per eundem comitem in terra pacis pro predicta terra de ScilmortLy 
danda et concedenda: Nos, igitur, volentes petitionem ipsius comitis, quatenus sine 
nostri incomodo poterimus, condescendere in hac parte; Vobis mandamus, quod per 
sacramentum proborum et legalium liominum de partibus illis, per quos rei Veritas 
melius sciri poterit, diligentur inquiratis, si nos, absque injuria vel prejuditio 
vel alteri facienda, feoffare possumus prefatum comitem vel alium Anglicum quern 
voluerimus, de dictis terris de Scilmorthy, habendis in forma superius annotata. et 
quantum dicta terra de Scilmorthy, valeat per annum, in omnibus exitibus, juxta 
verum valorem ejusdem: et inquisicionem inde distincte et aperte factam, nob.- 
sigillo vestro et sigillis eorum per quos facta fuit, sine dilatione mittatis et hoc I 
Teste meipso apud YVymlyngwelde, decimo tercio die Julii, anno regni nostri tri 

" Pretextu cujus mandati justiciarius hie processit ad inquisicionem inde fa 
dam, per juratos subscriptos, in hunc modum. 

" Inquisitio capta apud Tristledermod, coram Johanne Wogan, justieiario I 
a die Sancti Michaelis in quindecim dies, anno regni Regis Edwardi. XXXIII. "° per 
subscriptos, viz.: Roberturn Gent.; Matheum Dreu; Stcphanuni Tallry; Johannem 
Ffleming; Nicholaum Foleramb, de dicta terra de Scilmorthy; Jordanum de E 
Johannem de Staunton; Richardum Dulyt; Wilhelmum Gaynard, militem, decomitatu 
Conacie; Walterum de Riddlesford; Micbaelem de KerdiriV. Adam le Poer; Phillipum 
filiuniAde; Stephanum le Proud de eadem comitatu ; Walterum le Brett: Willielmum 
de Sancto Leodegario ; Richardum de Walleis, militem. de comitatu Tipperary: 
Johannem filium Ryrteth ; Willielmum de Grafton; Johannem de Lowth; "\\ 
Serle; Rodolphum Serle; Petrum Muriet; Johannem le Ken de eodem comitatu; 
Richardum Gernoun; Henricum de Crus, decomitatu Midie; Richardum de Valle, 
militem, de comitatu Tipperary ; et Johannem Coterel, de comitatu Midie: Qui-' 
dicunt super sacramentum suum, quod postquam terra de Scilmorthy, que continet 
quinque cantredras, devenit ad manus Domini Regis, post conquestum quem Williel- 
mus de Burgo fecit de Conacia, quidam Hibernicus nomine Ffeylyni O'Con 1 
qui se appellavit Regem Conacie, tenuit predictas quinque cantredras de Domino 
Henrico Rege, patre Domini Regis nunc, reddendo inde. singulis annis. Domic 
quingentas marcas. Et ipse Feylim, tota vita sua. tenuit bonam pacem et f. 


I 9 I 

pacavit redditum suum. Et post ejus mortem, surrexit filius ejus, et devenit felo Domini 
Regis et ligeos Anglicos Domini Regis de partibus suis interfecit, et movit communem 
guerram contra dominum Regem qui nunc est, et prostravit castra sua de Roscoman, et 
Randon ; Quodquidam castrumde Roscomon, Robertus Dufford, primo tempore quo fuit 
justiciarius domini Regis nunc, firmaverat per custagia quasi inestimabilia, proper quod, 
utlagatus fuit, et obiit felo domini Regis, ita quod a tempore mortis Ffelym O'Conoghur, 
usque ad tempus quo predictus Robertus Dufford iterato venit justiciarius, dominus 
Rex parum vel nihil cepit de predicta terra, preterquam de una cantreda que vocatur 
O'Many, quam Dominus Rex nunc dederat Ricardo de la Rokele ad feodum firmum, 
et predictus Robertus, in secundo suo adventu, per magnos exercitus et custos quasi 
inestimabiles, iterato firmavit castrum de Roscomon in predicta terra, et ipse dimisit 
cuidam O'Conaghur duas cantredas et dimidium de predicta terra, que sunt versus 
magnam Iretheriam Conacie et Ultonie, ad firmum, viz. cantredam de Maylurg et 
Tyrelele, et cantredam de Tothes, excepta una villata terre que vocatur Cloinnagga- 
nenan, que fuit Richardi de Calne, que nunc est in manibus Domini Regis per mino- 
rem etatem heredis ipsius, et dimidium cantredi de Moyhe, reddendo inde domino 
Regi, singulis annis, centum marcas. Et sic postea diversi justiciarii diversis Hiber- 
nicis consanguinitatis et cognominis illius, per consimilem firmam illas duas cantredas 
et dimidium dimiserunt, sed Hibernici illi raro totam firmam, et sepe parte per an- 
num, et sepius nihil inde solverunt. Et dicunt quod predicte due cantrede et dimi- 
dium valent, communioribus annis, tempore pacis in omnibus exitibus, centum marcas. 
Et dicunt quod si Hibernici fuissent fugati de partibus illis, et terra fuisset assessa 
fidelibus hominibus ille duo cantrede et dimidium valerent, per annum, ducenti et 
quinquaginta marcas, sicut predictus Felym pro eis reddit: sed dicunt hoc non posse 
fieri sine magno posse ipsius domini Regis, et sumptibus inestimabilibus, valorem 
dicte terre excedentibus, maxime cum predictus O'Conoghur sit unus de quinquc 
capitaneis hibernicis Hibernie. Et dicunt quod dominus Rex, sine prejudicio vel 
injuria sibi vel alteri faciendo, potest feoffare predictum comitem, vel alium quern 
voluerit, de predictis duobus cantredis et dimidium, quas O'Conoghur modo tenet, 
preter predictas villatas terre. Et dicunt quod erit ad commodum domini Regis et 
ridelium suorum de partibus illis, si dominus Rex det terrain illam predicto comiti 
in escambium pro centum mercatis terre, vel redditibus in terra pacis, maxime cum 
predictus comes habeat terras suas in Conacia et Ultonia, et magnum posse Angli- 
corum et Hibernicorum contiguum terre ille per quod melius poterit hibernicos terre 
illius castigare quam alius. In cujus rei testimonium, predicti juratores sigilla sua 
apposuerunt huic Inquisitioni, die et anno supradictis." 

The foregoing extraordinary record has been transcribed by the editor from the 



original Exemplification under the Great Seal of Charles I., which exemplification 
was produced by the Earl of Strafford to the memorable jury impannelled at 
tumna, in A. D. 1635, to try the King's title to Connaucrht. For an account of 
that trial see Carte's Life of the Duke of Ormonde, vol. i. p. 82. Some of the 
proceedings of Walter de Burgo, the father of this "Red earl," against Felim O'Co- 
nor, King of Connaught, and which are alluded to in this document, will be found 
detailed in the Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the venerable Charles OH 
p. 41. 

The Blakes of Galway. 

Richard Caddie, clictus niger or the Black, a quo Blake, was the "common an- 
cestor" of all the present families of this name in the west of Ireland. He was 
sheriff of Connaught in A. D. 1306; and as our author informs us, p. 32. was 
"bailifTe of Galway under Richard de Burgo, the Red Larl of I '!-•• r," n A. D. 1312. 
The extract from Debrett given in the History of Galway. p. 7, is altogether fabu- 
lous. But the following remarkable petition of John Blake, alias Caddie C 
lineal descendant of the above Richard Caddie, clictus niger), to the Commit 
the Plantation of Connaught, in A. D. 1640 ; and the othi ial instruments 

which accompany it, satisfactorily prove the origin and descent of this old family. 
These curious documents have been providently saved, and kindly communicated to 
the Editor, by his respected friend, Michael Joseph Browne. Esq., of Moyne, in 
the county of Galway ; who is himself maternally descended from the same stock, and 
whose public and private virtues reflect honour on the ancient race from which 

" To the honhle his Mat" Comn t r nr 

the Plantacon of the Countie of (Jallicay. 
" The humble Peticon of John 
Blake, alias Caddie. 

" Humbly sheweing, that the peth-ioner and his auncestors, wl 
male he is by lyneall descent, as he is reddy to make it app< 1 y auncient and 

authentick records and evidences, for eleaven descents, is and have ben respectively 
seised, as of their auncient inheritaunce, of the Castle and two water mills of Kiltor- 
roge, and of the moiety of the two quarters of land thereunto be!' _ . 
quarters and an halfe of land in Slewclare, parcel! of Kiltorr said, in the bar- 

rony of Clare, and of the moiety v\' the Castle and fowre quarters of land of Balli m e 
croe; and of the moiety of the Castle and fowre quarters of land of Kiltullagh in the 
barony of Dunkellin, and of divers messuadges and lands within the auncient liberties 



of Gallway and Athenry, within which all the premisses doe lie, as apperes by several 1 
matters of record. And that the peticioner and his said auncestors did plant there- 
abouts, being an anncient English familie, and there continued without chandge of 
languadge, manners, or habit, and without once matching with any Irish familie, 
since the ninth yeare of King Edward the Second. 

'• And that the premisses ever since were and now are free English land, exempted 
from the Jurisdiccion and yoke of the Irishries, and of all maner of Chieffries and 
Irish exaccon, ordinary or extraordinary, as being independent of any whatsoever, 
but only of the Crowne, as free as any free land in the English Pale, or in any other 
parte or place of this kingdom, as may appere by the said auncient Eecords and 

" The premisses tenderly considered, and for that the Petitioner is the 
eleaventh masculin English descent, lineally descended from father to 
the sonn, in the possession of the said lands, from Richard Caddie, dicto 
nigro, whose heire male the Peticioner is, whoe purchased the same from 
one Thomas Hobridge, in the 9" 1 yeare of K. Edw. the 2 d . And that 
although the peticioner, after so long a tracte of time, be called Blacke 
or niger, yet in the offices taken post mortem of his auncestors they were 
called Blake, alias Caddie. That your honours will be graciously pleased 
to take the antiquity of the peticioner's estate into your consideracion, 
by shewing him your honours' speciall favor uppon the distribucion, and 
the peticioner shall ever pray." 

The Prooffe of John Blake, alias Caddie, his Pettegree. 

1 . That the said John is son to Nicholas apperes by an office taken post mortem of 
the said N. 28 August, 1629, and by a livery sued by the said John. 

2. That Nicholas was son to John apperes by a lease under the greate seale made 
by the Com" of the wardes, of the wardshippe of the boddy and lands of the said 
Nicholas, dated the 17th of 7ber, in the 28th yeare of Q. Eliz., and by a livery 
sued by the said Nicholas. 

3. That John was son to Nicholas apperes by a decree made by the Lo. President 
and Councell of Conaght, dated the 6th of March, 157 1, and afterwards confirmed by 
the Lord Deputy and Councell. 

4. That Nicholas was son to John apperes by the said Nicholas his last will and 
testament, dated the 18 th of 7ber, 1564. 

5. That John was son to Valentyne apperes by the said Valentyne his last will and 
testament, dated the 1 2th of July, 1499. 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5 2 C 6. 


6. That Valentyne was son to John apperes by the said John his last will and tes- 
tament, dated in March, 1468. 

7. That John was son to Henry apperes by the said last-mentioned will of John, 
wherein it is set forth, " John fitz Henry." 

8. That Henry was son to John apperes by a deed dated the 6th of 8ber. in the 
2dyeareof King H. the 6th, viz., in the yeare of our Lo. 1423. 

9. That John was son to Walter apperes by divers remaynde: 

Henry fitz John fitz Walter; and by a deed dated the 15th yeare of K. Richard x. 

10. That Walter was son to Richard apperes by a will of the said John, dated 
1420, wherein is subscribed, "William fitz Walter fitz Richard." 

That Richard is the comon auncestor, apperes by the deed made to him by Tl. 
de Hobrigge, in the 9th yeare of King Edward the 2d. 

All which the said John Blake, alias Caddie, is reddy to product-, and to make it 

John Blake. 

lu' port on the Petition of Joint Blake, alias Caddie. 

Wee have seriously considered of the annexed peticon of John Blake, alias Caddie, 
of Gallway, gentl. ; and doe iynd by ancient evidences, som without date, 1 
auncient characters whereof wee conceave the same to have ben made iii th< 
King Henry the Third, or in the begining of the reigne of Kirni Edward the I 
and some others beareing date in the sixt yeare of the reigne of KiiiL r Edward the 
First, that the mannor and lands of Kiltorroge, whereof the cattle, two mills, and one 
quarter ofland in Kiltorroge, and two quarters and a halfe of Kewclare, adioineing to 
Kiltorroge, are parcells, now in the possession of the said John Blake, alias Caddie; 
and that the towne and lands ol'Ballymacroe. alias Homolorkan and Donegall. w: 
two quarters are now in the possession of the said John Blake, alias Caddie, wei 
graunted unto Richard Caddie, dicto )<i<im. and his heirs. And wee doe further find 
that the castle, mannor, and lands of Kiltullagh and Monidone, whereof th< 
Blake, alias Caddie, is in possession of two quarters, and of the moiety of tl. 
castle, were graunted unto the said Richard Caddie, dicto niyro. and his heires. by deed 
dated in the 9th yeare of Kinge Edward the Second. And wee further finde that the 
jjarcells of land of Parke, Clunine, Gortenecormock, Gort a Carrinteige, Cnoek- 

aneglass, Clorone, Blencheneghane, Efarrin-I-blake, Clonagownae, Rahine. 
and divers tenements within the liberties of Athenri, were graunted onto John Blake. 
alias Caddie, and his heires, and to Henry Blake, alios Caddie, and his hen 
tively, by deeds dated on the 15th yeare of the raigne of King Richard the Second 



and in the second yeare of King Henry the Sixt, and that all the premises before- 
mentioned doe lie in the county of Gallway. And wee further find that the said John 
Blake, alias Caddie, did, by a petegree produced before us and proved by several offices 
and other matters of recorde, and by divers and sundry auncient wills and deeds made 
by his auncestors, prove himselfe to be heire male of the boddy of the said Richard 
Caddie dicto nigro, and of the boddy es of the said John and Henry Caddie, alias Blake, 
for eleaven descents lyneally descended from the said Richard Caddie dicto nigro, vizt., 
the said John Blake, alias Caddie, son to Nicholas, the said Nicholas son to John, John 
son to Nicholas, Nicholas son to John, John son to Valentine, Valentine son to John, 
John son to Henry, Henry son to John, John son to Walter, Walter son to the said 
Richard Caddie, dicto nigro. Upon all which wee conceave that the estate of inhe- 
ritance now held by the said John Blake, alias Caddie, of the premisses, and in his 
possession as aforesaid, was in his said auncestors, whose heire male he is, before his 
Mat ies title accrewed unto the said county of Gallway. And that the said John and 
his said auncestors, whose heire male he is, being of an auncient English blood and sur- 
name, have and doth continue in the said possessions by them held as aforesaid. All 
which wee submitt to your honnour's further consideracon. Given at his Mat 1 " Inns 

the 5th of June, 1640. 

Ri. Bolton, Cane. 

Gerrard Lowther. 
Exhibitted before us the 6th of September, 1 655, upon the speeding of the 
commission, from the Commissioners of adjudication, of claymes and qua- 
lifications of the Irish, sitting at Athloane, in the behalfe of the within- 
named John Blake, of Gallway, Alderman. 

Paul Dod. 

Tho. Semper. 
Christ. Blashford. 
The following are some of the ancient documents referred to in the foregoing Pe- 
tition and Report. They extend from A. D. 1 3 15 to A .D. 1553. 

" Carta Thome de Hebrigge, facta Ricardo Cadel. 
" A. D. 1 3 15. 
" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Thomas de Hobrigge senior, dedi, concessi, 
et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi Ricardo Cadel dicto Nigro, et Emeline uxori sue, 
totam terram meam cum pertinenciis et edificiis, quam de predicto Ricardo tenui in 
tenementis de Kyltolagh, Kemconwy et Moynedan. Ita plenius sicut dicta terra cum 
pertinenciis fuit michi mensurata, perambulata et divisa per antiquas metas et bundas ; 
Tenendum et habendum predictis Ricardo et Emeline, et heredibus predicti Ricardi 

2 C 2 vel 


vel suis assignatis, de capitalibus Dominis feodi illius: Reddendo inde annuatim pr<- 
dicti Ricardus et Emelina, etheredes ejusdem Ricardi vel assignati capitalibus Dominis 
feodi illius, redditus et servicia inde debita et consueta. Et ego Thomas et herede- 
mei vel assignati, predictam terrain cum pertinenciis et edificiis, predictis Ricardo et 
Emeline, et heredibus ejusdem Ricardi vel assignatis, eontra omnes homines et feminas 
warrantizabimus, acquietabimus et defendemus, imperpetuum. Et ut hec mea do- 
nacio, concessio et presentis carte mee confirmacio, rata, stabilis et inconci, 
permaneat, presentem cartam sigilli inei impressione roboravi Iliis testibus Stephaao 
de Exonia, Willielmo de Bary, Johanne de Exonia, Phillipo filio Simonifi de BremegLam. 
Simone filio Walteri, et aliis. Datum apud Dungalvy, die Sabbati proxima post festum 
.Sancti Leonardi, Anno Regni Regis Edwardi, filii Regis Edwardi, nono." — Ex originali. 
The lands of " Kyltolagh," mentioned in the foregoing feoffment, are still (1846) 
in the possession of the descendants of the original feoffee. 

" Carta Philippi filii WUlidmi Erla, facta Joh.f. Walteri lilak. 
" A.D. 1391. 

" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Philippus filius Willielmi Erla dedi. 
cessi et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi Johanni filio Walteri Blake, omnes tt-rras 
meas existentes in forencico de Athnery in tenemento de Clantayg, viz. in Payrl 
viz. inter terram Thome Temperneys et terram Philippi Albi, ex una par! 
ring beyg juxta Sortcormuyk ex parte altera, Clon)-ntornoyr jacentem inter moram 
fratrum ex una parte, et ampnem ex parte altera. Sunt predion- torn- de Pavr.-. 
et Clonyntornoyrjacentes mensurate, divisate, perambulate per predictas a : 
divisas et bundas : Tenendas et habendas prenominatas terras meas de Payrkb 
Clonyntornoyr, cum omnibus pertinenciis, de me et heredibus meis et assignati-. 
dicto Johanni et heredibus suis et assignatis, in feodo et hereditate, libere, quiett-. 
bene et in pace, sine aliquo honore seculari vel servicio, exactione <-t demanda. Et eg«' 
vero predictus Philippus et heredes mei predictas terras de Payrkbej 5 
predicto Johanni et heredibus suis et assignatis, contra omnes homines et feminas va- 
rentizabimus, et ubique inper]>etuuin defendemus. Ut autem hec mea donacic. 
cessio et presentis carte mee confirmacio rata sit, stabilis et inooncussa semper perma- 
neat, presentem cartam sigilli mei impressione roboravi. \Y\\- ti>tibus, Johani 
tunc preposito de Athnery, Nicholao Lachlain tunc ballivo ejusdem et de Clai 
Clemente Lathreach, Thoma Bonaventer, Edmundo Wythyr, Nicholas Blak. Thoma 
Temperneys Philippo Albo, Johanna Keyll Pypar, Thoma hunt tunc servient** de 
Clantayg, Domino Johanne Fwyt capellano Johanne Clefford clerico, et multis aliis. 


i 9 7 

Datum apud Athnery die martis proxima post festum Sancti Patricii episcopi et con- 
fessoris, anno regni Eegis Ricardi Secundi quinto decimo." — Ex originali. 

The feoffee in the foregoing instrument was grandson of Richard Cadel, dicto 
nigro, or the Blak. 

" Carta Eating Hannyn. 
"A. D. 1394. 

" Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Kating Hannyn filiam et heredew* Johannis 
Hannyn, filii Philippi Hannyn burgensis de Galvy et Coille de Clar, dedi, concessi, et 
hac presenti carta mea confirmavi Johanni Blak filio Walteri blak burgensis de 
Athnery, omnes terras et tenementa, pocessiones, jura et omnia bona immobilia me 
jure hereditario consernencia, vel aliquo alio colore me consernentia, videlicet, in villa 
de Galvi infra muros et extra muros ; ac eciam in villa de Athnery, infra muros et 
extra muros ; et eciam in villa Clar, intus et extra, in partibus Connactie, cum om- 
nibus pertinenciis ad predictam hereditatem et terras spectantibus, sicut melius et 
plenius predicte terre et tenementa, pocessiones, jura et hereditas, ac tercia pars mu- 
lieris relicte, jacentes, mensurate, divisate, perambulate per certas metas antiquas et 
bundas: tenendum et habendum predictas terras et tenementa, pocessiones, jura here- 
ditaria, tercia pars relicte cum omnibus pertinenciis ad predicta pertinentibus, de me 
Katilina et heredibus meis et assignatis, predicto Johanni etheredibus suis et assignatis, 
in feodo et hereditate, bene et in pace, cum omnibus libertatibus et liberis consuetu- 
dinibus ad predictas terras et tenementa, pocessiones, jura hereditaria et terciam 
partem relicte, et eorum pertinensiis spectantibus : reddendo inde annuatim ipse 
Johannes et heredes sui et assignati, capitalibus dominis predictarum villatarum red- 
ditus et servitia inde debita et de jure consueta. Et ego vero predicta Kating Hanyn 
heres et heredes mei et mei assignati predictas terras et tenementa, pocessiones, jura 
hereditaria, immobilia ac tercia pars relicte cum omnibus eorum pertinensiis predicto 
Johanni Blak et heredibus suis et suis assignatis contra omnes homines et feminas, ut 
prescriptum est, varentizabimus, acquietabimus et inperpetuum defendemus. Et ut 
hec mea donacio, concessio et presentis carte mea confirmacio rata sit, stabila et in- 
concussa semper permaneat, presentem cartam, et quia sigillum meum plumbeum est 
incognitum, una cum sigillo communitatis ville de Athnery duxi roborandam. Hiis 
testibus, Johanne Blak tunc preposito de Athnery, Nicholao Lachnain tunc ballivo 
dicte ville, Clemente Lachreach, Thoma bonaventer, Davide Wythyr, Nicholao Blak, 
Helia de Athy, Henrico Blak, domino Jacobo decano cathedrali Tuamensis, et nmltis 
aliis. Datum apud Athnery in festo Sancti Andree apostoli, anno regni regis Ricardi 
secundi decimo octavo.'.' — Ex Orig. 

See the following testamentary document referred to, p. 194, ante, No. 10. 

" Inventarium 


" Inventarium Bonorum et Debitorum Johannis oge Blake, etejut Testamentum. 

"A.D. 1420. 

" Inventarium bonorum que pre manibus habentur venerabilis viri bone men. 
Johannis junioris Blake, burgensis ville de Galvy, nuper defuncti, qui erat sana menle 
per xv. dies ante ejus beatam mortem, ex papiro suo integraliter summarie recollegit. 
sibique hie acopiare instanter ut pluribus appareat transcribere requisivit, in vigilia 
nativitatis virginis gloriose, Anno Domini M°CCCC°XX°. Imprimis, habet xL a iL cra- 
nocas salis, i. pipam cum dimidio pipe mellis, dimidiam pipe ferry, duo dolia vinL 
Item habet ii. loricas et ii. scapularia ferrea, et duas galeas. Item habet duos ciphoe 
argenteos, quorum unus vocatur grub, quod habet M c magrasa many impignoratum 
pro x s . Item habet alium grub impignoratum a fratribus galvye, pertinentem ad 
Stephanum Devellyn, pro x. unxiis. Item habet duas patenas ponderantes xxx". et 
unam magnam patenam que ponderat lx u . Item habet in panno Anglieano unum 
dusselum. Item xii 11 . Cadays. Item i. pissam de lyter, demptis v. faciebus bombycum. 
Itemi. cyphum argenteum i. zona argentea. Item vi. coclearia hnpignorata prov*. Item, 
ii. dacras choriorum cum dimidio. Item, habet in manu Walteri Blake ii. dussella 
panni Anglicani. Item, habet idem Walterus i u . de seryco. Item, habet cachebum 
eneum. Item, habet vi. scutellas de stanno, et vi. discos de eodem stann>. < t v. vassa 
ad salsamentum de stanno. Item, unum salterium et tria candelabra de pras. Item, 
unam ticindem cum veru ferreo cum pertinenciis. Item, unum dolium frumenti ple- 
num. Item, in monasterio collis victorie habet in manu vi. mensuras frumenti, 

cum uno vasse continente viii. lagenas. Item, patenas parvas ponderanu-:- xv. ln-m, 
habet viii. caballos valentes iiii. mareas. 

"Inventarium bonorum que sibi debent reddere debit* ;■ S. bnpri ' ::a O 
Gillayn tenetur ad xi. mareas et xl d . et dimidiam ejusdem some pro anima sua eidem 
remisit, solvendo aliam partem. Item, Thomas fuscus magmalayn tenetur vi s . et ejus 
frater prespiter est fidejussor pro eo. Item, sutor OK - ur ad ii s . Item, 

mauricius O harny tenetur ad ii s . et iiii d . Item, Dermicius O K yrvayn tenetur ad xi. 

mareas et x s . cum iii d . et soluta sunt de predicta summa v. marce cum dimidio 

interim laboravit idem Dermicius circa domum ipsius usque ad xx s . si ipse probaverit 
sic. Item, Thomas Eeany tenetur ad ii. dacras cum dimidio dacre pro vestibus a: . 
canis, et v. dacras pro vino. Item, Thadeus OMlheyn et Thadeus Olongayn tenenrur 
ad ix. quarteria salis, cum i. dussello vestium et duas partes dolei vini. Summa predic- 
tarum est xxviii. dacre cum dimidio i. dacre. scdsolutum est depredicta summa iii. dacrt- 
p er thadeum Olongayn. Item, Ohygayn tenetur ad ii. dusselos vestium pro v. mareis. 
cum i. dacra choriorum. Item idem Ohygayn tenetur ad dimidiam dussen de albo 

i 9 9 

veste anglicano, et ad aliam dimidiam dusseyn rubei coloris, pro v. nobilibus et xl d . 
Item, tenetur idem ad vi u . cadays valentes vii s . Item, ii. facies bombicum valentes 
viii s . et viii d . tenetur idem. Item, tenetur idem ii. quarteria cum dimidio Uteris, valentes 
xxii d . Item, Ohygayn solvit de predictis debitis alternativis temporibus sic xx d . ; x s ., 

vii. unxias, i. noble, iii. sues valentes ii s . et vi d ; ii. sues valentes xl d . ; i. suem c va- 

lentem ii s . i. lactiferam valentem viii s . et iiii chorias estimatas ad viii. chorias 

butiri Vasconnie mensura, et relinquo sue consciencie quantum valuerunt viii. chorie, 
iiii. mensuras de ordei, semyquarterio minus, summa que solvit de predictis iii 11 . xii s .et 
iiii d . Alia vero pars aratro, nondum soluta ab eodem Ohygayn, extendit se ad iiii. marcas 
et xxii d . et hoc sine computo butiri predicti, quod relinquo usque ad x s . si probabit 
sic. Item, Willielmus Develyn tenetur xiiii. bucellas salis et vi. chorias, et hoc super 
unam ollam quam impignoratam habeo ab ipso. Item, carpentarius O marchayn 
recipit a me xxx d . et adhuc quantum probaverit usque ad xl d . habeat. Item, Williel- 
mus boteler tenetur ad ii. dacras choriorum. Item, Dominicus lench tenetur ad ii. 
dacras et vi. chorias, habens pro hiis pignora ipsius, picta zonam argenteam cum cipho 
argenteo. Item, habeo bombycuilum mylery filii Ricardi de burgo impignoratum pro 
vii s . et vi d . Item, Thomas O Keynhyla tenetur 1. nobilem. Item, Ricardus flavus 
Smyte et filius Smyte tenentur ad viii s . reddit quilibet ipsorum eque ad iiii. Item, 
Odo M c in merulyd tenetur xx d . Item, Johannes M c Manchyn tenetur ad ii. dacras 
choriorum. Item, Dermicins M c Manchyn tenetur ad viii s . et iiii d . cum i. dacra chorio- 
rum. Item, Cuchalchayll fynn M c Nelynd tenetur ad vii s . etviii d . Item, Ohallurayn 
tenetur ad iiii s . et iiii d . pro vino. Item, Walterus de burgo, sue nacionis capitaneus, 
tenetur ad vi. marcas et xl d . ; et m c mic Rycairyd est pro eo. Item, dermicius, Dermicii 
nigri filius, tenetur ad xx s . dempto uno dimidio, et in parte remitto, solvendo aliam 
partem mihi. Item, Thomas m c in nelynd tenetur ad iiii s . Item, Johannes gallda 
tenetur ad ii. dacras choriorum. Item, i. pipam salmonum misi in manibus Johanni 
fwyt ad vendendum. Item, Nicholas Athy tenetur dimidiam pipam ferry. Item, 
M c hwch de burgo tenetur ad iiii. marcas et xx d . Item, donatus Ochonayr tenetur 
pro O Dubnayn ad iiii. dacras choriorum. Summa in pecunia xx' 1 . cum ix s . et ii d . 
Summa in choriis, ii. lastas, c. viii. dacras choriorum. Summa summarum xxxviii 1 '. 
cum ix s . et ii d . 

Inventarium debitorum que debet reddere suis creditoribus. Inprimis, tenetur uni 
mercatori, viz. hugoni Wykfor ad xxiii. dacras choriorum, quas indilate mandavit sol- 
vere eidem. Item, tenetur Philipo M c Kynnamuyn 1. nobilem. Item, fratri predicti 
Philippi tenetur ad xviii d . Item, Donalldo hartheach ad xxx d . Item, Cornelio 
Dyreach tenetur ad ii s . Item, Malachie O Marchachayn tenetur ad v s . Item, 
messoribus segetum tenetur ad xxxii d . Item, Thome O Lygy tenetur ad ix d . Item, 



Dermicio Magrotenetur ad xl s . viii d . Item, faraulis vigilantibus circa villam tenetur 
ad ii s . Item, ingi myechayn tenetur ad ii. mensuras frumenti, et alias ii. mensuras 
manseti evene. Item, uxori Johannis Eeddemer tenetur ad i. sulcum madrL Item, 
fratre ymananayn tenetur ad viii s . et iiii d . Item, Waltero Blake tenetur ix s . et iiii d ., 
cum duabus virgis, cum quarterio panni Anglicani. 

Christi nomine Ihu invocato, et ejus auxilio postulato, Ego reverendus ac dir 
tus vir, Johannes Blake, jacens egrotus, viam universe carnis aripere estiman?, testa- 
mentum meum congruo modo condere cupiens, et dicens in forma subsequenti. — In 
nomine sanctissime trinitatis ac individue, unius patris, et filii et spiritus sancti. 
Inprimis, lego animam meam summo creatori sue, qui hominem ad ymaginpro • 
litudinem suam fecit et creavit; at lego corpus meum ad sepeliendum in loco prt- 
decessorum meorum, in ecclesia fratrum minorum ville de Galvy. Item, lego mecuni 
ubi requies mea erit et resurrectio, de bonis prescriptis valorem v. marcarum, secun- 
dum communem estimacionem, fratribus predicts. Item, lego pro decimis i 
oblatis ad fabricam capelle Sancti Nicholay, et ad fabricam capelle Sancte Anne ville 
de Galvy, eque inter easdem dividendo, valorem x. marcarum de bonis predictis. sicut 
executor subscriptus poterit expedire et exigere. Item, lego domino Rectori, et 
domino vicario ejusdem ville, precium v s . Item, lego ad ex< -quia » mew precium ad". 
cum i. pipa vini. Item, lego fratribus Galvye xxviii. virgas de lytyB. Item, . 
duobus filiis meis xl. marcas de predictis. Item, fratribus de Clar lego valorem x.\ s . 
de predictis; et sic omnibus pauperibus et secularibus subsequent ibus, a principio 
usque ad finem testamenti mei, lego communem estimacionem ab executore nieo 
recipere et nichil ultra exigere volo ab eodem. Item, fratribus lego de Athna- 
ryo- x s . Item, lego fratribus de Kenalheyn i. nobilem. Item, lego fratribus Kill- 
chony i. nobilem. Item, fratribus de lochryach lego i. nobilem. Item, canonico 
() gillarayn lego xl d . Item, lego ad decenciam altaris beati Antonii iL marcas. 
Item, lego ad fabricam ecclesie parochialis de Athnaryg x\ Item, lego fratr 
de Mylyucli i. nobilem- Item, lego fratribus de lochthra i. nobilem. Item, 
fratribus de Phortdompna i. nobilem. Item, lego fratribus de Roaoomayn i. nobilem. 
Item, fratribus Athlethayn lego i. nobilem. Item, fratribus de Roba lego L nobilem. 
Item, lego Margarete Blake ii. marcas. Item, lego Sile Blake i. marcam. Item, lego 
duabus filiabus Blak et Annon ii. marcas. Item, lego Kateline et Aveline Blak ii. 
marcas. Item, lego duobus filiis meis ii. loricas et scapularia ii.. ac ii. galea*. Item, 
lego Willielmo, Walteri Blake filio, iii. marca?. Item, Ricardo liavo. Johannis Blake 
filio, lego iii. marcas. Item, lego Thome Blake iii. marcas. Item, fergallo anchorite 
le°-o mensuram frumenti, et i. vas butiri. Item, Ane lego ii. mensuras frumenti. Item, 
lego bachachin Blake X s . Item, filie Mic Richaryd lego vi. marcas de ] : stoat 


ceteri habent, estimacione, et equum vel iii. marcas pro eqno. Item, lego fratri Thome 
O clumayn ii. nobilia. Item, lego aliis vi. fratribus, viz., Donato O Neyll, Davidi 
OM'chony, Nicholao OKeryn, Donaldo M'heach, Odoni Neyll unicuique istorum 
unum nobilem. Item, lego ad domum pauperum i. mensuram frumenti, aliam pissarum, 
et ii. mensuras evene. Item, lego Ane cece i. nobilem. Item, lego Margarete Sortret 
precium v s . de bladiis. Item, legoMargarie Stondun et Katerine socie sue precium v s . 
de bladiis. Item, lego Roys ni Dathuch precium xl d . de bladiis. Item, Theobaldo Jo- 
hannis filio, et Thome flavo colactaneo meo, lego precium xi s . Item, lego alatrici mee 
iiii or . evene mensuras. 

Me d . est, quod prefatus Johannes Blak, coram testibus subscript-is, omnia ista legata 
superaddita aliis primis legatis, sana mente, licet eger corpore, personis quoque infra- 
scriptis in hunc modum fecit et legavit dicens. Inprimis, lego Edmundo Kar dimidiam 
dosseli panni, cum ii. quarteriis salis. Item, lego Theobaldo M c Seayn glays iii. caballos. 
Item, lego Johanni Lorchayn i. caballum, et ii. mensuras evene. Item, lego Der- 
micio lyncas i. mensuram evene. Item, lego fratri Thome Maglynn ii. buselas salis. 
Item, lego Thome Othyarnayd ii. quarteria salis et i. virgam panni cum quarteria. 
Item, lego Willielmo Martyn dimidiam quarteriam salis. Item, Cronyn O Mulraty i. 
mensuram evene lego. Item, lego henrico bodekyn i. quarteriam salis, cum i. virga et 
dimidia panni. Item, lego pro habitu meo tempore mortis recepto, v. virgas vestium. 

" Data et acta sunt hec Anno Domini m°.cccc°.xx. In vigilia nativitatis virginis 
gloriose, in loco ffratrum minorum de Galvya, coram hiis discretis ac fide dignis testi- 
bus, viz. henrico Baudekyn, henrico Blake, fratre Thoma Clumayn ordinis minorum, 
Thoma fioyn, Willielmo Walteri blake filio, Kicardo blake, Thoma claudo, ac plu- 
ribus aliis ad premissa rogatis et requisitis. 

" Nos Johannes, Dei et Apostolice sedis gratia, archiepiscopus Tuamensis, istud 
testamentum Johannis blake, coram nobis exhibitum in ccclesia parochiali de galvy, 
cujus inventarium una cum tabula testamentaria legimus, vidimus et diligenter in- 
speximus, in omni sui parte tenore presentium confirmamus, ratificamus et approba- 
mus. Et data est administracio bonorum dicti Johannis defuncti, executori infra 
scripto. Data et acta sunt in ecclesia parochiali predicte ville. 

" Hujus autem testamenti mei executorem instituo, ordino, facio atque denuncio, viz. 
Walterum blak Galfridi filium, cujus dispocicioni et ordinacioni omnia supradicta per me 
legata, sicut ipse melius et utilius a prefatis debitoribus exigere poterit, etc." — Orig. 

" Laudum Wil. de Burgo sue nacionis capitanei, el aliorum, inter Henricum, 

Wittielmum, et Sily Blake. A. D. 1424. 
" Omnibus christi fidelibus has literas visuris vel audituris : Nos Willielmus de 
Burgo meeque nacionis capitaneus et miles, Johannes M c Huug dicte nacionis, Williel- 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2D mus 


mus de Valle, Edmundus M c Mio Ricard, Johannes filius Mileri majrni. Walterue 
M' Thiboth, Henricus Ruffus de burgo, salutem et subsequentibus fidem indubiam 
adhibere: Noveritis quod pro bono pacis inter ipsos qui se naturaliter, et secundum 
sanguinem invicem attigisse noscuntur, reformande et irnposterum fideliter et fircniter 
observande, viz. Henrico Blake filio Johannis Blake de Athnarydh ex parte una. Wil- 
lielmo Blake ex alia, et Sily Blake ex parte tercia, dictis partibus circa successionem 
hereditariam tocius hereditatis Henrici Blake senioris nuper defuncti, utroque dieente 
se altero de jure potiorem, nimium contendentibus seu litigantibus, rogati et requisiti 
per predictas partes, prius se invicem sub pena perjurii manifesto tactis sacro-sanctis 
Dei ewangeliis, obligantes stare nostris arbitrio, compositione sive ordinacione. et earurn 
successores et heredes, imperpetuum: et eciam quod quisquis ex predictis Henrico ju- 
niori et Willielmo, quovismodo contraveniret alter alteri ad summam centum librarum 
constitutodecontravencionehujusmodi eo ipso firmiter fuisset obligatus, nostras ; 
interposuimus, sufficient caucione fidejussoria et juratoria prius, ut premissum i 
eisdem recepta, prefatorum Henrici, Willielmi, et Sily qualitatem consider;; 
dicto Henrico juniori, nostra oppinione et judicio, digniori et magis merito t<'tum 
illud tenementum per longum et latum, cum omnibus suis pertinenciis. in quo predictus 
Henricus defunctus nuper inhabitabat, heredibus et assignatis suis habendum et t ■ 
dum quiete et pacifice concessimus, composuimus et arbitrati fuimus, et per pre- 
concedimus, componimus et arbitramur; et eciam assignamus dicto quoque Willielmo, 
heredibus et assignatis suis, in recoinpensacioneni dicti magni et principalis tenement!, 
assignamus, componimus et ordinamus duo teuementa jacentia inter domum lapideam 
Johannis Blake junioris nuper defuncti ex parte una, et terras Johannis Fyc: 
parte altera. Prefate vero Sily, ad terminum vite sue, pro sua honesta ^ustentacione. 
assignamus omnia ilia et singula tenements, jacencia inter ten. nuper Domini ci Lynche, 
et terras Thome Penryse; item, unam gurgitem anguillarum communiter nominatam 
in Nuntinach, ita turn quod post decessum dicte Sily, omnia et singula per n. - 
assignata revertantur equaliter inter predictos Henricum juniorem et Willielmum, he- 
redes sive assignatos suos. Item volumuset ordinamus qui filii dicti Johannis ju: 
et Thome nigri Blake habeant omnia terras, tenementa et gurgites, que predict] Johannes 
et Thomas dum vixerant possidebant. Item, volumus et ordinamus quod secundum 
quantitatem porcionis sibi assignatam, predicti Henricus, Willielmna, 
omnia debita dicti Henrici senioris, et incumbencia onera supportabunt. Hec presens 
ordinacio facta est apud Galviam, decinio die rnensis Septembris, sub testa mon in sigil- 
lorum nostrorum, anno Domini m.cccc.xxiiii. anno vero regni Regis Henrici 
conquestum tercio." — Orig. 

The four documents which immediately follow, are among the earliest *peei: 

2o 3 

of written English found by the Editor in this district. When we call to mind that 
it was only in the fourteenth century the people of England began to speak in a lan- 
guage which may be called English, though even that cannot now be understood without 
the help of a glossary (see Henry's Hist., Part V. p. 498) and that Chaucer, who died 
A. D. 1400, is unintelligible without similar aid, it must be confessed that the 
" comen Englishe tong" is of respectable antiquity in the west of Ireland. 

" Dede of delyveraunc ofvi. marc x s . to Sandere lynche § al. 
U A.D. 1430. 

" Knowyngebe thus to alle men yn time to comyng that y henry Blake and Walter 
Blake custumers of p e Kyng & John Eede countroller of p e porte of p e Galvy & of 
Slego haye ymade delyveraunce to Saunder lynche et Davy Botyller vL marc x s . pe 
wych p e for sayde Saunder lynche &Davy Botyller was owing of a tayllofxx. marc to 
M c Wylliam p« now ys and of p e wiche some above ysayde we knowlich Saunder 
lynche & Davy Botyller full payde & pe for sayde henry Blake Walter Blake & John 
Rede pereof quyte. In pe wyttenys her of Soverayne andportreve of pe Galvy &many 
mo. And her to pe for sayde Saunder and Davy have put to har seals. Iwrote at pe 
Galvy pe xx". day of August. The zere regnyng of Kyng henry pe VI. after pe conquest 
pe viii. zer. — Or iff. 

" Betwyxt Wil Blake f. Gefferey and hary Blake fz John for thedevittion of all titer lands. 

"A.D. 1445. 

" To alle trew Cristen peple that pis present writyng schulle se or hire that for as 
moche as certeyn discordis strifes and debatis have been now late Imevid and Ihad bi- 
tweene William Blake fe Geffrey burgeys of the towne of Galvy of pat one party and 
harry Blake fe John Blake of Athenry and John his sone of pat other party as for cer- 
tayn londis and tenementis with hare aportenaunce in Galvy and in the subarbis of pe 
seide towne nevertheles pe seide William Blake harry Blake and John his sone of 
pe seide discordis stryves and debatis bi mediacion of hare frendis goyng by twene in 
eschewyng of grevows costagis and hurt of bope parties compromitted ham to stonde 
to pe dome and Iugement of Willug Burke Justice and Sheref of Conoght lorde of 
Glanricard and maister Iohn fferere generall of pe frere prechours under the forme as 
hit schewith here after write which pat is regestred in pe comyn paper of pe towne 
of Galvy in these wordis etc. 

" Me d that pe iii d . day of Octobr the zere of Kyng harry the vi sh . after pe conquest 
of Englond the xxiii". William Blake fe Geffrey of pat one party and his heiris and 

2 D 2 assignys 


assignys and harry Blake fe John Blake and John his sone and hare heyris and hare 
assignys of that oper party havyth ensured ham a fore Willug Burke lorde of Glanri- 
card Walter ffrensche soverayn of pe Galvy maister John fferere Generalle of the 
frere precheres and all the comborgeys of pe towne of pe Galvy under hare othis of 
the masse boke and the holy crosse and the foresaide lorde borow tin; maister and all 
the comburgeys pat pey both foresaide parties schalle stonde ferme and stable for nam 
and evermore of alle hare contraversy abowt the londe and pe anheritaunce pat was 
sum tyme harry Blake pe elders with Inne and with owt the towne of Galvy I 
dome of the foreseide Willug Burke and maister John fferere Generalle of pe order 
with owt frawde or gile or after clappis of sotilte by eny of the foreseide panic above 
saide etc and pat pis is sothe and in witnesse of trowthe Nicholas Skyret sovereyn of 
the Galvy Walter Ffrensche Saundye lynche harry lynche William lynche Stephen 
lynche Robert lynche and Walter Athy to this present wrytyng have put to hare 
selys. Iwrite at Galvy the last day of Septembre in pe yere of pe regnyng of Kyng 
harry pe vi. pe xxiiii"." — Orig. 

" Arbitrament inter William fy Geffray et Johanfy Henry Blake. 

"A. J). 1445. 

" To all cristen pepill that this present enden tours party s shall hire or 
enow that pe x day of pe niunth of noveinbre ^ere of oure lord Kyng henry pe vi 
aftir pe conquest xxiiii 1 William fy Geffray Blake yn pat onn parti his heris 
assignys & Johan fy henry Blake his heris & his assignys yn pat opir parti compro- 
mitid aboute all pe londe and parte pat Henry fy Johan Blake hilde & had yn his 
oune possession yn pe towne of Galvy witin & witout undir pe othe of pe masboke A 
pe holy crosse & vnto Willok Borke lord of Clan rycarde, Rycard Borke fy William 
maister John fyrere Saundre Lynche William Lynche Water Blake A Thomas 
Lynche & undir pe suirte of pe same wit pe soverayn & portrif & his comburgens of 
Galvy to stande now & ever to harre acorde & arbitryment aftir pe forme «i pe : 
pat herafter folayt undir pe payn of an hundird pounte bornys Edmunde Athye & 
Thomas Lynche for William fy Geffray Blake William Lynche & Robert Lynche 
for Johan fy Henry Blake In primis pat Johan fy henr Blake shall hai 
ment pat sumtyme wassh Masstir henr Blake pe yklir sum time burges of Gab. 
all hes oportnans fram pe plase of Nicholas Skyret unto pe plase pat 1* 
sumtyme dvellid yn & so fro pe bye strete unto pe toune walle wit an ele vere me- 
eallet Correcalle & a parcel of londe mecallit Gortledrine pat his fadir hadde Item of 



al pe lande witout pe Creggis of old henrys pat William abouseid to have pe toparte 
& Johan aforseid to have pe third parte Item of all re londis of olde henrys in pe 
cuntre pat William do have halfe & Johan pe topir halfe Item pat William Blake 
to have all pe londis & tenementes wityn pe Galvy & witoute pat wassh yn henr fy 
Johan his possession excep abouseid In pe witnyes of pis endentours we partys 
aforseid hath putte to our selis wit p e selis of Willok abouseid lorde Eicard Borke 
Maister Johan Fyrer Saundr Lynche Water Blake and Thomas Lynche wit pe 
selis of pe borovys Edmunde Athy & Eobert Lynche Dat apud Galvy die et anno 
supradictis & as mor credens pe comyn selis ys y put hirto of Galvy." — Orig. 

" May st Manes M'Donkytk ys dede. 
" A.D. 1449. 
" Be hit knowyng to all maner men p at \ is present endentur sey th or hyreth pat y 
mayster manes M c Donkyth zevyth my full power & my patent to M° William of Clan- 
rycard of pe xl marc pat my lyge lord Kyng hath yeve to me of pe Cokket of Galvey 
& of Sligo as frely as y had hit on pis condyssioun pat y or myn attorney schall have 
every zere of pe forseyd M c William or his attorneys what profet comyth of pe cokket 
bi a halfe at Galvey & halfe at Sligo y to pay pe fyses of pe vi li as hit comyth to and 
in record pat pis trew y pe forseyd maister manes to pis present endentur put to 
my sele Iwrite at Galvey pe xxvi day of March in pe zer of owr lord m'cccc et 
xlix zer." — Orig. 

" Testamentum Johannis f. Hen. Blak. 
"A.D. 1468. 
" Ihus. 
" In nomine sancte et individue trinitatis, scilicet, patris, et filii et spiritus 
sancti, anno verbi incarnati M. cccc°lxviii., in crastino Sancti Patricii et confessoris 
nocte diei dominice, ego Johannes films Henrici Blake burgensis ville de Galvy, com- 
pos mentis mee, licet eger corpore, condo testamentum meum in hunc modum. Im- 
primis do, lego, et commendo animam meam omnipotenti Deo eterno, invisibili 
incommutabili, qui totus ubique est, totus ubique presens, non per partes divisus, 
sed totus in omnibus, non localiter sed potentialiter, qui sine commutacione sui 
mutabilia curavit et curata gubernat : et Marie virgini et matri, beato Michaeli 
archangelo, mire virtutis nuncio, paradisi preposito, cui ab altissimo receptio et custo- 
dia animarum sanctarum extitet deputata. Et similiter do et lego animam meam 
tocius curie celestis agminibus, necnon martiribus, confessoribus atque virginibus : 
et credo in fidem universalis et Catholice ecclesie, s. in sanctam trinitatem, id est 



patrem et filium et spiritum sanctum, unum Deum omnipotentem, unius substancie, 
iinius essencie, unius potestatis, creatorem omnium creaturarum, a quo omma, per 
quern omnia, in quo omnia. Credo patrem a se non ab alio, filium a patre gemtum, 
Deum verum de Deo vero, spiritum Sanctum a patre et filio equaliter procedentem, 
consubstancialem coeternum patri et filio. Credo eundem filium Dei, verbum Del et 
naturaliter natum de patre, et consubstancialem patri per entiam, temporaliter 
natuin de spiritu sancto et Maria semper virgine, duas habentem nativitates. unam 
ex patre, eternam, et aliam ex matre, temporalem ; qua eciam filius Dei sue carnis 
concepcione conceptus est, et sue carnis nativitate natus est. Deum verum confiteor 
conceptum, eundem verum Deum, et verum hominem Jesum Cbristum, unum filium 
Dei unigeniti, proprium, perfectum in duabus naturis, in unius persone singularitate, 
impassibilem et passibilem, mortalem atque immortalem, crucifixum in infir: 
nostra, eundemque semper viventem in virtute sua, qui mortuus est, carnis sue 
morte, et sepultus, atque ab inferis, dampnato et spoliato principe tocius iniquitatis, 
rediens, tercia die resurrexit. Item lego corpus meum sepeliendum in mon;. 
fratrum minorum ville de Galvy, in sepultura fratrum meorum, nacionis Blak. <-ub 
proteccione Sancti Francisci, et suffragio sui ordinis. 

" Debita in quilus obligor. 

"Inprimis, lego et relinquo Petro Lynche, genero meo, lx. marcas quas ei dudum 
teneor solvere, pro dote Avelyne Blak filie mee carnalis, ita quod earundem lx. mar- 
carum solucio fuerit facta secundum formam contractus inter no* initi, de hujusmodi 
solucione fienda. Et ipse Petrus tenetur ad solvendam dimediam partem expensarum 
que erunt necessarie pro obtinenda dispensacione ad purgandum vicium, et delendum 
impedimentum incestus, vigentis inter ipsum et prefatam filiam meam. Item, lego 
Martino lynche pro debitis suis, vi c . lyneos quos sibi reddere teneor. Item, lego 
supradicto petro lynche \\i. lineos et xld. in quibus sibi obligor. Item, lego Johanni 
jong \_yong~] de bristollia xx s . in quibus obligor eidem, et plus si probttverit me teni. 
Item, lego Cristiane WeltofFer sua debita secundum quod suum obligatorium cavit. 
Item, lego Johanni Byssum mercatori de britania unam lastam coriorum. et v. dakras 
in quibus sibi obhgor, causa mercancie. Item, lego Lysvarthe fernandus unam 
lastam coriorum cum dimedia laste, in quibus eidem teneor. Item, teneor eidem 
Lyswarte ad unum hogeshed mellis, et ipse mihi tenetur ad xiiii mellis. 

" Hec sunt debita que mihi a diversis debitor/bus debentur. 
" Inprimis, supradictus Johannes byssum mihi obligator ad valorem xii. dekrarum 
coriorum, de ere, et ad valorem iiii or . dekrarum coriorum. de frumento. Item, 



Stephanaus Brun mihi tenetur ad vi. clekras coriorum, liberorum ad burdam navis in 
portu de Galvy. Item, predictus Lyswarte mihi obligatur ad i c . lineum, et ad xl d . 
Item, Johannes Ffrench mihi obligatur i c . cum dimidio. Item, Collas de bristollia 
mihi obligatur in duobus dacris coriorum, quas dedi sibi pro parte Nicolai Ffrenche ; 
et ipse Nicholaus easdem de suis, me ignorante, persolvit eidem. Item, Karolus 
Doelleayn mihi obligatur in una lasta, vii. dacras et vii. coria. Item, Gillacriste 
M c Kenny et suus Alius mihi obligantur insolidum in duabus lastis et v. coriis et un l 
lineis. Item, dictus mihi obligatur per se in dimedia lasta coriorum. Item, Donatus 
O Grane mihi obligatur in una lasta cum dimedia. Item, Dermicius O Colgon tene- 
tur mihi in duabus lastis coriorum. Item, Moehony M c fflaherty ytheressay mihi 
obligatur in xii. dekris et ix. coriis. Item, Cornalius M c greyn mihi tenetur in dime- 
dia lasta et vi. coriis. Item, Willielmas M c Kenry mihi obligatur in xv. dekris corio- 
rum et vi. coriis. Item, Donatus M c Greyn tenetur mihi in dimedia lasta coriorum et 
vi. coriis. Item, Maurus M°agearlary tenetur mihi in xiiii. dekris et vi. coriis. Item, 
Donatus O Mulluyn tenetur mihi in duabus dekris et iiii. coriis. Item, Morina inge 
M c Kearhy mihi tenetur in xx s . et duodecim coriis. Item, Maurus O Mulmalia tene- 
tur mihi in v. dekris et ix. coriis. Item, Johannes O Hannyn tenetur mihi in iiii. 
dekris et uno corio. Item, Cornelius O Hannyn tenetur in ix. dekris et corio uno. 
Item, Cornelius O Marcuayn tenetur mihi in quinque marcis. Item, Willielmus 
O Korbayn tenetur mihi in tribus dekris et duobus coriis. Item cantor mihi obliga- 
tur in xx s . Item, Lorkayn in iii s . Item, Johannes M° eagayn in duobus nobilibus. 
Item, Hobertus Macicknuk mihi obligatur in tribus libris et x d . Item, Johannes de 
Burgo rector de Athnary tenetur mihi in x s . Item, Uluk Alius Eistardi M c tomas 
mihi obligatur in vi s . et viii d . Item, Valterus flavus filius hoberti, vi s . et viii d . Item, 
Edmundus Mac icknuk, vii s . x d . Item, Odo O Lensgy, M 1 tabullas doliorum cum 
dimedia. Item, Cormacus O Mochayn, xx s . demptis viii' 1 ., et si solvit unam marcam 
sum contentus. 

" Largicio elemosinarum mearum. 
" Imprimis, lego et imperpetuum concedo super hereditate in villa de Galvy, inclu- 
sive me spectante, dimediam marcam sacerdoti cotidie missas celebranti super altare 
Sancti Patricii in ecclesia ville Galvy existente, pro anima mea, et anhna mee uxoris, 
et parentum meorum. Item, lego eidem ecclesie in recompensacionem mearum deci- 
marum, iii. marcas. Item, lego monasterio fratrum de Galvy iiii. marcas. Item, lego 
monasterio fratrum predicatorum ville de Athnary iii. marcas, et ecclesie parochialis 
ipsius ville de Athnary fabrice, unam marcam, prout Stephanus Brun in melius vide- 
bit expendere. Item, lego monasterio de Lochrech, dimediam marcam. Item, lego 
monasterio de Portdomna xl d . Item, lego monasterio de Myluk dimediam marcam. 



Item, lego monasterio de Kylconyll xl d . Item, lego monasterio de Kennaleyn xl d . 
Item, lego monasterio de Athluayn xl d . Item, lego monasterio de Moeyn xl d . Item, 
lego monasterio de Rosrella xl d . Item, lego ceteris piis locis elemosinam pro anima 
mea, secundum consideracionem infrascriptorum executorum meorum, prout in melius 
eis videbitur distribuere. Item, lego pissam et zonam meam meliorem altari nacionis 
mee, quod est in monasterio fritrum predicatorum ville de Galvy, cum signeto meo 
aureo, ad aliquod opus juxta disposicionem Johannis filii Willielmi Blak. 

" Bona que possideo. 

" Item, viii. dolia vini sive ylage. Item, alia iii. dolia, viz., duo de Osse et unum de 
Bastarde. Item, duo lasta coriorum cum dimedia. Item, xL marcas in pecunia. Item, 
quinque pissa argentea. Item, unam nucem argenteam. Item, xiii. cokliaria argentea. 
Item, duas zonas argenteas. 

"Item lego Vadyn Blak omnes terras, tenementa ac redditus, viz. filio meo 1 
timo, que jure progenitorum habeo in villa de Galvy et de Athnary, intus et extra 
predictas villas, necnon in aliis locis Conacie ; et instituo ipsam Vadyn in hiis omni- 
bus in meum heredem. Item, do et lego eidem Vadyn. filio et heredi meo, caldarium 
meum, et iii. magnas ollas, et iii. parvus ollas. Item, lego eidem patenam eneam, ita 
quod Juliana uxor mea habebit terciam partem ipsorum vassorum ad die:- HH 
usum omnium predictorum similiter habebit, donee ipse Vadyn meruerit ea habere, 
sustinendo onera incumbencie effectualiter. Item terciam partem ipsorum vassorum 
argenteum eidem Juliane ad dies suos lego. Item, lego ipsa Vadyn loricam cum sca- 
bulare. Item, do et lego filio meo, viz.. Willielmo, tenementum quod jacet inter 
tenementum Johannis Blak filii supradieti Willielmi. ex una part..-, et tenementum 
Johanne Panrys ex altera parte. Item remitto germanis meis omnes expensas quas 
feci pro recuperandis terris ipsorum, diversis creditoribus titulo pignoris obliga- 
terris de Athnary existentibus, que eis debentur ordinacione patris nostri ; ita turn 
quod terre impignorate per ipsum patrem penes heredem meum remauebunt. donee 
recuparabit pecuniam quam pro earum solucione solvebam. Item, lego hered. 
meam in prefatis villis, et in francheis earundem et alibi existentem. tain in tenemen- 
ts quam in terris arrabilibus, tam in pasturis, in montanis, et planis, quam in virgul- 
tis et redditibus, eisdem germanis meis, si, quod absit, ipse filius meus et heres obierit, 
sine herede masculo de suo corpore legittime procreato ; ita quod ipsi postquam 
adepti erunt eandem hereditatem, ob causam predictam. solvant lx. marcas pro ipsa 
hereditate, viz., xl. marcas de hiis duabus filiabus meis, viz., Anorine et Eveline 
Blak, et xx. marcas monasterio et ecclesie ville Galvye, supradictis. per equalem divi- 
sionem. Et si ipsi obierunt sine heredibus de eorum corporibus, viz., masculis. 



time procreatis, eandem hereditatem filiis Willielmi Blak do et lego. Item lego 
predicte filie mee, vidz. Anorine unum dolium vinL Item, lego germane mee Joharme 
Blak unam pipam vini. Item, lego Stephano Broun usum et habitacionem celarii ex 
opposito castri mei existentis in villa de Athnary, quod vocatur bowtha, ita quod 
ipsum habebit sine contradiccione et molestacione aliqua, durante vita sua ; et hoc 
sibi varentizo. Item, domino Donato archiepiscopo Tuamensi togam meam meliorem 
lego. Item, lego OdoDi O'Tyarna vicario de Galvy togam meam secundam meliorem. 
Item, Odoni O'Molilayn discipulo meo, alteram togam cum dubelet, et calciamentis 
viridis coloris. Item, lego Johanni Rys, presbitero, caputium meum et dubelet, et 
calciamenta greciei coloris. Item, lego cuilibet sacerdoti ecclesie parochialis ipsius 
ville de Galvy xii d . Item, unicuique fratrum de conventu supradicti monasterii de 
Galvy, promoto in sacerdocio, iiii d . Item, clamidem meam fratri Malachio O'Dubayn. 
Item, lego duobus alumpnis meis duas loricas, cum duobus scabularibus. 

" Item, lego et imperpetuum relinquo usum, habitacionem et conduccionem ter- 
rarum mearum nuncupatarum Clogreayn, existencium in terris de Athnary, in longum 
et latum prout se extendit inter suos certos et antiquos confines, comunitati vici de 
Lathregh in Athnary, in feno et pastura quamdiu potuerunt et voluerunt redditus 

heredibus et assignatis meis solvere, et supportare arratura, tamen excepta, 

quam heredi meo reservo, pro cujus arratura eidem comunitati xx d . in antea remissi, 
quas quidem usum, habitacionem et conduccionem a me meis heredibus et assignatis, 
modo et forma predictis, eidem comunitati imperpetuum varentizo, ita turn quod nee 
heredes mei nee assignati easdem terras aliquibus nobilibus nee ignobilibus circum- 
jacencium terrarum unde prejudicium eidem comunitati gravaretur, vendire, alienare, 
impignorare nee locare possunt ; set ipsa communitas in hiis omnibus pre ceteris aliis 
prefertur. Item, volo et concedo quod fiat justicia inter dictum meum filium et here- 
dem ex una parte, et filios Willielmi yLachnayn de Athnary, de et super terris super 
quibus lis movetur inter me et ipsos, quarum vero judicii diffinicioni relinquo fieri 
judicialiter per dominum Donatum, Dei gratia archiepiscopum Tuamensem, et per alios 
quos sibi ad ipsum judicium faciendum eligerit et assumpsit. Super omnia et singula 
preinactitata, scripta, legata, relicta et disposita, rite et recte peragenda, ego Johannes, 
testator memoratus, Johannem filium Willielmi Blak, et Nieholaum Ffrench in meos 
veros et indubitatos executores constituo, ordino, pariter et depute Verum improvi- 
sores omnium et singulorum meorum bonorum, meique heredis et uxoris, in hoc tes- 
tamento instituo, eligo, viz. Petrum lynche et robertum Ffrenche, et assume In 
manus Dei omnipotentis vivi, et incommutabilis altissimi, apud quern vivunt spiritus 
mortuorum, et manent ^lectorum anime, reposito carnis onere, plena felicitate letantnr, 
commendo animam meam, Amen. Hoc testamentum est conditum Anno et die supra- 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. NO. 1 5. 2 E dictis 


dictis, Testibus protunc presentibus, Willielmo filio Alexandri Lyncbe tunc su] 
ipsius ville de Galvy, Nicholao-Ffrenche, Jobanne filio Willielmi Blak dictis executo- 
ribus, Petro lynch, Roberto Ffrenche, memoratis provisoribus, Domino Odone O tyarny 
vicario dicte ville, magistro Valtero Lang notario, et Dominice filio Roberti lynche, et 
multis aliis." — Orig. 

The foregoing "last will," and that of A. D. 1420, [see p. 198] are the most cu- 
rious and perfect specimens of ancient testamentary disposition which the Editor has 
here met with. The pious exordium and conclusion of the latter are worthy the 
attention of the reader. Both instruments shew the wealth and munificence of the 
opulent burghers by whom they were made. They also point out the nature, and, in 
some degree, the extent of the commerce carried on at that period in this western part 
of Ireland. This class of documents may, moreover, be considered useful as afford; 
tisfactory evidence of the manners and customs of the times to which they relate, and they 
therefore become valuable for historical purposes. Thus, we read in the for . 
of A. D. 1420, that the testator, who appears to have died in the habit of St Francis, 
bequeathed for post mortem ceremonies 40s. and a pipe of wine; which, it mu-t I 
fessed, was a liberal allowance to keep up the " merriment of an Irish wake." This - 
to prove the long standing of a custom which still prevails but too much in Ireland. The 
Editor has seen a " -will" made within the la-t forty years, wherein the testator, a Con- 
naught gentleman, ordered that, after his death, he should be "waked" by his tenants, 
for three successive nights, in a large out-house or barn; that a hogshead of whiskey 
should be supplied each night; and that he should himself be placed in a sitting pos- 
ture, with a bottle and glass before him, as if enjoying the festivity of the scene. This 
"old custom," which General Vallancey learnedly tells us the Irish derived from the 
Arabians, is now happily disappearing. 

" Sententia lata inter Ric. et Nico. Blake, et stirpem Walteri T/wme de Kyltulag-mor. 

"A.D. 1543- 
" In Dei nomine Amen. Nos Dominus Willielmus De Burgo miles, Ricardionim 

dominus, ac Regis excellencie in Conacia capitaneus, Reverendissimi domini. Christo- 
pherus divina gratia Tuamensis archiepiscopus, ac Rolandus eadem C. 
episcopus, necnon et Boecius M c Keagayn arbiter secularis. Indices seu arbitri electi 

sub intercessione et pena ducentarum vaccarum, de stando judicio et laudo 

nostro in causa mota super duabus quarteriis De Kyltulag-mor, inter honorabiles viros 
Richardum et Nicholaum Blake parte ex una. actores et generosos omnes et singulos 
de stirpe Walteri Thome de Silina Dorsi rubei ex altera, ut premissum est. inve- 
nimus sufficienter probatum, tain per instruments autentica, quain ex deposessione 


21 1 

approborum et anticorum, atque ex solucione annualis pensionis, quod ille due quar- 
terie de Kyltulagh-mor, jure hereditario spectant ad prefatos Ricardum et Nicholaum 
Blake. Quare antefato nomine invocato, non declinanfes ad dextram neque ad senex- 
tram, sed Deum semper pre oculis habentes, easdem duas quarterias de Kyltulag-mor 
cum omnibus cummoditatibus et communibus, eisdem Richardo et Nicholao Blake, 
per hoc nostrum laudum sive sententiam, adjudicamus, imponentes omnibus et singu- 
lis de eadem stirpe Walteri Thome, perpetuum silencium, ut de cetero non inquieta- 
bunt nee perturbaberunt prefatos Richardum et Nicholaum, nee suos firmarios, 
subditos seu familiares, habitantes in eisdem duabus quarteriis de Kyltulag-mor. Et 
si qui vel quis de eadem stirpe Walteri Thome, contrarium facere presumpserint aut 
presumpserit, quod protunc ceteri alii et qualibet pro se de eadem stirpe Walteri 
Thome teneantur et tenetur eisdem Ricardo et Nicholao blake emendationem cotfdig- 
nam facere, ac etiam solvere penam ducentarum vaccarum prescriptarum, eodem laudo 
nostro declaramus : reservata nobis potestate absolvendi vel condempnandi eosdem de 
stirpe Walteri Thome, in illis centum sextagenta quenque marchis in quibus cessarunt, 
in solucione debite pensionis tempore ferme, eaque finita secundum asseveracionem 
predictorum Ricardi et Nicholai. Actum, gestum, latum, et declaratum in Senobio 
Sancti Francisci ville Galvie, tercio die mensis Apprilis An Domini m.ccccc.xliii. et 
regni invictissimi Henrice octavi, Regis Anglie Francie et Hibernie, fideique defen- 
soris, ac sub Cristo supremi capitis ecclesie Anglicane et Hibernicane, An tricessimo 
quarto. Hiis testibus presentibus, viz. nobili viro Donaldo O'Flaharty — Jacobo Skeret, 
Johanne frenche, Thoma lynche burgens. ejusdem ville, ac dominis Abbate O Cor- 
mockayn et Davide Juveni custode dicti Senobii, Jonote M c Thomas ac Thoma O 
Gyllorayn, cum pluribus aliis clericis et laycis. In fidem vero et testimonium omnium 
premissorum sigilla et signa nostra presentibus apposuimus. 

W. B. " Christophorus Tuamen. Rolandus lTlipe baerjalach mac 

"M propria. Clonferten. oomnaill romaoc. 

Manupro. lep in bpeir peo cucip 

map ca pf pcpibca." 

" The Order taken betywxt J oh. Wak Wlleg § y e Blahs by y e lord Chaunseler. 

Memorand. that whereas Johnn M'Welycke complayned be for the Right honor- 
able S r Thomas Cusake kinght, the kinges Majestes Lord Chaunceller of Irelande, 
againste Richarde Blake and Nichas Blake of G-alwy, for to have recompence of suche 
buldinges and charges as his auncetores was at, for the buldinge of the castell of 
Kyltullaghmore in the counte of Connaght, supposinge the same to be ther inheri- 

2 E 2 taunce 


taunce. Whereas trouthe they had nothioge therein But for the terme of foure 
yeres, yeldinge ther for yerlie xxvi s . vm d . sterlinge as by a deade thereof shoued forthe 
by the said Ricbarde and Nichas made by the auncetors of the said Richard and Nichas 
unto the grauntfather of the said John more playnler did appere: Yet for as myche as 
the said parties of ther own free willis submytted them selvys to the order arbytter- 
ment and judgment of the said Lorde Chauncellor whiche toke the charge thereof 
upon hym. Ffyrste did adwarde that the said parties sholde performe all former arbit- 
termentes and judgementes yevine betwixt the said parties for and concerninge the 
premisses, And alsoe consideringe the power tie of the said John, and that the said 
Richarde and Nichas shall take the comodyte of the said buldinge done uppon ther 
inheritaunce, ther for the said Lorde Chaunceller doo adwarde and judge that the said 
Richard and Nichas shall paye yerlye unto the said John and his assignes duerynge his 
naturall lyfe and no furdher, .... shillinges foure pence sterlinge abowe the thre shil- 
linges foure pence affor adwarded, Whiche som amountithe to sixe shillinges eight pence 
sterlinge yerlye : And alsoe shall yelde and paye fyve markes sterling unto the said 
John, be for this unto hyme adwarded, unles the said Richarde and Nichas do prowe 
the said sum to be satisfied unto the said John. The hiring thereof by the said L. 
Channcllor ys appoyntede to the Archebusshoppe of Thombe and to the maior of 
Galwy. And if it appere unto them that the said fyve markes or any parte therof to 
be dwe, then the said Richard and Nichas to paye the same within thre monithes after, 
fturder the said L. Channcllor doo adward, Judge and decre, then when sot.- ever the 
saide John be lafully required by the said Richard or Nichas ther heyres i i 
shall release to them ther heyres and assignes all the right, title, intreste, posv 
and demand that he hathe, or of right he oght to have, in or uppon the said towne 
lordshippe and inheritaunce of Kyltullaghmore, for ever. — In Wittnes whereof, the 
said L. Chauncller unto this presents hath subscribed his name. Yevyne at Galvy, the 
vm. of Apriell A , r. r. Edwardi sexti septimo. 

•' Thomas Cvsake Cancel. 



■■ Kobert Dyllon, Attorn. 
•• R0LAHDU8 Cloxferten." 

The following fragment is all that now remains of the " Pettegree," which accom- 
panied the petition of John Blake to the commissioners of the Plantation, in A. D. 1640 
(see ante, p. 192). The commencement, which connected some of the early branches 

with the main stock, is lost. 


2I 3 


Nicholas. Thomas. Walter. Richard. 

Valentyn. William. John. 

I i i 1 

John. Valentyn. Thomas. William. 

Nicholas. Walter. 



Sir Valentyne b , 

_ ) 

James. Richard. 

Nicholas. Sir Thomas, Ffrancis. Geffrey. John. Anthony. Dominick. 


John . Martine. James. Nicholas. 

Sir Valentyne, Walter. Geffrey, 
now living. 

Geffrey. d 



Andrew. Peetter. 

The said Andrew had three sons, William, now living, descended of the 
first; Henry Fitz-P., now living, descended of the second; and 
Marcus e and Sir Richard' now living, descended of the third. 





Thomas, oute of 
I matrimony. 




Walter, Richard, 
now living. 

John. Julian, married to Nicholas, 
now living. 

Henry. Nicholas, married to Julian, 

now living. 

1 The testator of A. D. 1468. See p. 205. 

b The first baronet of the Menlo branch. 

c TJie petitioner of A. D. 1640, whose descendant 
and heir male in the sixth generation, Henry Blake, 
Esq., of Rinvile, in the barony of Balinahinch and 
county of Galway, is supposed to be the present head 
of the name. 

d This Geffrey was cotemporaneous with John, the 
grandson of John the testator of A. D. 1468. 

e Ancestor of Maurice Blake, Esq., of Balinafad, 
in the county of Mayo. 

f Ancestor of the Rt. Hon. Lord Baron Wallscourt. 



NOTE K. See page 34. " College of Galway." 

The Regal Visitation of A. D. 161 5, gives the following account of this foundation: 
" Quam primum venimus ad Galiviam, Templum ingressi, majorem et Aldennanos 
illius civitatis convocavimus, et quesivimus quomodo cultus divinus in eadem Ecclesia 
celebratur. Presentabant illi coram nobis duos ministros, quorum alter noviter, paulo 
ante adventum nostrum, promotus et electus fuit Guardianus Collegia ibidem, homo 
lesie fame, et vix probate vite. Alter, minister vagus, undiquaquam cursitans, et 
alias in diversis diocesibus beneficiatus. Hoc responsum valde displicuit nobis, nam 
justam prebuit occasionem nobis suspicandi, quod in eadem civita' at, proma- 

jori parte, sine servitio divino, et pene absque Deo in terris. Cujus defectus rationem 
ulterius indagantes, invenimus in cemiterio ejusdem ecclesie, extructum fuisse ab an- 
tiquo, Collegium pro uno Gardiano et octo vicariis choralibus, ad serviendum et 
celebrandum divinum cultum in ilia ecclesia, primo fundatum per Papam ducentis 
abhinc annis; extunc restauratum per Edwardum sextum et lieginam Elizabetham ad 
usum precedentem. Intelleximus etiam quod annuus valor beneficiorum speetantium 
ad idem collegium extendit se ad octoginta libras, quolibet anno, sed quod qui fuerunt 
nuper Gardiani in illo collegio minus juste authoritatem sibi usurpaaBenf sub debito 
et justo valore dimittendi fructus et emolumenta dicti collegii. Nominatim vero denota- 
verunt nobis Rolandum nunc episcopum Clonfertensem et Duacensem, et Abelem V. 
nuper Gardianos, nimis providos dimisisse proventus Collegii, a valore octoginta libra- 
rum ad valorem quadraginta librarum reduxisse. Unde nos diligentius literas funda- 
tionis illius collegii considerantes, et tenorem literarum patentium, invenimus i^tas 
iniquas dimissiones omnino injuste fuisse factas ; et quod Gardianus dicti Collegii 
electus tantumodo ab anno in annum non potuit pro tempore longiori dimittere- Et quia 
speciatim per dictas literas patentes providetur, quod Gardiani et vicarii singulis annis 
tenentur reddere computum majori et Ballivis illius civitatis, dc dimissLooe fructuum 
collegii, atque sine eorum consensu et speciali confirmatione nihil potuerunt fact. 1 
dimittere quod ad damnum illius collegii redundaret ; harum verum debita considera- 
tione inducti, primo sequestravimus omnes fructus et emolumenta inducti colli e 
manus trium civium illius civitatis satis divitum et bone fame et estimationis qui 
libentur hujus negotii curam in se susceperunt; quos ego Cancellarius per strktam re- 
cognitionem domino Eegi obligavi, ut fidelem computum et exactmn, annua tim fructuum 
et proventionum illius collegii redderent majori et vicecomitibus dicte civitatis, serio 
dedimus in mandatis, ut non solum cum advisamento Archiepiscopi Tuamensis unum 
Gardianum et octo vicarios in dicto collegio locarent, constituerent ad celebrandum 
divinum cultum et servitium in eadem Ecclesia, sed etiam ut annuale stipendium 


2I 5 

pro stipendio Gardiani et vicariorum persolverent cui nostri directioni in hac parte li- 
bentissirne se submisserunt. Qua ratione speramus divinum cultum in ilia Ecclesia 
stabiliendum et restorandum, quod precamur ex ammo.''' 

The Commissioners then proceed: — 

" Wee found in Gal way a publique schoolesmaster named Lynch, placed there by the 
Cittizens, who had great numbers of schollers, not only out of that Province but also 
out of the Pale, and other partes resorting to him. Wee had daily proofe, during our 
continuance in that citty, how well his schollers profited under him, by verses and 
orations which they presented us. Wee sent for that schoolemaster before us, and se- 
riously advised him to conform to the Religion established, and not prevailing with our 
advices, we enjoyned him to forbear teaching: and I the chancellour did take a Recog- 
nizance of him and some others of his kinsmen in that citty, in the some of 400 li sterl, 
to his Mat e . use, that from thenceforth he should forbeare to teach any more without 
the speciall License of the Lo. Deputy. And in regard Galway is a farr more publique 
and convenient place for the keeping of a schoole then Tuame is, Wee have ordered 
that M r . Lally shall, at Michaelmas next, begin to teach publiquely in that Citty." — 
From the original, see p. 179, ante. 

The following old documents relating to this foundation, have been transcribed 
from the originals preserved in the collegiate library there, by permission of the 
Editor's pious and learned friend, the Right Reverend Doctor O'Donnell, R. C. Bishop 
of Galway. 

" Concessio iv. marcar. inpuram elemosinam, parochiali Ecclesie S. Nicolai. 

"A.D. 1435. 

" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod nos Willielmus Blak, Sylyana Blak, Henricus 
Blak, Walterus filius Johannis junioris Blak, Henricus filius Thome nigri Blak, una- 
nimi consensu, dedimus, concessimus, et hac presenti carta nostra confirmamus, a nobis 
et heredibus nostris in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, quatuor marcas, super terras 
nostras et tenementa intra et extra villam Galvye, eque divisas per partes, secundum 
quod concernit quemlibet nostrum, temporibus perpetuis duraturas. Infra eciam 
Crayg et dictam villam, super quadraginta acras terre arabilis cituatas duo marce, ita 
quod ex qualibet acra solvantur vmrf. ab intra vero due alie marce solvantur per te- 
nementa et predictas personas, divise ut tenentur, ut infra sequitur, dividendo fideliter : 
porro, Willielmus Blak solvat novem solidos et xd. Sylyana Blak solvat quinque 
solidos, Henricus Blak solvat sex solidos et vmrf. Walterus Blak solvat quatuor 
solidos, Henricus Blak solvat quatuordecim d. Ad honorem quoque parochialis ecclesie 
Sancti Nicholai ejusdem ville, et decorem cultumque divinum in eadem ecclesia multi- 



plicandum, et sustenacionem unius ydonei et discreti sacerdotis assidue euas missas 
celebrantis, devotasque preces ibidem infundentis, pro animabus nostris et parentum 
nostrorum, ac speciallissime pro animabus pie memorie Henrici Blak, suorumque pa- 
rentum ; quem quidem sacerdotem, nos et heredes nostri duxerimus eligendum, cuj usque 
eciam sacerdotis propter sua merita vel demerita, institucionem vel destitucionem nobis 
et heredibus nostris penitus reservamus. Et si, quod absit, aliquis nostrum antedic- 
torum suam partem concernentem, ut prefertur, eidem sacerdoti tempore debito dare 
et solvere renuerit seu distulerit, ipsum extunc, per sensuram ecclesiasticam campa- 
narumque pulsaciones in signum maledictionis eterne, necnon et domini nostri domini 
archiepiscopi Tuamensis tunc incumbentis sensuram, ad suam integram partem solven- 
dam, compellatis, ipsum niliilominus per superiorem et prepositum ceterosque burj 
ejusdem ville ad solvendam compelli demandetis. Et nos omnes supradicti et heredes 
nostri, ut supradictum est, contra omnes gentes varentizabimus, acquietabimus, ac in 
perpetuum defendemus. In cujus rei testimonium, sigillum nostrum, viz. domini, 
domini Johannis, Dei et apostolice sedis gratia, Archiepiscopi Tuamensis, una cum 
sigillo antedicti Willielmi Blak, presentibus apponi fecimus. Datum in villa Gal- 
vye, primo die mensis Augusti anno Domini Millesimo, quadragentisimo trieeaimo 
quinto." — Orig. 

The endowment provided for in the foregoing instrument is supposed to have been 
intended as an expiation for murders committed, in the preceding century, by tl. 
of the Blakes, on the rival tribe of Athy; and alluded to in Hist. Galway, p. 54. The 
deed itself bears the following endorsement, written after A. D. 14*4 : — "The four 
markes ster. bestowed by William Blake and the rest of his nation upon the 

" Dispensacio Maritagii pro Vatiero Blake ct Juliana Lynch. 
"A.D. 1472. 

" I. H. S. 
" Universis et singulis ad quorum noticiam presentes litere perveneriut, salutem 
in Domino, et presentibus fidem indubiam adhibere. Literas sanctissimi in Christo 
Patris ac domini, domini nostri Sixti pape quarti, nos Donatum Dei gratia archiepis- 
copum Tuamensis, in ipsis Uteris apostolicis specialiter nominatum, cum ea qua decuit 
reverencia noveritis recepisse, tenoremqui sequitur, continentes: Venerabili in Christo 
patri, Dei gratia archiepiscopo Tuamensi, vel ejus vicariis in spiritualibus, Philippus, 
miseracione divina, Episcopus Portuencis, salutem et sinceram in Domino caritatem. 
Sedis apostolice providencia circumspecta non nunquam rigorem juris mansuetudine 
temperet, et quia sacrorum canonum prohibent instituta de gratia benignitatis indul- 
get, prout personarum et temporum qualitate pensata, id in Deo salubriter expedire 

. ..oscit 


cognoscit, sane ex parte Valteri Blake laici et Juliane Lynche mulieris Enachdunensis 
diocesis, nobis oblata peticio continebat, quod ipsi, ex eertis rationabilibus causis, 
desiderant invicem matrimonialiter copulari, sed quod quarto consanguinitatis gradu 
invicem sunt conjuncti; et hujus impedimentum scientes, sese pluries actu fornicario 
cognoverunt, desiderium eorum in hac parte adimplere non possint, dispensacione apos- 
tolica super hoc non obtenta: quare suplicari fecerunt humiliter iidem exponentes eis 
super hiis per sedem ipsam de absolutionis debite beneficio et oportune dispensacionis 
gratiam misericorditer provideri. Nos itaque ipsorum exponentium animarum saluti 
providere volentes, eorumque in hac parte suplicacionibus inclinati, auctoritate domini 
Pape cujus primarie curam gerimus, et de ejus speciali mandato, super hoc vive vocis 
oraculo nobis facto, circumspectioni vestre, cum ut asseritur ecclesia Enachdunensis 
ecclesie vestre Tuamensis canonice unita existat, committimus ; quatenus si est ita, 
ipsos exponentes areatu incestus hujusmodi absolvatis, et injunctainde eorum cuilibet, 
pro modo culpe, penitencia salutari, et aliis que de jure fuerint injungenda, demum 
cum ipsis exponentibus quod impedimento consanguinitatis hujusmodi non obstante 
possint inter se matrimonium libere contrahere, et in eo postquam contractum fuerit 
licite remanere, misericorditer dispensetis, dum modo dicta mulier propter hoc ab 
aliquo nupta non fuerit, prolem exinde suscipiendam legittimam decernentes. Datum 
Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, sub sigillo officii primarie, sexto kl. Octobris, pontifica- 
tus Domini Sixti Pape quarti anno primo. Post quarum quidem literarum apostoli- 
carum presentationem, receptionem, et lecturam, per nos ut premittitur factas, per 
prefatos Walterum et Julianam, ut ad executionem ipsarum literarum et contentorum 
in eisdem procedere deberemus, debita fuimus cum instancia requisiti. Nos igitur, 
antefatus archiepiscopus mandatum ipsum apostolicum volentes reverenter exequi, ut 
tenemur, imposita eisdem exponentibus, pro modo culpe, penitentia salutari, ac aliis 
premissis mea parte premittendis, ipsos Valterum et Julianam a reatu hujusmodi in- 
cestus absolventes, ut, impedimento consanguinitatis hujusmodi non obstante, matri- 
monium inter se libere contrahere possint, auctoritate apostolica qua fungimur miseri- 
corditer dispensamus, prolem suscipiendam legittimam decernentes. Datum et Actum 
Galwye vi. die Aprilis, sub nostri sigilli testimonio, Anno Domini Millesimo, 
cccc.lxxii." — Orig. 

"Colacio archiepiscopi super Rectoriam et Vicariam de Furanmor, etVicariam deMevay. 

" A.D. 1487. 
" I. H. S. 
" Willielmus, miseracione divina, electus, consecratus, metropolitanus Tuamensis, 
dilectis filiis Gardiano ecclesie collegiate sancti Nicholai ville Galwie, nostre Enach- 
1RISH ARCH. SOC. 15. 2F dunensis 


dunensis diocesis, suisque collegialibus fratribus, salutem, gratiam et benedictionem. 
Votis illis libenter annuimus, et gratum prebemus assensum, per que eeclesiarum 
vaccantium nobis subjectarum incommoditatibus consulatur, ac venerabilium presbi- 
terorum collegialiter viventium, indigencie pariter et inopie succurratur, cultusque 
divinus nostris temporibus suscipiat incrementum. Hinc est, quod nos fructuum, 
proventuum et reddituum vestre ecclesi<% ]«-r nostruin predecessorem in collegiatam 
erecte, attento vestro numero, exilitatem pariter et tenuacitatem, v-trumque ■ 
laborem in diurnis et nocturnis officiis quibus estis assidue mancipati considei 
et attente pre oculis habentes, rectoriam et vicariam ecclesie paroehialis de Fnran- 
mor, nostre Enachdunensis diocesis, que de jure patronatus layeorum existunt. qui- 
bus que cura imminet animarum; necnon et vicariam d<- Meray, eciam ejl 
nostre diocesis, que eciam de jure patronatus layeorum cxistit, et cui eciam cura 
imminet animarum, de consensu patronorum diligenti super hoc habito tractatu, 
predicte vestre ecclesie et collegio perpetuo et realitcr. salvis nostris ordinariis juri- 
bus et oneribus, vz. procuracionibus annuatim, scilicet, ex dicta rac toria et vicaria 
de Furan viginti et unum un xias legalis monete, et ex dicta vicaria de Miurv. annua- 
tim, septem unxias legalis monete, solvendum annuatim per equales porciones, post 
festa consueta, unimus, annectimus et incorporamus : dummodo dicta rectoria et 
vicaria de Furan mor, necnon et vicaria de Meray debitis propterea ne defraudentur 
obsequiis, et animarum cura in eis nullatenus negligatur, sed earum prorsus congrue 
supportentur onera consueta. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat, saltern nobis sub- 
jectorum, hanc paginam nostre unionis, annexionis el incorporacionifl infri 
ei ausu temerario contraire. Siquis autem hoc attempture presmnaerit, indigna- 
tionem omnipotentis Dei, et nostram, se noverit incur<urum. Datum Galwie i: 
Concep tionisbeate Marie, sub nostri sigilli testimonio, Anno Domini m°.cccc : lxxxvii/' 
et nostre consecrationis anno primo. — W. Joy." — Orig. 

" Colacio archiepweopi super rectoriam de Rawyn. 

•A. 1>. 1488. 

"I. II. s. 

" Willielmus, miseratione divina, electus, consecratus metropolitanus Tuan> 
dilectis filiis gardiano ecclesie collegiate sancti Xicholai ville Galwye, nostre Enach- 
dunensis diocesis, suisque collegialibus fratribus, salutem. gratiam et benedictionem. 
Votis illis libenter annuimus, et gratum prebemus assensum. per . -arum 

vaccantium nobis subjectarum incommodatibus consolatur, ac venerabilium presbite- 
rorum, collegialiter vivencium, indigencie pariter et inopie succurratur, culr 
divinus nostris temporibus suscipiat incrementum. Hinc est quod nos. fructuum, 



proventuum et reddituum vestre ecclesie, per nostrum predecessorem in collegiatam 
erecte, attento vestro numero, exilitatem pariter et tenuacitatem, vestruinque etiam 
laborem in diurnis et nocturnis officiis, quibus estis assidue mancipati, considerantes, 
et attente pre oculis habentes, vicariam parochialem ecclesie Sancte Marie de Eathuna, 
ejusdem nostre Enachdunensis diocesis, per mortem bone memorie Donati y Donaill 
ultimi ejusdem possessoris, seu alias quovismodo vacanteru, et ad nostram collationem 
pleno jure spectantem, diligenti super hoc habito tractatu, et cui eciam curam immi- 
net animarum predicte vestre ecclesie et collegii perpetuo et realiter, salvis nostris 
ordinariis juribus et oneribus ac procurationibus, nobis et successoribus nostris debitis 
et consuetis, univimus, annectivimus et incorporavimus, ac per presentes, eidem 
ecclesie et collegio unimus annectimus et incorporamus, cum omnibus suis juribus, 
fructibus, redditibus et obvencionibus quibuscunque, inducentes vos eundem G-uar- 
dianum nomine vestro ac dicti collegii, et successorum vestrorum imperpetuam posses- 
sionem seu titulum ejusdem vicarie, et jurium et pertinenciarum ejusdem, per anuli 
nostri traditionem, vobis desuper factam. Dum modo dicta vicaria debitis propter ea 
non defraudetur obsequiis, et animarum cura in eadem nullatenus negligatur, sed 
ejusdem prorsus congrue supportantur onera consueta. Nulli ergo omnino hominum 
liceat, saltim nobis subjectorum, hanc paginam nostre unionis, annexionis et incorpo- 
rations infringere, vel ei ausa temerarie contraire ; siquis autem hoc attemptare pre- 
sumpseret, indignationem omnipotentis Dei et nostram se noverit incursurum. Datum 
Galwie duodecimo die mensis Aprilis sub nostri sigilli testimonio, Anno Domini mil- 
lesimo, cccc°lxxxviii.° et nostre consecrationis anno primo." — Orig. 

" Resignatio vicarie de Moculyn. 

"A.D. 1488. 

" I. H. S. 

" Reverendissimo in Christo domino, domino Willielmo, miseratione divina, electo, 

consecrato metropolitano Tuamensis, suus humilis et devotus orator Cornelius O'Hal- 

lurayn, perpetuus vicarius parochialis ecclesie de Moygcullyne vestre Enachdunensis 

diocesis, cum omni qua decet reverencia, salutem. Vestro reverendissimo domino 

electo scire placeat, qualiter ego, habita super hoc provida et satis sufficienti delibe- 

racione, spiritu bono ductus, considerans mei ingenii exilitatem, meeque literature et 

sciencie insufficienciam, onerisque et cure animarum michi et humeris meis impossite 

gravitatem, dispossui ad pedes vestre paternitatis, humiliter procidendo, eidem mee 

perpetue vicarie, ad manus vestre paternitatis resignare, ad instanciam perpetue 

unionis fiende de eadem vicaria, per vestram paternitatem, collegio ecclesie Sancti 

Nicholai de Galwy, gratia sustentacionis perpetue ejusdem collegii, et augmentacionis 

2 F 2 divini 


divini cultus et servicii in eodem ; cui quidem perpetue mee vicarie de Moygcullyne, 
ego predictus Cornelius O'Hallurayn, vestra humilis et devota creatura, ad pedt 
tre reverendissime paternitatis provolutus, ad manus et potestatem restrain, per pre- 
sentes, effectualiter et simpliciter resigno. Quapropter vestram rcverendissi m am 
donacionem, in cujus manibus libra justicie non mutatur, instancia quanta p 
deprecor, quatenus intuitu divine caritatis, et augmentacionis divini cultus et Berrien 
continue in eodem collegio, predictam vicariam ipsi collegio annect<re et unire, ac 
perpetue incorporare, velitis. In fidem vero et testimonium predicte mee perpetue 
resignacionis, infrascriptum publicum notarium banc re<-ignacionem in ; 
publicam formam reddigere curavi. Hiis testibus presentibus. vz. TLoma CfDonaill. 
Patricio Blake, Odone M c . Maellayn, Tbadeo rufFo Makyan. et inulti- aliis. 1 
majore evidencia hujus mee perpetue resignacionis, ob defectu sigilli proprii, sigillum 
Johannis lyncbe fyz Edmundi presentibus apponi feci. Hec n-ignacio facta est, per 
me dictum Cornelium, coram vestra dominacione, apud Galwy, in vigilia omnium 
sanctorum, Anno Domini millesimo, cccc°lxxxviii.° 

" Et ego vero, Willielmus Molgan clericus Enaelidunensis diocesi>. pul>- 
licus auctoritate Imperiali notarius, quia cum predicta resignack) om- 
nibus modo ordine et forma quibus supra Beret, una cum prenomill 
testibus presens interfui, eaque omnia et singula sic fieri vidi et audivi. 
Ideoque jussu et rogatu prefati Comelii ut premittitur resignantis, 
anno, die, menseet loco quibus supra, IndicionevcT" BBptima pontificatus 
sanctissimi in Cliristo patris ac domini nostri, domini InnocentiL divina 
providencia pape viil anno quarto, predictam resignacionem in hanc 
publicam formam reddegi, signo et nomine meis solitis et consuel 
mivi, rogatus et requisitus in fidem et testimonium omnium et singulo- 
rum premissorum." — Orig. 

" Conventum inter Old. de Burgo et Majc ey. 

"A. D. 1488. 


" In nomine Domini, amen. Inter Dominum Willielmum de Burgo sue nationis 

capitaneum ex parte una; et Joliannem Blake majorem ville de Galwy, ac Dominicum 

Lyncbe fyz-Johannis burgensem ejusdem ville ex parte altera, sic eoncensum. vz. quod 

prefatus dominus TVillielmus obligavit se suosque beredes et - efatis ma- 

jori et Dominico, ac collegio ecclesie sancti Nicholai de G-alwey, eorumque successoribus 

qui pro tempore fuerint, ad tuendum, protegendum et defendendum dictum collegium. 

in omnibus et singulis suis juribus et obventionibus, tarn ex parte ecclesie. quam eciam 



temporalis seu secularis curie, nunc et in posterum, ad ipsum Collegium quoquo modo 
spectantibus, videlicet ex parte ratione curie ac extra eandem, jam impetratis et im- 
posterum impetrandis. Ita vero quod dictum collegium, videlicet qui nunc sunt et 
qui pro tempore fuerunt, singulis diebus sollemniter dicent unam collectam seu oratio- 
nem specialem, in principali missa ad attenticum altare, pro bono statu in vita, et eorun- 
dem animabus post mortem, videlicet prefati domini Willielmi et Slanine sue uxoris, 
heredum et successorum ac antecessorum suorum. Ita vero quod predicti major et Do- 
minicus impetrabunt pro Ricardo de Burgo filio eorundem domini Willielmi et 
Slanyne, canonicatum ecclesie Tuamensis, et prebendam de Killmaellayn, et rectoriam 
et vicariam de Athnary, cum suis juribus et pertinenciis, etc. Tali vero condicione 
interposita, vz. quod predictus dominus Willielmus et uxor sua predicta, ac eorum 
filii et heredes non impedient, per se vel alios, prefatos majorem et Dominicum, aut 
alios quoscunque eorundem nomine impetrare seu impetrari facere, verbo vel facto, 
rectoriam et vicariam de Furanmor, ac vicariam de Meary Enachdunensis diocesi, ad 
instanciam dicti collegii, sed ipsos et dictum collegium, ad hoc adjuvabunt, et ab in- 
sultibus et contradictione omnium et singulorum contradicentiumjuxta posse defendent. 
Ita tamen quod predicti major et Dominicus, ac collegium predictum, tanquam pro 
speciali stipendio, gratia defensionis ejusdem collegii in hiis et aliis, concedent prefato 
domino Willielmo et Ricardo ipsius filio predicto, fructus et proventus prefate rectorie 
et vicarie de Furanmor, et vicarie predicte de Meary, post impetracionem ad instanciam 
collegii de hiis lactam, usque ad mortem rectoris de Athnary, si interim, scilicet ante 
ipsius rectoris mortem, rectoriam et vicariam predictam de Athnary adepti non fuerint 
prefati, viz. dominus Willielmus aut Ricardus. Ita quod immediate post ipsius rectoris 
mortem vel ante, cum rectoriam et vicariam predictam de Athnary adepti fuerint, 
prefatum collegium gaudere habeat, sine aliqua contradictione, prefatis rectoria et vi- 
caria de Furanmor et vicaria de Meary, cum suis fructibus et obvencionibus. In fidem 
vero et testimonium omnium et singulorum premissorum, partes predicte sigillum 
prefati domini, domini Willielmi, uni parti harum indenturarum, ac sigilla prefati 
domini majoris et Dominici Lynch predicti, alteri parti apponi fecerunt. Datum apud 
Galwy xv. die mensis Januarii Anno domini millesimo cccc lxxx°viii°. Et ulterius, 
si, quod absit, contingeret prefatum Ricardum de Burgo mori, antequam adeptus fuerit 
prefatam rectoriam et vicariam de Athnary, ac canonicatum et prebendam predictam, 
quod tunc obligantur prefati major et Dominicus impetrare omnia ilia Theobaldo de 
Burgo ejusdem Ricardi germano, omnibus et singulis premissis in eorum effectu et ro- 
bore permanentibus. In fidem vero premissorum sigillum Gardiani prefati collegii 
presentibus indenturis est appensum." — Orig. 

" Unio 


" Unio ecclesiarum de Kyllcommyn et KyUruyn Collegio. 
" A. D. 1488. 
" I. EL S. 
" Willielmus, miseracione divina, electus, consecratus metropolitanus TuanK • 
universis Christi fidelibus, presentes litteras visuris vel audituris, salutem, gratiam, 
et benedictionem, et presentibus fidem indubiam adhibere; universitati iiquidem 
vestre serie presencium innotescentes, ac votis illis gratum prestantes assensum, per 
que, precipue in collegiatisecclesiisnostrejurisdiccioni subjectis, continue benedicatur 
altissimus, ac divinus cultus nostris temporibus recipiat incrementum : qualiter consi- 
derantes exiguitate et tenuitate fructuum, reddituum et proventutun eccl 
collegiate sancti Nicolai ville Galvie, in qua secundum nostrum predecessorem et 
nostram ac apostolicam ordinacionem, Gardianus ut caput, ac octo vicarii ut membra, 
perpetue cum collegialibus insigniis divina officia celebrare, ac ecclesiastica sacra- 
menta ministrare teneantur, inter se prelatum et capitulum constituentes vicarias 
ecclesiarum parochialium de Kyllcommyn et Killruyu, nostre Enachdunensis di 
predicte ecclesie collegiate perpetue ad sustentacionem predictorum Gardiani et tHL 
vicariorum predictorum, in honore Sancti Nicolai, sub cujus vocabulo dicta ecclesia 
edificata existit, univimus, anneximus et incorporavimu^. el per presentee unimus, 
annectimus et incorporamus. Ita quod liceat dictis Gardiano el vkariis. auctoritate 
propria, possessionem dictarum vicariarum, juriumque et pertinenciarum absque con- 
tradictione alicujus apprehendere, ipsarumque fructuum et proventua inipsorum usus 
prout ipsis videbitur secundum Deum ac dicti collegii utilitutem converters Ita 
tamen quod dicte vicarie debitis non defraudentur obsequiis, et animarum cura in ei> 
nullatenus negligatur, ordinaria onera eccksiastica supportentur. Datum Galwie> 
xxiii . die mensis Januarii, sub nostri sigilli testimonio, anno Domini m.uil c lxxx vm. c 

et nostre consecrationis anno Secundo." — Orig. 

-W. Joy. 

" Manus pro/- 

" Littere inhibitorie pro Collegio de Galvye contra Bichardum De Burgo, super orran. 

" A.D. 1492. 

" I. H. S. 

" Willielmus, miseratione divina, arcliiepiscopus Tuamensis. universis Christi 

fidelibus ad quos presentes littere pervenerint, salutem. gratiam et benedictionem. 

Noverit universitas vestra, quod nos, visis quibusdam litteris apostolicis pro Eicardo 

De Burgo clerico Cloynfertensis diocesis, super rectoria et vicaria de Furan-mor, in 


22 3 

nostre Enachdunensis diocesi, ac creatione novi canonicatus ad instanciam ejusdem 
Ricardi, et erectione unius illorum in prebendam, in quibus quidem litteris, inter 
cetera, asseritur et continetur, quod creatio et erectio predicta fieri habeant dum- 
modo ad ipsam noster accedat assensus. Nos igitur considerantes creationem 
et erectionem predictas, si fierent pro augmentacione cultus divini in ecclesia 
nostra Enachdunensis, non solum fore inutiles sed prorsus omnino ineflicaces, prout 
per facti experientiam satis bene et luculentur sumus informati: nedum ad erec- 
tionem et creationem predictas, si fierent pro augmentacione cultus divini, prout 
non existit ut premittitur, nostrum non prestamus assensum; verum eciam ne 
fiant ob tales rationabiles causas, viz. ne in dicta ecclesia animarum cura ne- 
gligatur, et ipsa debitis defraudetur obsequiis; et quia in ecclesia ipsa cathedrali 
nullus cultus divinus propterea augeri speratur. Et eciam ac super omnia, quia pre- 
dicta rectoria ac vicaria ad collegium ecclesie sancti Nicholai ville Galwie, nostre eciam 
Enachdunensis diocesis, nostra unione et incorporatione cum suppletione omnium et 
singulorum defectuum, pertinere dinoscuntur, de cujus quidem collegii, et maxime in 
hac parte, gravi prejudicio agitur. Judicibus igitur, in dictis litteris deputatis, ne ad 
creationem et erectionem predictas aliquatenus procedant, delegata potestate subintel- 
lecta per condicionem in ipsis litteris appositam, et nostra ordinaria auctoritate 
expresse inhibemus. Et ne de dicta inhibitione in posterum hesitari contingat, pre- 
sentes litteras nostri sigilli munimine fecimus roborari. Datum Galwie xii. die 
mensis Novembris, sub nostri sigilli ac notarii publici nostri infrascripti scripture et 
subscriptionis testimonio. Anno Domini Millesimo cccc° nonagesimo secundo, et 
nostre consecrationis Anno septimo. 

" W. Joy. [loc. sigil.] 

" Et ego vero Willielmus Molgan clericus Enachdunensis diocesis, publi- 
cus, auctoritate Imperiali, notarius, quia cum omnia et singula premissa 
per dictum Reverendissimum in Christo Patrem ac dominum egerentur, 
dicerentur et fierent, una cum nonnullis prefatis aliisque clericis et 
laycis presens interfui ; eaque omnia et singula sic fieri vidi et audivi : 
Ideoque, jussu et rogatu predicti domini nostri Archiepiscopi, omnia et 
singula premissa, per eum ut prefertur, anno, die, mense et loco quibus 
supra, Indictione vero xi. gesta seu facta, in hanc publicam formam 
reddegi ; signo et nomine meis solitis et consuetis signavi, rogatus et 
requisitus, in fidem et testimonium omnium et singiilorum premisso- 
rum." — Orig. 


" Unto ecclesiarurn de Shrutker et Kenlagh, pro Collegia. 
" A.I). 1501. 

" Willielmus, miseratione divina, Tuamensis archiepiscopuB, dilectu filiis Wardiano 

ecclesie collegiate ville Galvie,ceterisque suis collegialibus fratribus, salutem in Domino 
sempiternam. Votis illis libenter annuimus et gratum prebemus assensum, per quem ec- 
clesiarurn nobis subjectarum commoditatibus consolatur, ac ven era bilium presbiterorua 
collegialiter viventium indigencie pariter et inopie succurratur, cultusque divinus 
nostris temporibus suscipiat incrementum. Hinc est, quod nos, fructuum, reddituum 
et proventuum vestre ecclesie collegiate a tanto vestro numero, exhilitatem et tenui- 
tatem, vestrumque eciam laborem in diurnis et nocturnis officii s. quil -idue 

mancipati, considerantes, etattente pre oculis habentea, vicarias parochialim 
rum de Sruther et Kenlaghyn, nostre Tuamensis diocesis, de mero concensu magistri 
Thome de Burgo, earundem ecclesiarurn perpetui vicarii, ac spontanea sua voluntate, 
habito super hoc diligenti tractatu, predicte vestre ecclesie collegiate, perpetuo et 
realiter, salvis nostris ordinariis juribus et oneribus, nobis 1 --oribus n 

debitis et consuetis, unimus, annectimus et incorporamus cum effectu, dummodo dicte 
vicarie debitis propterea non defraudentur obsequio, et animarum cura eisdem nulla- 
tenus negligatur, set eorundem prorsus supportentur onera consueta. Null: 
omnino hominum, saltern nobis subjectorum, liceat hanc paginam nostre unionis, an- 
nexionis et incorporacionis infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Si quis autem 
hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignacionem omnipotentis Dei et nostram se noverit 
incursurum. Datum Galvie, decimo septimo die mensis Augusta, sub nostri sigilli 
testimonio, Anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo primo.' 1 — Orig. 

" Confirmacio Walter i episcopi Cluanensis. pro Collegio. 
" A.D. 1506. 
" Walterus miseratione divina Cluanensis episcopus, ac eadem, per illustrissimum 
Regem Anglie Henricum septimum, ad ecclesiam metropoliticam Taamensu preeenta- 

tus: Universis Christi fidelibus has literas visuris vel audituris. salutem, gratiam et 
benedictionem. Ad vegitacionem sive augmentum cultus divini, quem augmentar> 
derare, debemus non minus nos censemus obligatos, quam nu^tri lVlici memorie in eadem 
Tuamensis ecclesia fuere intercessores, Donatus, viz. et Willielmus qui pro tempore 
rexerunt ecclesiam Tuamensis, qui spiritu sanioris consilii considerantes parochianos 
parochialis ecclesie Sancti Nicolai ville Galvie, Enachdunensis diocesis, modestos et 
morigeratos homines inter silvestres ac montanos commora: . • sdem moribus cum pre- 

dictis montanis non utentes, "propter impetraciones varias sujiL-r vicaria die I 


tunc per vicarios in antea solite gubernare, a prefate nacionis hominibus cotidie fiebant 
in tantum vexatos fore, quod secundum decenciam, ritum et modum Anglicanum quem 
tenebant, et eorum predecessores soliti fuerunt tenere ab antiquo, officia audire divina, 
et ecclesiastica percipere sacramenta non potuerint; et ab illis indoctis hominibus 
depredabantur, perturbabantur et interficiebantur, nonnullaque dampna et incommoda 
personarum et rerum sustinere cogebantur, et rnajora nisi eis celeri remedio succur- 
retur proferre habebant verisimiliter infuturum : plena deliberacione super hoc preha- 
bita, antedictus Donatus primo ecclesiam predictam Sancti Nicholai in Collegiatum 
erexit, et pro sustentacione vicariorum et Gardiani in ilia deputatorum, prout in literis 
desuper confectis, quartam Archiepiscopalem dicte parochie yille Galvie, pro se et suis 
successoribus in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, unacum aliis donacionibus inibi 
expressis, donavit, et ad dictam ecclesiam collegiatam pleno jure pertinere voluit, ac 
alia ibi ordinavit. Ac demum Willielmus suus successor, ut eo firmius ilia donacio, con- 

cessio et ordinacio illibate perdurent, quo fuerint majori rob 

volens adjicere sui munimenis firmitatem, predictas donacionem, concessionem et ordi- 
nacionem, etiam per sedem apostolicam confirmatas, ratum et gratum habuit, ac dictam 
erectionem, et omnia quecunque inde secuta, ex certa sciencia confirmavit et ratifica- 
vit, rata, et grata et confirmata declaravit, prout in literis suis intuentibus potest 
apparere. Nos vero antefatus Walterus predictas ereccionem in collegiatum, ac quarte 
archiepiscopalis donacionem, concessionem, ordinacionem et confirmacionern a nostris 
predecessoribus, pro suarum et nostrarum salute animarum factas, ratum, gratum et 
firmum, in quantum possumus, habemus. Et hoc sub warantizacione, fidejussione et 
intercessione Dei et hominum. Et ne de hujusmodi ratificacione ab aliquibus impos- 
terum hesitari contingat, presentibus sigillum nostrum quo utimur ad majora duximus 
apponendum. Datum Galvie sexto die mensis Aprilis, Anno Domini Millesimo quin- 
gentesimo sexto." — Orig. 

It appears by the foregoing deed of confirmation that Walter Blake, Bishop of Clon- 
macnois (for whom see Harris's Ware, vol. i. pp. 174, 613), was appointed by Henry 
VII. to the see of Tuam ; which must have taken place between the death of Arch- 
bishop Pinson, in A- D. 1503, and the above date. This appointment was not known 
to Harris, who mentions, however, a previous provision for the same, by Pope Sixtus 
IV., which never took effect, having been made in the life-time of Donatus O'Murray. 
Bishop Blake never filled the see of Tuam, Pope Julius II. having advanced the 
celebrated Morogh O'Fihely (better known by the name of Maurice de Portu) thereto. 
He was (probably) the Walter Blake, brother of Geffrey, who appears, s. p. in the 
genealogical fragment, ante, p. 213. 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2 G Receptio 


"Receptio Sandari Lynche et Anastacie ejus Uxoris,in(^fraternUatem Fratrum mim 

"A. D. 1521. 
" Ihesus semper assit. 
"Dilectis suis in Christo Sandar Lynche fytz-Johanni, et Anastacie Lynche ejus 
uxori, Deo et beato Francisco devotis, frater David O hyrella ordinis fratrum minorum, 
super omnes fratres in provincia Hybernie provincialis minister, salutem in Domino, 
ac bonis perfrui sempiternis. Pius vestre devocionis affectus, quem ad ordinem geritis 
exigencia digne requirit, ut quia in temporalibus non possumus vicem vestre caritati 
respondere, in spiritualibus tamen quam in nobis suppetit, et prout in nostra apud 
Deum desideriis servamus, vobis recompensare debemur : propter quod, vos ad contra- 
ternitatem nostram, et ad universa et singula fratrum nostrorum suffragia, in vita r 
pariter et in morte, plenam vobis et specialem participacionem omnium spiritualium 

bonorum, viz.missarum,orationum, suffragiorum, officiorum , dc-vocionum, medi- 

tacionum, predicacionum, lectionum, jejuniorum et abstinenciarum, disciplinarum, 

vigiliarum, laborum, ceterorumque bonorum spiritualium vobi- 

conferendo, que per ffratres mihi commissos, fieri dederit auctor omnium bonorum 
Dei filius, ut multiplici suffragiorum presidio adjuti, et hie augmentum gratie, et in 
futuro mereamini eterne vite premia possidere. In cujus rei testimonium sigillum mei 
officii duxi presentibus appendendum. Datum in nostro conventu montis f^rnandi, 
Anno Domini M.CCCC.XXI."— Orig. 

" Conventum inter Donaldum O'Flaherty et Yardianum Galcie. 
"A.D. 1527. 
" In Dei nomine, Amen, hujus presentis instrumenti serie, cunctis innotescat qm>d 
anno protunc Domini MDXXVI1 . et r. r. Henrici octavi xxix. die quarto mensis 
Maii, coram Ricbardo Martyn, majore ville Galvie, cum diverse oonbnrg 
dem ville, in mei notarii presentia infrascripti, testiumque infrascriptorum preeentk, 
personaliter constituti, nobilis vir, viz. Donaldus O'Flaherty. decanua Enachdui. 
parte ex una, et Willielmus O'Doncliu vardianus hujus prelibate ville Galvie, de et 
cum consilio et assensu omnium vicariorum ejusdem collegii parte ex altera, unanimi 
assensu confederati et concordati sunt; necnon ecium, et tactis primitufl sanctifl evan- 
geliis, recyproce ac mutue sibi ipsis benefacere fideliter promiseront, et se firmiter 
obligaverunt modo et forma sequentibus : viz. quod prefatus Donaldus debet et tenetur, 
prout per presentes se obligavit, semper a tempore data presencium, durante vita sua. 
protigere ac deffendere ipsos vardianum et vicarios, qui pro tempore foerint, necnon et 
suos procuratores, firmarios et omnes suos subditos, in ipsorum dominio, decimi-. 
lacionibus, obvencionibus, juribus, fructibus, et pertinenciis quibuscunque, contra et 
versus Bernardum O'Flaartey ; necnon et omnes et singulos alios existentes sub pot estate 



predicti Donaldi, aut versus quos habebit ullam potestatem : Ita, viz. quod predictus 
Donaldus debet et tenetur presentare et exhibere antedictis vicariis, quamcumque per- 
sonam, dampnum aliquod eis ferrentem, aut ejus sufficientia pignora, in omnibus 
quibus judicio curie ejusdem ville condemnatum erit ; aut idem Donaldus ex suis 
propriis pro tali persona satisfacere realiter tenetur : necnon similiter omnes existentes 
sub potestate ipsius Donaldi, qui tempore elapso, aliquod dampnum ipsis vicariis fecit, 
excepto predicto Bernardo : si hec probare valeant tales delinquentes aut eorum pignora, 
dictus Donaldus ipsis vicariis prout debet, ipsis vicariis propter dampna jam eis illata, 
ipsum Bernardum in utroque foro prosequentibus, ipso Donaldo dictos vicarios suosque 
firmarios, contra ipsum Bernardum et alios quoscumque, a tempore dati presencium, 
durante vita sua, fideliter, ut premittitur, defendente, et protigente. Insuper si pre- 
dicti Vardianus et vicarii conquerelati fuerint de neccligencia ipsius Donaldi in premissis 

quoad preterita, stabit et stare debet et arbitrio domini Patricii Kyrwan, 

Marcii ac Nicholai Stephani Lynche, unacum majore qui pro tempore fuerit. Sed 
quantum ad futura, judicio majoris et curie, idem Donaldus cum ipsis vicariis stare 
debet et tenetur, ipsis vicariis suisque successoribus, pro bono statu ipsius Donaldi, 
devote et quotidie orantibus, denique supplicantibus, in recompensacione premissorum. 
In quorum omnium premissorum fidem et testimonium, ambe partes me infrascriptum 
publicum notarium desuper hoc instrumentum conficere rogarunt, cum subscripcioni- 
bus dicti Vardiani et Nicholai Lynche, pro dicto Donaldo. Hiis testibus presentibus, 
viz. Willielmo Martyn, Anthonio Lynche, Stephano Jacobi Lynche, Marco et Nicholao 
Lynche, Phinano O'Hallurayn, cum multis aliis. Datum, Galvie, die, mense et anno 
quibus supra. — Nicholaus Molgan, publicus Notarius." — Orig. 

" Confirmacio beneficiorum pro Collegia. 
"A.D. 1541. 

" Christophorus, miseratione divina, Tuamensis archipresul, universis et singulis 
Christi fidelibus, has nostras literas inspecturis, pariterque audituris, salutem atque 
fidem indubiam adhibere. Universitati vestre, tenore presencium, innotescimus, qua- 
liter honorabilis vir, magister Thomas, Stephani, Dominici Lynche, protunc ville 
Regis Galvie major, ceterique ejusdem ville generosi burgenses, clarissime nobis ex- 
possuerunt, quod, salubri sagacitate ac laudabili industria, bone memorie viri venera- 
bilis ac locorum ubique percelebris Dominici Lynche suorumque omnium comburgen- 
cium collegium viii. vicariorum et unius wardiani, ex et cum institucione bone 
memorie Reverendissimi domini Donati y Mureadhayd, quondam Tuamensis archi- 
episcopi, necnon cum confirmacione Romani episcopi, juxta modum antiquitus obser- 

vatum, in habuerunt. Et consequenter ut predictum collegium, eo modo, eaque 

2 G 2 forma 

228 • 

forma, quibus in sui primaria institucione ordinatum erat, sub patrocinio atque 
tuicione majoris ac tocius curie ville Regis Galvie, cum confirmacione omnium benefi- 
ciorum, que protunc illud collegium quiete et juste possidebat, et aUorum beneficio- 
rum, quibus predictum collegium potestate seu tirranitate laicali hactenus spoliatum 
existit, ad presens tamen juris communis ac Regia disposicione quoad laicos, et eciam 
clericos detentores vacancium, nova collacione, confircnaremus, humiliter supplicant. 
Nos igitur antefatus archiepiscopus, predicti Thome Lynche Galvie majoris, suorum- 
que omnium fratrum et comburgensium justis ac piis peticionibus inclinati, co. 
rantes eciam predictum collegium laudabili divorum servicio, ac divini cultus mm 
exercicio sedulo et ferventer intendere seu aur-cultare, de consilio noetrorum sutf'ra- 
ganeorum in provinciali consilio nobis astancium, ac illius sacre congregacionis diffini- 
torum, sepedictum collegium cum omnibus suis beneficiis, que a<l presens <jui- I 
juste possidet, confirmamus, necnon omnia alia beneficia quondam per antescriptum 
collegium possessa, posteaque per alios occupata, disposicione, ut prediximus I 
nunc vacantia, eidem collegio cum omnibus suis juribus et pertini 
assignamus : ipsum collegium, seu alium ejus nomine, in corporalem et actualem 
possessionem illorum beneficiorum noviter sepedicto collegia collatorum, indue • 
omnes illicitos detentores exinde prorsus amovendo. Datum Galvie, 25 die m cnaki 
Aprilis anno invictissimi regni Regis Henrici octavi 33."' — Orig. 

From the foregoing instrument, we find that the Archbishop of Tuam. Christopher 
Bodikyne, had admitted the King's supremacy. In it he styled the Pope merely 
" Romanus Episcopus." But in a subsequent instrument executed in the reign of 
Philip and Mary (which see, p. 233), gave the Pope his usual title <>f dignity, and 
alluded to the past changes as a schism, " tempore preteriti scismati8. n Afterwards, 
in the reign of Elizabeth, Archbishop Bodikyne again conformed to tl 
of the state, and consequently retained lii- see. This prelate 'bed. according I 
"full of days," in A.D. 1572. 

"An ordre in the behalfe of the CoUedge against Richardi Blake ami hit Hen 

■■A. J). 1542. 

Memorandum that upon suche debate and rariaunce depen 
Richard Blake of this the K s towne of Galwey of that one partie, and the warden and 
Corall vickeryes of the sain towne of that other partie. concernyng certayn ] 
rent appoynghted perpetually to the Colledire. for augmentacion of Divyi. S 
the said Richard suppoossinge the said warden and vickeryes to levie and reae yerely 
more than their duetie of hym: the said Wykeryes and Wardi --ns and al 

ing hym to holde certayn porcon of suche rent due unto theim yerely t<> their . 



arrerags and losses. Whereabouthes he the said Ric. purchassed nowe of late the K s 
writt of Sbpena agenst certayn of the said corall vickerys, as Sir Johan. Bremegham 
late Warden, and Sir Eoger Cornell, whiche notwithstanding, the said Richard by his 
owne free wyll, And also S r Patrick Blake warden, with all his conbrethern, corall 
vickeryes of the sam, premitting their juraments upon the holly Ewangelistes, sub- 
mitted themselfs and become bounde, the one partie unto the other, in payne of one 
houndred poundes sterling to stande, abyde and performe the ordere, adwarde, lawde, 
and judgement of us, Mr. Henry Joes, mayor of the sam town, James Skeret, Richard 
Martyn, John Ffrenche, Thomas Lynche, Thomas Martyn, and Nicholas Blake, bur- 
genses of this self town : Wherfor we the fornamed Judges elected by the said parties, 
with mature deliberacion and circumspecte consideracion of all their variaunce, have 
Judged, adwarded and Decred the said Richard and his heires and executores to pay, 
or cause to be paid, to the Warden et vikeryes for the tyme being for evere more, not 
onely xm.*' iiii or rf. sterling, yerely in and for the tenement or houses next to the 
lytell yeat att the weste syde, according his granfather John Blaks testament, but als 
and as well vm. a - sterling lyckewyse yerely, for every acker of lande that he the said 
Richard hawe and shall hawe of the xl. ackres being without the town, as the auncient 
Dede made by his progenitores doth specifie ; which ded hath ben allued and con- 
fermed be the court and consaill of the sam town, as the decre thereupon yeven in 
the favor of the said Warden and vickeryes conteyned more att large ; without any 
further vexsacion or excepcion to the contrary, under the peayne to for expressed : 
and also have adwarded and decred the said Richard his heires et successores to be 
quite and fullye dischardged in all other suche rent that the said Warden and corall 
vyckeryes proclamed of hym beforce of the said auncient Dede : And from hence 
forthe the said Richarde and his successores to be good and comfortable aideres to the 
warden and wyckeryes for the tyme being ; and they as well kynde and lowing ora- 
tores unto hym and his successores for evere more, without any further vexacion or 
truble : prowydith allways Richard Blake to retorne the forsaid writt in full dis- 
charge of the said Sir Roger and Sir John, under the peyne to for mencioned. Yeven 
att galwey the xi. day of Octobre, the xxxiiii" yere of the Reigne of our Soveraigne 
Lorde King Henry theight 1542 : and our sealls and seigne manuells. Prowydeth the 
said Ric. and his coheires to be fully discharged concernyng Gylle Blake and Thomas 
Dof Blakes porcion of the rent within the town. 

" Harry Joes, mayre. " James Skerrett. 

" Thomas Martin. " Rychard Martyn. 

" Per me Richard Blake. " Per my, John Blake fyz Richard." 

" Tomas Lynch. . Orig. 

" Johan. Ffrenche. 
For the "auncient Dede" here referred to, see ante, p. 215. 

" Morgadg 

2 3 c 

" Morgadg of the juelles of if Chyrdu 
"A. D. 1546. 

" Be it knownn to theim that ben present and to come, that we Thomas Kyrwan 
and Richard Bodykyn of Galwey merchaunts, proctores of Sanet Nicholas is chyrche 
of Galwey aforsaid, by the will and assent of Mr. Stephen Lynche mayor, and others 
the good m res of the said towne, hawe yeve and concesse to James Lynche fitz-Ric. of 
the sam towne merchaunt, the grete crose of shylver, two sconces of shylver. two 
candell or tapire styckes of shylver, a pyxe for the sacrament, with fouer chalk - 
shylver, apperteanyng to the said chyrche, to gadge or pledge for thre score poundes 
sterlinge ; which the said James imployde and bestowed in glase, lede, woexe, candel- 
stycks and lectorne of brase, and certayne bryck being very necessary and nydyfull 
for the reparacon and usadge of the said chyrche. To hawe and to holde all the said 
juells, chylvere or plate aforsaid, and every parcell thereof, to the said James Lynche 
his heires and assignes forever; to suche tyme he or they shalbe paid in the said thre 
score poundes sterling : with this condicion, that at eny tyme we the said proctores, 
or otheres for the tyme beinge proctores, shall or doe pay or cause to be paid to the 
said James his heires or executores, the said thre score poundes sterling, that then 
this writting be woyd and of non effecte, and the said juelles, all and every parcell 
thereof, to retorne to the service and usadge of the said chyrche, in fermor state, this 
writting in every thing notwithstanding. In Wittenes whereof, we caused our me- 
raltie seale of the said towne to be set hereto, with our seigne manuell, the xx" 1 of 
Novembre the xxxviii' h yere of the moste prosperus reigne of o r Soveranrne Lorde, 
King Henry theight, 1546 Thomas Kyrvane, proctowre." \_Loc. SigU.^ — I 

It is probable that the foregoing curious transfer was nothing more than a device 
or cover to protect the few articles which, after the previous confiscation, had re- 
mained for the public service of religion. About this time the Corporation deter- 
mined to surrender the church and college, and all their ecclesiastical .s, to 
the Crown; as appears by the following petition to that effect, prepared for presen- 
tation to King Henry VIII. 

" Ad excettentissimum principem Ilenrieum Octavum, Regan ac Dominion nostrum. 
" Serenissimam Regie MajestatisExcellenciam, ejus celcitudini, veri, ligei, fidele? 
subditi et oratores assidui, maior, conburgenses et communitas ville sue Galvie, clavis 
Conacie, infra regnum suum Hibernie, qui inter rebelles silvestres ac montanos hiber- 
nicos existunt, eandem villain versus eosdem, propriis sumptibus cum quotidianis 
vigiliis, nomine sue excellence, manutenentes et diligenter defendentes, onini humili- 
tate et honore quibus decet, supplicant et implorant, quatenus collegium ecclesie sancti 


2 3 1 

Nicholai, parochiis ej usdem ville sue Galvie Diocesis Enachdunensis videlicet, 

Guardiani et octo vicariorum collegialium, more Anglorum debite et honeste erudito- 
rum, in una aula ac mensa comorancium, cum quotidiano cantus servicio, quondam 
per Reverendissimum in Christo patrem Dominum Donatum tunc Archiepiscopum 
Tuamensem, prelibate ecclesie ratione perpetue unionis, ordinarium, auctoritate ordi- 
naria, primitus supplicacione et precibus dicte communitatis, fundatum et institutum, 
atque de quarta sua Episcopali in quibusdam aliis beneficiis ac unionibus donatum, 
communia, ut tunc moris fuerat, per Episcopum Romanum vel ejus auctoritate con- 
firmatum. Nunc denuo, regia auctoritate, graciose fundaretur, et institueretur, aut 
in pristinum statum confirmaretur, cum gardino et duodecim vicariis, utque in pos- 
terum, re et nomine, Collegium Regis nominaretur, reputaretur et acciperetur, imper- 
petuum, per eosdem majorem, ballivi et comburgenses, qui pro tempore fuerint, 
ej usdem ville, auctoritate Regia, regendum, gubernandum et defendendum, cum privi- 
legio exemptionis a Diocessani ac ordinaria alia quacumque jurisdictione, regia et 
ipsorum majoris et comburgensium, qui pro tempore fuerint, ejusdem ville auctori- 
tate et jurisdictione duntaxat exceptis; per quos vero majorem etburgenses sicut hac- 
tenus, nomine Regis, ex predictis vicariis, unus guardianus, de anno in annum, sit 
elegendus, et vicarii ad presentacionem eorum majoris, ballivorum et comburgensium, 
per guardianum et convicarios, more hactenus usitato, elegendi, per ipsos vero majorem, 
ballivos et conburgenses, corrigendi, puniendi ac inde penitus ejiciendi, et removendi 
juxta sua merita et demerita sint, imperpetuum. Pro augmentacione vero divini 
cultus, ac ampliori sustentacione dictorum Guardiani et duodecim vicariorum colle- 
gialium, ac aliorum inibi serviencium, ex habundantissima Regie Majestatis gratia, 
Rectoriam ejusdem ecclesie collegiate, jure quo nescitur, hactenus et nunc per monacos 
ac abbatem monasterii collis victorie, ordinis Cisterciencium Tuamensis diocesis pre- 
dicte, sub colore unionis occupatam, propter quam infinite contenciones et discordie 
inter rebelles, diversis temporibus, emerserunt; in grave dampnum, depredacionem et 
depaupertacionem communitatis predicte ville Galvie, predicto collegio donari et uniri 
prememorati major, ballivi et communitas ferventer supplicant, postulant et requirant; 
unacum perpetua unione et confirmatione omnium et singulorum beneficiorum, jurium 
et pertinencium, que, jure ordinario vel alio quocunque modo, ad dictum collegium, 
devenerunt, pertinebant aut pertinere vel concernere debebant, principaliter et pre- 
cipue vicaria et quarta episcopalis ejusdem ecclesie Sancti Nicholai, cum desertuosis 
rectoriis et vicariis de Ra/iuyn, Maycoittyn, et Foran more ac Rosquam; necnon et aliis 
exiguiis vicariis de Ctayer, Kylcomyn, Meary predicte diocesis, eciam vicaria de Skryn, 
que omnia et singula queque, quite possessa, tam desertuosa, infructuosa et exigua 
sunt, et minime sufficiunt ad debitam sustentacionem eorum guardiani et vicariorum, 


2 3 2 

suorumque servitorum, adeoque propter inopiam, communem meneam quibusdarn tem- 
poribus anni eos deserere oportet. Ea propter, non solum debitam confirmacionem, 
corroboracionem ac perpetuam unionem omnium et singulorum terrarum, tenemento- 
rum, messuagiorum, rerum, reddituum, sensuum, et revercionum, ex concessionibug, 
suffragiis, elemosinis aut legatis que eidem collegio, pro sua sustentacione aut augmen- 
tacione divini cultus in eodem, hactenus concessa, aut in posterum concedenda vM 
assignanda sunt per quoscunque. Verum eciam ut loca sive monasteria in fran> 
dicte ville Galvie extra muros, in quibus fratres mendicantes consueverunt residere, 
jus sepulture, decimas neque privilegia aliqua mendicantibus concessa habeair 
ullatenus habere valeant, nee servientes in eisdem premiseifl ie cetera gandere | 
mant, immo eadem monasteria cum pertinenciis, pro capellis eidem collegio, et pro 
augmentacione ibi serviencium assignari, prefati major et communitas supplicant ac 
plurimum desiderant, ex uberiori autem gratia, de mera et largiBsima B -llen- 

cie liberalitate, in perpetuam elemosinam officium rae serenitatis, quod vulgariter 
dicitur/ees, aut reversionem ejusdem, cum suis fructibus et pertinenciis. in eadem 
villa Galvie, completo saltim termino seu firma honesto viro B berto Cowly. auper 
magistro Rotulorum Regis Cancellarie hujus regni Hibernie, inde debita *.-t a-ignata, 
pro augmentacione numeri, ac divini cultus, et sustentacione ampliori ejusdem < 
gii, assignari et graciose concedi, omni diligentia qua possint sue celdtudin 
fidelissimi oratores Regiani majestatem cum fiducia, prelibati Major, ballivL bn 
ses et comunitas solicitant, supplicant et implorant, adeoque servientee in dicto col- 
legio, de die in diem, pro bono statu ac prosperitat.- Ri gie serenitatia predecessorum 
et successorum ejus, imperpetuum, preces animose fundere valeant, eciam et coge- 
rentur, ut quoque aures sue Majestatis potius premissis inclinareutur." — Orig. 

King Henry VIII. died before the foregoing petition could be presented It was 
afterwards re-directed, and presented to his successor, Edward VI., who thereupon 
granted the charter, under which the warden and vicars hold to this day. 

It is stated in this petition, that the monks of the abbey de Col. <k- 

moy (for which see Archdall's Monastkon, p. 266), possessed the rectory of the col- 
legiate church, "jure quo nescitur." But the origin of the right lias since been 
ascertained, and will be found in the following passag in our author 
"Inter excerpta R, P. Francisci Brown Capucini e vetnstis Patria? indefatigabili cura 
undequaque qusesitis membranis e scripto quodam poene votustat<: ■ perio 

Comitem de Muntir-moroghow cum consensu Caroli Regis Connactia; dedisse E. D. 

Abbati, & Conventui de Knockmuy Lismacuan Pagum in Clonferg (f> 

bus prsesentibus Carolo Rege Connactia?, E. D. filio ejus. C. Arehiepiscopo Tuamensi. 
H. Episcopo Anaghdunensi, L. Elfinensi, D. Comite Magluirg. F. 0. Flanegagn. D. 

Maccoir,. a 

2 33 

Maccoiraghty, & T. Cormacain cantore — (f.) Clanfergaile regiuncula 24Pagorum, in 
qua nunc Galvia.'''' — Ogyg. p. 30. 

" Dispensacio pro Nicholao Blake et Sescilia uxore ejus. 
"A.D. 1556. 
" Universis sancte matris ecclesie filiis ad quos presentes pervenerint : Cristopho- 
rus, miseracione divina et Apostolice sedis gratia, Tuamensis archiepiscopus, Saluteni 
in Domino sempiternam : Cum dilecti nobis in Christo Nicholaus Johannis Blak et 
Sescilia Lynche, layci dicte nostre diocesis, non obstante quod in pari quarto equali 
totidem dispari consanguinitatis gradibus attingunt, matrimonium in facie ecclesie, 
tempore preteriti scismatis contraxerunt, illudque carnaliter consumarunt, et prolem 
inde procreaverunt, unde nobis humiliter supplicarunt ut impossita eis penitencia 
salutari pro incestu jam comisso, et in eodem contracto matrimonio amplius legittime 
remanere valerent, prolem susceptam et suscipiendam legittimam decernendo : auc- 
toritate sedis Apostolice cum eis benigne dispensare dignaremur : Cum enim summus 
pontifex Paulus quartus Reginaldo, miseracione divina, sancte Marie in Cosmedin 
sancte Romane ecclesie prespitero cardinali, ac in regnis Anglie et Hibernie de latere 
legato, concessit ut cum talibus in eisdem regnis dispensare valeret: necnon etiam 
potestatem subdelegandi aliis prelatis in suis diocesibus eidem cardinali comisit. Cum 
enim nos eandem potestatem ab eodem cardinali in nostris diocesibus accepimus, cum 
prefatis Nicholao et Sescilia eadem auctoritate qua fungimur in hac parte dispensa- 
mus, et dispensatum esse declaramus per presentes, ut illis expressis impedimentis 
non obstantibus legittime amplius remanere valeant impossita eis penitentia salutari 
pro modo culpe, prolem susceptam et suscipiendam legittimam decernendo. Datum 
sub nostri sigilli testimonio, die Martii secundo, anno 1556. 

" Cristophorus Tuamen. 

" M. propria.' 1 '' — Orig. 

" Confirmation by Richard Blake, of his Auncestors Gifts to the Colledge. 

" A.D. 1558. 

" Mem. that whereas the warden and corall viccaries of Galway apiered before 
and in presence of the maior and councill of Galway, and alledgeth how that on 
Richard Blake of the sam bourgees, dothe ussurpp and detainethe from them, certain 
yerly rents due unto them, upon certain lands and tenements legated to them be the 
sept of Blakes, to say, William, Cille, Henry, Walter fitz-John yong, and Henry fitz- 
Thomas duf Blak, without assent, which rents the said Ric. holdeth wrongutfully all 
theasse xv. yers paste, and therupon broght present, note onely thold donacconn and 
IRISH arch. soc. 15. 2 H deade 


deade of the said Blaks, but also showth fourthe a decrey given in ther ffaivor, con- 
cerning the same rents, bearing date at Galway the ix. ,h of January an° r. r. Henrici 
octavi primo, mdix. together and an arbitrement made betuxt them and the said Ric. 
concerning the same mater, bearing date at Galway the xi." 1 day of October an° r. r. 
H. octa. xxxmi. [1542] wherein the said Richard, his heirs and assignee, was con- 
dempned to pay unto the said wardean, viccaries and to ther successoures, the 
wholl quantitie and somes mencioned in the said old deade made and delivered by the 
said Blakes. And considering the sam in every condicon requiereth the mayor and 
concell aforsaid, not onely to compell the said Richard to restore unto them tharre- 
radgs of theass xv. yers past, but also and as well to compell the said Richard and 
his heires to seass from hensfourth of his unjuste usurpasson in that behalf. The 
said Richard therunto answered and said, that altho the said mater to be alwais judgid 
and arbitird agenst him and against his forfathers, yet he afirmeth that in the sam 
arbitrement it was adwardid to him, to have suche pledge as the said wardian and 
vicarres had of him ; and said also that he holdeth the sam anuall rents onel . 
pledges, and not for any other contradiccon or contempt of his predt.-cessoui • 
cions. And requiereth to have his said pledge, and, having the sam, he is content I 
confirm his forfather's graunts, graunted to the said colladge, as well of him dur 
his naturall lyf, as also of and from his heirs and assigns for evermor. So the said 
wardian and viccariis consultid together, and be conssent of the mayor and consaill 
aforsaid, in awoyding fourther chardges or demaunds to ensue in that behalf, therlor 
imediately, the wardian and vicariis delivered unto thands of the said Blak, wholl 
payment and ffull satissfaccion in all his demaunds, to his owen deassir and full con- 
tentacon. And lyckwiss the said Richard, and his sonn and principall heir, John 
Blak, tendering the benediccon of ther predeccessours, and also fearing the malle- 
diccon and cours of ther said forfathers, which at ther wills might make ther franc k 
almes (ad pias causas) and to thentent, that the said Richard and John, ther i 
and assigns, may be nombered amongest that rest of ther said predecessourB, and to 
thagumenctacon of God's divin servic, quotidially ussid in the said churche be the ^aid 
wardian, viccariis and ther successours for ever mor. Ther for we the said Richard 
and John, of or owen voluntary wills, for and in the honor of God, do hierby theass 
presents confirm, not onely all and singler our said forther's graunts, rira mn on a and 
gifts, given to the said wardian and viccariis, and to ther successours. in ther owen 
kynnds and in every condiccon, as in thold donaccons ruaketh mencon, within and 
without Galway, as the divicon is made, and as it is written be partialis in the said 
colladgs bowke; but also and as well we do giv and graunt unto the said wardian 
and viccariis, and to their successours, all and singuler the said rente - ,.rk^ 

sterling yerly within and without Galway, upon the veray sam lands and tenements 
as mak mencon in the said colladge is bowke, any clames, titells, challandgs or rights 
that we have had, or that hierafter our heirs or assignis might have hadd, or of right 
ogt to have in any the said yerly rents, to the contrary notwithstanding. And lyck 
as our said predeccessours willed and comaunded us to obey and perform ther wills, 
upon payn of ther mallediccon or curs, lyckwiss we do chardge and comaund all or 
heirs, successours and assignis, into whoss hands any parte or parcells of the said lands 
or tenements cometh, to obey and performe this our donacon, ffrom tyme to tym, and 
pay the said anuall rents as in the said colladg bouk menconed, and this upon payn 
of our curss and mallediccons. Alwais requiering thordinary for the time beinge, to 
causs the sam to be observed, and lickwiss comaunding the maior for the tyme being 
to se the same put in execucon accordingly, upon payn menconed in the said old 
donacons. To have and to hold the said yerly rents perpetually for evermore, to the 
said wardian, vicariis and to ther successours, of and from us our heirs, executours 
and assignis for evermor be theass presents. In witnes hierof, we not only confirmid 
the said arbitrement with our hands, but also and for the more assuraunc set hier- 
unto our signis and sealls, and willid the notary to writ and sign the sam, at Galway 
the third day of Marche, annis r. r. Phi. et Marie quarto et quincto, mdlviii . Being 
present, the Reverend father in God Cristopher archebusopp of Tuamencis, Mr. Jamy 
Linch fitz-Ric. maior, Ric. and Walter Linch bailivis, Jamy Kyrevan and David 
Kyrewan proctouris of the said churche, Thomas Martin Johnneg and Nichas Linch 
fitz-Stephen, Thomas and Nichas Blak, and Thomas Colman Notary, and other divers. 
— per me, Richard Blake fyz-Sefre — per my, John Blake fyz-Rychard." — Orig. 


" Order touching Srowker, etc. 

"A.D. 1569. 

" By the L. Presydent and Counsell of Connaghte. 

" Where as complaint hath bene made unto us by the Warden and Collegiatts 

of S c . Nycholas churche of Galway, that John Boorke, nowe Cheryfe of Connaght, 

and Walter and Willm. Boourke fitz John fitz Meyller wrongfully dispossessed them 

of the profitts and fruicts of the vicaradges of Srowher, Skryne in Tome, and Kenlagh 

(parcell of the lyvinge united unto their sayd colledge), pretending title there unto in 

the right and behalf of Sir John m c Willm prest, Dermot Rowan and John Do- 

roghe : against whome the sayd Warden and collegiats produced an order before us, in 

the deffence of their title, passed and geven by Sir Thomas Cusak and others her 

Mat ts comyssioners ; whereby it dose appeare that the sayd John m c Willm, Dermot 

Rowane and John Doroghe had not any lawfull title or intereste, in or to the 

2 H 2 said 


said pvemysses, and the above named defendants, beinp also called, to answere before 
us, cowld shewe nothing matteriall to deffeat the same. We, therefore, after due 
hearing and examenyng of the matter, do confyrme and rattiffie the sayde order taken 
by the sayd Comyssioners, as just, and agreeing with equit & good conscyence. And 
also, do, by theis presents, order, adiudge adwarde and decree that the sayd John 
Boorke, sheryfe, and Walter and Willm. Boourke shall hensfourthe in no wyse inte- 
rupte or moleste the pis; of or in their quiet and peaceable possession and en 
the vicarrodgs of Srowher, Skryne in Tome, and Kenlagh aforesayd, but shall suffer 
them or their assignes, in quiet and peaceable maner, to receve, perceive, and tak up, 
from tyme to tyme, all such fruicts, profyts and comodvties. whatsoever, to them 
belonging, without eny theire lett or ympechment. And further, it is orderd that 
the sheryfe, John Boorke, shall sattisfie the sayd complaynents of or for all things 
taken up by hym, synce the date of the above menconed order (which was takene the 
vii. of January 1568.) savinge for such of the sayd profitts a~ lie enjoyed by the graunt 
of John M c Willm prest, who served as currate in the sayd viccaradge of Sk 
(under the sayd pis.) being the iiii. ,h parte of the profitts of the I 
sayd (and this in consyderacon of a contract made with the >ayd John Boorke) 
whych iiii. th parte also he shall only have for the tjine paste, and hen;fourth 
forgoe and disclayme frome the whole, permytting the p 1 '. the quiet and peaceable 
possession & sysyne of the premysses, without his disturban< . ;id p u . viz. 

the Wardene and collegeats, and their successours, have not further cause to com- 
playne. Yeven at Gallway the x.' h of December 1569. 

•• Concordat cum originali. 
•• John Crokton. I 

" Inquisittio of the Duties and Riyhts of St. Nicholas kit ChurcJie. 
■ .1. D. 1609. 

"Visu Hi ami plegii of our Soveraigne 1. and kinge, James, in the 
yeare of his raigneof Englande, France and lrelande, and of Scotland the 
xlii'". tacken before Oliver Brown mayor of the town of Galwi 
cholas Ffrench fitz-Peeter, and Doniiuicke Browne, bailiffs of the 
by thinquisittione and oath of the persons following, tutching such duties 
as belongeth unto the parishe churcheof Saint N 
saide, according the old ancient coustome, tyme out of 1 
be collected and tacken up by the Church Wardiane, 
towards the reparacione of the said church, viz. 

" Nomina Juratorum. 
i. Ulicke Lynch fitz-Edd. of Gallwey, alderman. 

2. Thomas Browne of the same, alderman. 

3. Anthony Kirvane of the same, merchaunt. 

4. James Lynch fitz- Henry the younger of the same, merchaunt. 

5. Arthur Lynch fitz-James of the same, merchaunt. 

6. Patricke Blake fitz-John of the same, merchaunt. 

7. Edmund Athie of the same, merchaunt. 

8. Martine Lynch fitz-Martine of the same, merchaunt. 

9. Arthur Bodkyne of the same, merchaunt. 

10. Nicholas Martyne fitz-John of the same, merchaunt. 

1 1. Christophor Bodkyne fitz- Richard of the same, merchaunt. 

12. Clement Kirvane fitz-Patrick of the same, merchaunt. 

13. Martine Bige of the same, merchaunt. 

1 4. Teig Ballaghe of the same, showmaker. 

15. Gillepatricke m c Coghlane of the same, weawer. 

1 6. Dermott m c ffollane of the same, brogmakere. 

17. Willm Many of the same, cottner. 

1 8. Walter Shoy of the same, Taylour. 

19. Nicholas Nolane of the same, Goldsmyth. 

20. Muriertagh M c Inylley of the same, Glower. 

21. Donnell O'Mollhane of the same, Cooper. 

22. Connor Duffe of the same, Fisherman. 

23. Davy OFfodaghe of the same, Boathman. 

24. Loughlin of the same, fresh- water fisherman. 

" 1. First, we fynde, that according the olde ancient custome, theheires or exec, of 
every gent, fremane, Burgesse or merchaunt of this towne, their wiffs or children, of 
what degree soever he or they be, that shall departe this worlde, is to deliver or pay 
unto the church wardain, towards the reparacon of the church aforesaid, the second 
best garment (viz. gowne or cloke) he, or they soe departed had at the tyme of his 
death, or the value thereof, at the choies or discretion of the said heire or exec. 

"Item, weffynd that all the comonaltie or laymen of the said towne, which hath or 
would have there buriall within the body of the said parish church, are to pay or de- 
liver, the best cloacke or maunttell he or they soe departed had at the tyme of his death, 
or the just value thereof, to the church wardian, towards the reparacion aforesaid, or 
otherwise to be buried in the church-yard. 

" 2. Item, 

2 3 8 

"2. Item, we flynd, that all and ever)- yong artificer of the inhabitants of this tovrne 
or the subarbes thereof, viz 1 , as massons, carpenters, joyners, honppen, fresh watter 
and salt watter fishers, gold smythes, blake smythes, brassersor pott makers, tinckers, 
peatterers, English and Irish tayolors, Irish and English showmakers. glowers, weawers. 
and cottoners, with all and every other craft, science or trade what soever he or ti 
of, shall at his first coming to be free with the rest of his professed occupation, before 
he exercise, or occupie his arte, sattisffie and pay unto the church wardeine, fiv shil- 
linges ster. towarde the reparation aforesaid. 

" Item, we ffyndeit convenient, that all and every such person or persons whatsoever 
from hence fourth, in this towne, as shall tacke chardge uppon hime or them to be 
masters of a boath, either by sea or river, shall sattisfie and pay, for his income to the 
church wardiane, fiv shillings ster. towards the reparacion aforesaid, excepting such 
fishermen as formerlye paied the same. 

"3. Item, we ffynde it lickewise decent, that all and every such backers, as are at 
this present or hereafter shalbe in this towne, or the subarbes thereof, and chiefBye 
Walter Shoy, Humphrey Poinard, William Reagh, Dermott O'Nolane and Moyller 
O'Hallorane, and ther successors backers, shall pay unto the church wardiane afore- 
said, towards the foresaid reparacone, the some of ffyve shillings BterL yncome, apiee, 
forbyding any other hereafter to use or occupie that traid, without the speciall liscence, 
and agreement of the said church wardian, and the rest of that company. 

" 4. Item, we ffynde it meette, that Walter Costelly, Margrett Coocke widow, and 
Eaffe the candell makers, shall pay unto the church wardian aforesaid, fiv shillings 
ster. the yire, to the use aforesaide ; inhibiting any other what soever hereafter, to use 
or occuppie that trade, without the speciall liscence and agreement of the forsaid com- 
pany and church wardiane. 

" 5. Item, we ffinde in like manner, that Donnell m c Eobagenow tannere. and all 
others that is, or shalbe hereafter of that trade, shall according the rest of the an.: 
sattisffie, and pay unto the church wardian aforesaid fyve shillings su-r. apice, towards 
the reparacion aforesaid ; forbiding any other hereafter to use or occupie that trade 
without the liscence and agreement of the foresaid church wardiane, and the rest of 
that company of tanners. 

"6. Item, we ffynd, that in the old ancient tyme, it hath been used and accustomed 
in this towne, that every manner of persone or persones what soever, which did. or 
should brywe within this towne or the suborbes thereof, aille or beere to sell, should 
pay unto the church wardiane aforsaide, one pottell of the said beere or aille, for every 
bry wing ; which we doe lickewise confirme and alowe hereby ; And for that, in consi- 
deracione as the same cannott be tacken up and reared by the church wardiane. we 



thinke it ffitt that every such brywer, shall at allhallontyd and May, by even portiones, 
yearlie for ever more hereafter, sattisfie and pay twelf penc a pice in liew of the said 
beere, towards the reparacion of the parish church aforsaid. 

" 7. Item, we ffynde, that there is due to the church wardiane, towards the rapara- 
cion aforesaide, out of every vessell of acquvittir which is or shall be retaylled in this 
towne, one pinte thereof, so as allwaies the said vessell, exceede fower gallones ; and if 
the same be a hogsett or a butte there is noe more due there uppon, which we doe 
lickewise confirme. 

" 8. Item, we ffynd, that there is due to the church wardiane uppon any townsman, 
or merchaunt straunger what soever, which bringeth or procureth any shippe, or . 
barke, be it great or small, into this towne or port of Gallwey, ladden with what co- 
modities soever, one peny for every tone of her said ladding ; and also wine, salte, irone, 
Batry and Honny (for which there is two pence a tone due) to be collected by the 
church wardian duley, towards the raparacion aforesaid. 

" 9. Item, we ffynd, that there is due to the church wardian three shillings four penc 
ster. upon the tatch house, next adioyning unto the great stone house, wherein now 
dwelleth John Nolane, belonging unto Marcus Duffe Lynch, which diew was left there- 
upon by Mr. Stephen Lynch fits- Arthur of Gallwey alderman deceased, towards the 
reparacion of the parish church aforesaid, to be yearlie collected and tacken up by the 
church wardian for the tyme being, for ever, at allhallontyde, per annum. 

" 10. Item, we ffynde, that Nich ls Blake of Gallwey aforesaid merchaunt, deceased, 
by his last will and testament, bequeatted and leifte towards the reparacion of the 
church aforesaid, to the church wardiane for the tyme beinge every allhallontyde for 
ever, outof the high tatch house, right against Peetter ogeFrench fitz-Petter is mansione 
stone house, which thatch house is now in the possession of Richard Lynch fitz-. James Roe. 

"11. Item, likewise we ffynde, that Mr. Domnick Browne of Gallway alderman, de- 
ceased, by his last will and testament, leift towards the reparacion aforesaid, the some 
of three shillings and fower pence ster. to be yearlie received and taken up for ever, by 
the church wardian for the tyme beinge, out of the rent of the land called Athey 
Thomas reagh, in the west syde of Gallwey aforesaid. 

" 12. Item, we ffynde, that by comone consent of all thinhabitants of this towne, it 
hath bene grauntted, and thereuppon acoustomed, that at all tymes, when any mas- 
sons or glassiers did, or hereafter shall, woorke uppon the parish church aforesaid, the 
wholle gents and merchaunts of the said town, are by tournes to fynd them diett, and 
the common or lay men to fynde woorkemen, or labourers during the said woorke. 

" 1 3. Item, we ffynd, in like manner, that is acoustomed of ancient old tyme, that 
when there is any worke of reparacion or glassing uppon the said parish church, the 



wardiane of the colladge and the rest of the viccars are to give the massone or ghu 
ther Breakfast, dally during the woorke, and if there be any great worke they are to 
diett one masson altogether. 

" 14. Item, wefFynde, that every gent, merehaunt or free man of thinhabitams 
ought, of righte, acording the auncient use, to pay fower pence a pice at Easter, pec 
ann. for their comonyone monney, both for him self, his wiffe, children and flamy Ilie; 
and every householder of lay men or artificers, two pence a pice, towards the n 
cion aforesaid, and every yong man two penc a pec. 

" 15. We the Jury, whose names are above written, doe by virtue of our oath'-, 
ffynde, that all the forsaide diews and duties therein sett down, doth, of right accord- 
ing as in the old ancient tyme it hath been used, belong and apperteyne unto the 
parish church of St. Nicholas in Gallway aforesaid, towards the reparaciom- thi 
the which, in owere consciences, we ffynde ought hence forth, for ever more, to Vx- 
dully collected and taken up by the church wardiane for the tymi 
aforesaide; and for that the same hath bene of late neglected, to (he great rayane, 
decaye and want of reparacione of the parish church, as well through the neglig 
of the forsaid church wardianes, as also of our magestrates not forwarding the sai 
assisting them in the collection thereof: We think it henceforth meettet the same may 
be confirmed, and that the comone seale may be hereunto fixed as a president or 1 
ment thereof. Wittnes our hands, the last day of October, Anno Domini 1 609. 
" Willyk Linch, Foreman. William O'Many Cottoner, - _ 

Anthony Kyrowan. Coghlin Luderagii Fisher, 

Patrick Blake. Nicholas Nolane. 

Arthur Lynch. Edmund Atiue. 

Davy O'Fowdy, Master of the Both- Christo. Bodkin f. Richard. 
men at the Wood Key, is signe. Markus Bige. 

Walter Shoy. Tegg Bali. age. is signe. 

Conor Duff, Master of the Fishers Gelly Patkyk hTCoghlav ■ - _ 
of the See, is signe. James Lynch fitz-IIenky."" — ( 

Among the foregoing curious items, may be perceived somi - 

bearing municipal authority, and the monopolizing spirit of the time. Buttbei\:_ 
James I. was the golden age of monopoly. That pernicious system r. 
prevailed to a large extent in Ireland; and to have reached even these 
districts. Of this there are numerous evidences on record. Thus, on 18 Feb. 19°-" 
Robert Blake, Jeffry Lynch, Nicho. Martin, John Bodkin, and Edmond Kerwai 

Gal way, 


Galway, merchants, obtained a monopoly of the sale of good and wholesome wines there, 

during the lives of Richard Blake and Peter French Same to Martin, Richard, James, 

and Peter Darcy of Athenry, to make and sell aqua- vita; or usquebagh during their 
lives. — Id. On ist May, 17 . Jac. I. James Viscount Doncaster and his deputies, li- 
censed to keep taverns and sell wines, usquebagh, and aqua-vitae in Ireland, for 22 
years. For several similar grants, see the Patent Rolls of James I. passim. On 7 th 
June 4 . Jac. I. Sir Henry Folliott obtained a monopoly of the whole fishing and 
taking of salmon, herrings, and all other kinds offish, for 41 years, in the ports, bays, 
creeks, or floods of Ballyshanan, Bondrois, and Callebeg. This grant extended to the 
counties of Donegal, Fermanagh, Leitrim, and Sligo — Id. A treatise on Monopolies 
in Ireland would develope many curious historical facts. 

NOTE L. Seepage 39. " Bourkes of Mayo County.'''' 

The genealogical account of " Bourke Viscount Mayo," given in Lodge's Peerage 
of Ireland, Ed. 1754, vol. ii. p. 313, is one of the most perfect pieces of family history 
contained in that work. Archdall, in his edition, A. D. 1789, has given the account 
entire, but divided into two portions. One will be found in his memoir of " Bourke 
earl of Mayo," vol. iii. p. 414; and the other in that of "Bourke viscount Mayo," 
vol. iv. p. 227. It may be observed that, although Archdall, in the latter account, 
has stated, that John the eighth (and last) Viscount Mayo died in 1767, "since when 
the title has lain dormant," p. 249; and in the former that, " John then earl of Mayo 
was, on 13th January, 1781, created viscount Mayo of Monycrower in the county of 
Mayo:" yet he afterwards mentions "Sir [ ] Bourke, Lord Viscount of Mayo and 
Baronet," as then (1789) living. That there were successive claimants for the title 
after the death of the eighth viscount, one of whom was living at that time, is certain, but 
want of means and other opposing circumstances have ever since prevented its esta- 
blishment; and, it is stated, that the same causes operate against the right heir to the 
present day. Lodge also mentions that Sir Theobald Bourke, the third Viscount 
Mayo, "had a son Luke," who, according to the genealogist, " died young." — Vol. ii. 
p. 236, Ed. 1754. But this Luke was old enough to be a captain in the army, as the 
Editor has lately ascertained from his epitaph, yet remaining in an old chapel attached 
to a ruined abbey, within two miles of the ancient church of Ballynakill, in the parish 
of that name, barony of Leitrim, and county of Galway. " Here under is interred 
Captain Luke Bourke, son to the Right Honorable Theobald Lord Viscount of Mayo, 
and D. Elynor Fitzgerald daughter to Sir Luke Fitzgerald, of Tier . . . han, who died 
the 1 oth of March, 1 684." This epitaph may be found useful, in case the title shall 
hereafter be claimed. 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 15. 2 I O'Ferrall 


O'Ferrall, in his MS. Book of Irish Pedigrees, preserved in the Office of Arms, 
Dublin, gives the following account of the founders of the different spreading bra. 
of the " Bourkes of Mayo County." 

" Sir William Burk, ancestor to the Viscounts Mayo, and the rest of the Burkes 
of that county. 

" His 1st son, Edmond, called the Scott (Albanach) from his being in Scotland 
twenty-two years with his mothers relations. She was daughter to the King oi - 

" 2nd son, Richard, was ancestor to the Burkes, called M' Walter of Lwach. 

" 3rd son, John, ancestor to the Burkes, called Mac Seonin {Jennings). 

" 4th, Philip, ancestor to the Burkes, called M c Philhin, or Philip, GMont. & 

" John Miagh Burk (son of John the 3rd) was called Mac Seonin. 

" Gibbon (eldest son of Philip the 4th) was ancestor to the Burks, called from him 
Mac Gibbon. 

" Philip (2nd son of Philip) a quo the surname of Philips of the lower Owks(H<K 

" Theobald (3rd son of Philip) a quo Sliockt Tebott, of Magh-Odhar, near Crogh- 

" Meyler (4th son of Philip) a quo Mac Meyler. 

" Thomas, the son of Edmond the Scot, was called M William Eighter. 

" His (Thomas's) eldest son was Edmond na Pepoije. also -'/ WUliom Eighter. 

" Walter (2nd son of Thomas) was ancestor to the Burkes of Balenrobe, Loch 
Measg, Kinlogh. 

" Thomas (3rd son of Thomas), ancestor to the Burkes of Maine. 

" John (4th son of Thomas), ancestor to the Burkes of Tvriogk, 

" Emon na fesoige's eldest son, Ulick Burke, was ancestor of Lord Viscount M 
and the Burkes oiPartry, Ballycechan, &c {Bally reckon is in the mountains of Partry.) 

" Richard Burke, of Cuarsky (2nd son of Emon nafesoige), was ancestor to the 
Burkes of Tyraicly : some say he was the eldest sou. 

" From them also descended the families of Ballaghaddy (near Partry), Partry. 
Castlelecky, Ballyveghan, Castlebar, and Ballinrobe. 

" Walter Fada Burke was ancestor of the Burkes of Partry." 

Compare the foregoing with Hib. Dominicana, pp. 318, 319. 

It may be necessary here to observe that most of these Mayo families write tln-ir 
name Bourke. The Galway families. Burke. 


2 43 

NOTE M. See page 40. " Order of Hermits of St. Augustine.'''' 
The following deed of endowment of this foundation, A. D. 15 17, is preserved in 
the Collegiate Library of Galway, before referred to. 

" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Ricardus Edmundi De Burgo dedi, concessi 
et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi Ricardo Nangle, sacre pagine professori, ordinis 
heremitarum Sancti Augustini, ac patri Donato O'Maille priori ejusdemque conventui 
monasterii nove ville Gal vie, ejusdem ordinis Sancti Augustini, eorumque successor i- 
bus in dicto monasterio degentibus, de consensu et consilio Reverendissimi in Christo 
patris ac domini, domini Thome Dei gratia pro tunc archiepiscopi Tuamensis, in puram 
et perpetuam elemosinam, Ecclesiam meam parochialem de Boskam, Enachdunensis 
diocesis, cum cimiterio ex parte occidentali muri ejusdem ecclesie, cum quadam parti- 
cula terre sita prope dictam partem occidentalem, vulgariter nuncupatam Timahdtte, 
prout mete et bunde undique docent et proportant, viz. in latitudine usque ad magnos 
lapides occidentalis partis de Tyrnahalle, et in longitudine a mari superius usque ad 
murum prope silvam, cum alia magna sacerdotali terra vulgariter nuncupata Gort in 
tagart, prout mete et bunde undique docent et proportant, per longum et latum prout 
se extendunt ; cum libertate pascuale octo vaccarum et sex caballorum, pro anima mea, 
parentum successorumque meorum : habendum et tenendum predictam ecclesiam cum 
suo cimiterio, Tyrnahalle et Gort in tagart, cum pascuali libertate predictarum octo 
vaccarum et sex caballorum, cum omnibus suis emolumentis, obvencionibus et perti- 
nenciis prefatis, dictis priori conventuique prefati novi monasterii, suisque successo- 
ribus et assignatis suis, qui pro tempore fuerint, de me, heredibus et successoribus seu 
assignatis meis, imperpetuum ; de capitalibus dominis feodi illius, per servicia ecclesias- 
tica, et ordinis suffragia recompensando. Et ego vero prefatus Ricardus de Burgo, 
heredes, executores et successores seu assignati mei, predictam ecclesiam cum suo 
cimiterio, Tyrnahalle et Gort in tagart cum prefato libertate octo vaccarum et sex 
caballorum, omnibusque suis pertinenciis prefatis dictis priori et conventui, eorum- 
que successoribus, qui pro tempore fuerint, contra omnes gentes warantizabimus et 
imperpetuum defendemus. In cujus rei testimonium, huic presenti carte mee, ob de- 
fectum sigilli proprii, sigillum domini Henrici Brangan, pro tunc Wardiani ecclesie 
collegiate ville Galvie, apponi feci. Hiis testibus presentibus, viz. Roberto fusco 
Lynche, Johanna Martyn ejusdem uxore, Jacobo White, Johanne M c Kyachra et Me- 
monia Myleyn, et multis aliis. Datum, Galvie, xvii . die mensis Julii, anno regni Regis 
Henrici octavi nono, et Domini M.D.XVII. — Et nos Edmundus confirmamus manu 
propria. — Et nos dominus Thomas Tuamensis Metropolitanus, hanc concessionem fac- 
tam aprobamus, admittimus, et manu nostra propria confirmamus. Thomas Tuamen. M. 
"Et nos Edmundus confirmamus, manu propria." — Orig. 

2 I 2 NOTE 


NOTE N. Seepage 41, note b . "Sir Charles Coot." 
By letters patent dated 1 3th May, 1645, Sir Charles Coote, knight and baronet, "in 
consideration of his courage, wisdom and circumspection," was appointed to the office 
of Lord President of the province of Connaught, "in as full and ample manner ■ 3 
Charles Willmott, late Lord Viscount Willmott of Athlone, the Lord Viscount Rane- 
lagh, or the late Earle of Clanricarde, had or enjoyed the same." To this appointment 
were annexed certain curious Instructions, which will be found enrolled on " Crom- 
well's Roll," No. 1, preserved in the Rolls Office, Dublin. 

NOTE O. See page 42, note ". 

The following "State letter" affords ample testimony that there were active trai- 
tors, within the walls of this devoted town, during the siege : 

"Dublin Castle, 20"'. May 1656. 
" Gent. 

" The Council having, of late, received large testimony of the singular good 
vices performed by Mr. Dominick Bodkin, Mr. Nicholas Oge French, and Richard 
Kirvan (inhabitants of the towne of Galway) for and in behaulfe of tin E 
interest during the late Rebellion, not a little conducinge (as we arc informed) to the 
advantage of the state, though (tis probable) they had, by such their ample te*tifieing 
of their affeccions to the English, prejudiced their private interests, and contracted a 
malice (from those of their own naccon, among whom they are now to ' 
may prove dangerous to them. Their lordships have therefore thought fitt. 1. 
to recommend the consideration of their meritts unto you, that finding the same to 
bee as hath been alledged, you may in your proceedings (in the determining of their 
respective qualifications and claymes) afforde them what convenient dispatch 
may, with such just and reasonable favour, as may be conceived meete and agreeable 
to your instructions for a reward and encouragement of well doing. Yours Tho. 
Herbert To the Commissioners for adjusting the claymee of the Irish, at Ath- 
lone." — Original Privy Council Book, A. D. 1656. 

These men were, accordingly, well recompensed for their "singular good serv: 
Thomas Lynch Fitz- Ambrose, Matthew Browne, and Lieutenant Charle* Browne, 
also received ample rewards. — Hist. Gahcay, Append. VII. : and one Julian Br 
who performed the part of Rahah on the occasion, also received her reward. 

NOTE P. See page 43, note d . "Lough Lurgan, the Bay of Gaiicay." 

In our author's Ogyg. p. 164, an old Irish poem is quoted for the " three most an- 
cient lakes of Ireland ;" one being Lough Lurgan. the present bay of Galway. This 



poem, which begins, " Goam araip ppur ap pluaj," Adam, father, stream of our 
hosts," has by some been attributed to iEngus Ceile De, who nourished about A. D. 
800; and by others to iEngus Roe O'Daly, who died in A. D. 1350. See O'Reilly's 
Irish Writers, p. 97. But our author in the passage referred to says, that in place of 
Lough Lurgan, another antiquary has Lough Lummy, a lake in Desmond (for which 
see Keating's Hist., lib. i.) ; and adds " iste lacus longo post tempore legitur proru- 
pisse," for which he refers to the Book of Lecan, fo. 284. He then hazards a conjec- 
ture respecting Lough Lurgan, viz. that, perhaps, it was formerly separated, by land, 
from the sea," " qui quondam fortasse firma terra a salo discretus, donee," &c, until 
the Western Ocean overcame the barrier, of which the three islands of Aran seem to 
be the remnant. This conjecture was probable, and the situation and appearance of 
those islands, with respect to the main land, would seem to support it, but no such 
circumstance is recorded; notwithstanding which, the writer, in Hist. Gal way, pp. 4, 
319, has incautiously asserted, that the separation alluded to had been actually men- 
tioned by our ancient annalists. But he has since ascertained that such is not the 
fact ; and therefore, whether Lough Lurgan, or the bay of Galway, had at any period 
of time been separated from the ocean, must ever remain matter of conjecture, for his- 
tory is entirely silent on the subject. 

The mountains of Burren, in the north of the County of Clare, shelter this bay 
on the south, as far as Black Head, called in Irish Ceann 66ipne, i. e. the head of 
Burren. Towards the east of Burren, near an arm of the bay, and south of Galway 
town, are the ruins of Corcumroe abbey (Corcumdhruadh), for which see Archdall's 
Monasticon, p. 44. It was so called, because, when built, A. D. 11 94, the territory of 
Corcumroe comprehended the present barony of Burren. It was also called the 
" Abbey of Burren." See the Annals of Innisfallen, at A. D. 1267, which state, that 
Connor na Sudaine O'Brien, Prince of Thomond, was interred in the " Abbey of the 
East of Burren." Also in Cathreim Toirdhealbhaigh, or the " Wars of Thomond," com- 
piled A. D. 13 18, it is stated, that he was interred in the " Monastery of East Burren" 
and that the monks raised a monument over his remains — " CI^up 00 h-uotucciD a 
maimpoep oiprip 6oipne 50 h-uapol onopac e, aj na mancuiB, a-up 00 cojbaoop a 
lia op a luibe." Dutton, in his Statist. Survey of the County of Clare, p. 325, note, 
states that " Some giddy young gentlemen amused themselves with mutilating some 
part of this ancient monument." Several acts of a similar nature have been recorded, 
during the last three centuries, in Ireland. 

Near this is the island of Muckiwsh, TTIiJicinip, containing the ruins of two old cas- 
tles, which formerly belonged to the O'Loughlins, chieftains of Burren. One of these 
castles, called Shan-Muckinish or Ballynacregga, has been lately repaired, and is now 


in good preservation. The other, Muckinish Noe, or New Muckinish, lies a httle to 
the east of Ballynacregga, and close to the shore of Pouidoody bay, so well known for 
its extensive oyster beds. This castle is now in ruins. In A. D. 1585. Uaitl, 
Owny O'Loughlin of the castle of Gregans, otherwise "the O'Loughlin," wa- d 
his name. From this castle the district of Burren was originally called the Barony 
of Gregans. See the Division of Connaught, A. D. 1586, in Brit. Museum. Cotton. 
Titus B. xiii. fo. 399. Charles O'Loughlin, Esq. of Newtown Castle, in the parish of 
Drumcreehy, is now "chief of his name;" or, as he is commonly called in the district. 
" King of Burren." See the Annals of the Four Masters, at A. D. 1584, for an ac- 
count of the capture of Torlogh O'Loughlin, on Muic-init, and of his having been put 
to death at Ennis, by Captain Brabazon; and the same Annuls, at A. D. 1582, for this 
captain's services against the Irish of Mayo, where " he destroyed the whole territory."' 
These " services" are not noticed in the " Genealogical History of the Family of Bra- 
bazon," printed at Paris, 4to. A. D. 1825. 

A little to the west of the abbey of Corcomroe, near the "New Qi. Fin- 

varra, in Irish Pioncug Beapa, a rising little town, which may be seen from the oppo- 
site or north side of the bay. Near it is a monument, erected to Donogh M 
a famous Irish poet. " In this district formerly lived the O'l talys, a celebrated bardic 
family, several of whom first came to the county of Galway in the tinu 
Roe O'Kelly, on his marriage with Banalt O'Brien. In A. I). 1514. Teige O'Daly. 
professor of poetry, who maintained a house of general hospitality, died at Finvarra, 

and was interred in the monastery of Corcomroe Four Masters. A short dwtoooe 

south of Finvarra point, on the shore of the bay, lie the scattered fragments of the old 
castle of 6aile in bheacam (now called Ballyvaughan), taken by Sir Henry Sidi. 
his route from Limerick to Galway, in A. D. 1569. — Four Masters. Wi-tward, 
between this and Black Head, Ceann boipne, are the ruin- of 5^ eunn C'bneac. 
Glaniny. Both these last-mentioned castles are noticed in the MS. in the British 
Museum, Titus B. xiii., already referred to. The coast to the westward from Glaniuv 
Castle to Black Head is steep, and is the only place of shelter for men-of-war within 
Galway Bay. — See Nimmo's Piloting Directions, p. 171, for a description of the north 
and south shores and inlets of this extensive bay. 

NOTE Q. Seepage 45, note*. "Joyce Country — The Shoyes." 

Joyce Country, in Irish Diithaidh Seoigheoch, i. e. the district or inheritance of the 
Shoyes or Joyces, is the name by which the mountainous barony of Boss, in Iar-Cvu- 
naught, is still frequently called. See the " Genealogies. Tribes, and Customs of 
Hy-Fiachrach," published by the Irish Archaeological Society. A. D. 1844. p. 324. 


2 4 7 

where the Seoaigh or Joyces ofWest Connaught, "Seoai£ lapraip Chonnacc," are 
enumerated among the Welsh tribes, who, according to that authority, came to Ireland 
in the time of Dermod Mac Murrogh, King of Leinster. But these tribes did not settle 
in the western parts of Ireland until the century after. The Shoyes or Joyces settled 
in the district of Partry, west of Lough Mask, under the O' Flaherties, about the 
middle of the thirteenth century; although the O'Flaherties themselves had no juris- 
diction there, or any where west of Lough Corrib, until after A. D. 1235 : " The Joyes 
depended upon the O'Flaherties, and were always contributory with (to) them, and did 
usually yield them risings out." — Inquis. A. D. 1607, quoted in Hist. Gal way, p. 100. 
A paper in the British Museum, " On the present State of Connaught," signed Corners 
Clifford, and others, about A. D. 1596, states: "The Joies are followers to the O'Fla- 
herties, and depend much upon Sleight Ulicke Bourke." On this passage there 
occurs the following marginal note, made, as I conjecture, by Sir Richard Bingham, 
Governor of Connaught: " Theis are still in action of rebellion.'' — Titus, B. xii. The 
name of this tribe has undergone various orthographical changes to reduce it to an An- 
glicised form. Thus we find it written, Yoes, Joes, Joas, Jose, Josse, Joy, Joyes, Joyce" — 
A. D. 1 501, William Shioy or Joy, was archbishop of Tuam, Ware; 1507, William 
Josse, bailiff of Gal way; 1542, Henry Jose, Mayor there; 1629, Andrew Joes, merchant 
there. — Annals. As a curious instance of the prejudice of the " old English" inhabitants 
of that town against the " mere Irish," it has been observed that none of the O'Fla- 
herties ever held, or would be suffered to hold, any office therein, because they were 
of the mere Irish ; but their followers, the Joyces, were admitted to every civic employ- 
ment, because they were of British extraction. 

In the Records of the Herald's Office, Dublin, vol. x., there appears a pedigree or 
genealogical account of the Joyces, professionally compiled by " Daniel Molyneux, 
King at Arms in the Kingdom of Ireland," for a Mr. Gregory Joyes, who died at 
Madrid, A. D. 1 745. Although this pedigree is stated to have been compiled " ex 
antiquis monumentis, approved of by said Daniel Molyneux, Father Francis Browne, 
of the order of St. Francis" [certainly a learned maxi, for whom see Ogyg. p. 30], " who 
was well versed in the genealogy of the families of Galway, and Peter Albert de 
Launay, first King at Arms in Belgium,'''' yet it is mostly fabulous, and bears inter- 
nal evidence of gross fabrication. Its exordium, and a few of the early generations, 
may suffice to shew what value should be attached to that document. 


a It may still be traced in " Villers Saint Josse," ciently called Armoric Gaul, 
and " Josse-Sur-Mer," in that part of France an- 


" Pernobilis et Pervetusta Joyseorum familia, in Geneologia Domini GregorU Joyet. 
" Majores Joyseorum orti sunt in Anglia, familia veteri et honorabili, atque a 
Regibus Wallia?. ut colligitur ex antiquis monumentis approbate" a Domino Daniele 
Molineux, Armorum Rege in regno Hibernia?, et a Reverendo Patre Frai 
Browne ordinis Sancti Francisci, bene versato in genealogia nobilium familiarum 
Galviensium, item Dominus Petrus Albertus de Launay, Eque> Auratus, nobilis 
ordinarius Domus Regia?, et Primus Armorum Rex Provineiali- Belgio, pro suo 
Majestate Catholica, sub titulo Brabantia?, fidem facit et attestater Bruxellis i 
Maii Anno 1666, familiam Joyeseorum esse antiquam et nobilem similiter. Dominus 
Jacobus Wareus, Eques Auratus et Regia? Majestati a concilia secretioribnfi in regno 
Hiberniae, in comentario de prsesulibus Hibernia?, a prima conyersione jr ( '"tis Hiber- 
nica? ad fidem Christianam ad nostra usque tempora, refert, quod in seculo 14° Emi- 
nentissimus Thomas Joise (recte Jorsey vel De Jorse) fuit Cardinalis S. Sabina?. et 
quod Walterus Joise ordinis prsedicatorum (frater dicti Thoma? et Cardinalis) fuit 
consecrates Archiepiscopus Armaehanus in Hibernia, a Nicholao Cardinale Ostien^L, 
ut ex Bulla Clementis V. data 8 Idus Augusti Pontificates -ui 2. inter Archiva 
Turris Londinensis asservata, liquet; et quod forte is idem rail Waltcru- Anglicus 
quem Raphael Vollaterranus Commentarioruni Urbanorum libr. 21. Edwardi 
Anglia? fuisse confessorem. et Genua? in Italia sepultum assent Arehiepiscopatum 
is resignavit, 16 Novembris, Anno 131 1. Hie sex habuit fxatres ulterius. qui omnes 
ejusdem fuerunt ordinis pra?dicatorum. Rolandus de Joise Dominicanus itidem et 
dicti Walteri frater germanus, consecrates est archiepiscopus Armaehanus. Is porro 
Archiepiscopatum se abdicavit, Martii 20 anno 1321.'' 

" 1. Dominus Thomas Joyes, ex stirpe Regis Britannia? sive Wallia?. aut Anglia?, 
appulit in Hibernia Tuamoni, duxit sibi in uxorem illustrissimam dominam Honoram 
O'Brien, ex semine illustrissimi domini O'Brien istius provincia? principis. Inde, 
classe sua trajiciens mare in occidentalem partem Connacia?. habuit ex ea super mari 
filium; quern, quia super mari natus fuit, Mac Mo rah. i<l est filium maris, nuncupa- 
vit. Hie loci istius principatem tenens, varias terrarnm partes i>tius provincia 
occupavit, quas ad ha?c usque tempora posteri ejus hereditarunt. Ab aliis etiam 
alterius filii Mac Thomas nomine multa pra?dia, multa loca publica nvultos montes 
nominavit; qua? etiam nunc ab incolis occidentalis Connacia> iisdem nominibus plus- 
quam sexcentis annis appellantur. 

" 2. Dominus Mac Marah Joyes, seu filius maris, aliquot post annos, defuncto 
patre, duxit in uxorem, alterius istius nomine occidentalis Connatia? principis, 0' Fla- 
herty, filiam. Herede ibi relieto, filiisque aliis et nliabus, reversus est in Tuamoniam, 



ubi, mortua prima uxore, secundam sibi accepit dominam Dorotheam, illustrissimi 
domini O'Neillan filiam, ex qua filios et filias genuit, ita ut in magnum numerum ejus 
crevisset. Dominus Mac Thomas Joyce, filius secundus post filium maris natus, sibi 
loca varia assumens, simul cum haareditate sibi a patre et fratre relicta, ex uxore sua 
altera principis O'Flaherty filia, habuit prolem, crevitque in gentem maximam claris- 
simorum virorum, qui praeclaris suis virtu tibus bellicis, ad haec usque bella, qui 
plurimos Hibernos funditus delevere, suas ditiones, suas hereditates et splendorem 

"3. Dominus Gulielmus Joyes, ex stirpe filii maris et primae uxoris, oriundus, 
in oris Galvia? sese conferans, uxorem duxit Agnetam, ex nobilissima Moriceorum 
familia. Versus Italiam, Neapolim et Romam, deinde in Graeciam navigans, captus 
est a Saracenis, et ductus in Africam. Ibi septem annos commoratus est. Deinde 
Barbarorum manus effugiens in Hispaniam impulsus fuit, ubi praeclarae ejus virtutes 
cselitus remunerabantur : nam monitus indicio aquilae supervolantis et demonstrantis 
locum thesaurum invenit incredibilem. Domum inde reversus, masnia urbis Gal- 
viensis, ecclesias et alia aedificia extrui curavit. Demum cum ei dicta uxor Jacobum, 
Henricum et Robertum peperit, plenus meritis vitam cum morte commutavit; et 
sepultus est in monumento quod sibi et suis posteris erigendum curavit, in celebri 
fratrum minorum conventu Galviae. 

" 4. Dominus Jacobus Joyes, praeclaras indolis vir, junctus in matrimonio fuit 
pernobili matronae, dominae Christianae French ; ex qua unum tantum filium, Johan- 
nem suscepit. Dominus Henricus Joyce, natu secundus, uxorem sibi assumpsit 
nobilissimam dominam Catherinam Browne eximii domini Thoma Browne, Athen- 
riensis aliquando Vicecomitis, filiam. Ex qua, cum liberos non suscepisset, patriam 
curam supra fratris sui hasreditatem adhibuit, alias sibi atque alias haereditates com- 
parando maximas; quas postquam Vicetenentis Regis, et praetoris sive gubernatoris 
comitates Galviensis officio perfunctus est, instante morte, primo nepotum suorum, 
simul cum sua haereditate quoad partem reliquit, reliquam hasreditatis partem alios 
inter nepotes divisam, et ad ecclesias reficiendas omandasque testatus est, sepultusque 
est cum suis." 

To the foregoing corruptions of history, and much more ejusdemfarince, here omitted, 
the following high official testimonies are annexed. " Omnibus et singulis ad quos 
presentes pervenerint, Ego Chichester Fortescue Eques Auratus, Ulster Rex Armorum, 
et principalis Heraldus totius Hiberniae, salutem : Sciatis quod Ego praedictus Rex 
Armorum potestate et authoritate a RegiaMaj estate, sub magnosigillo Hibernias, mihi 
concessa, certiores vos facio, quod, &c. In cujus rei testimonium, nomen titulumque 
meum hisce adscripsi, et sigillum meum officiale apposui. Dublinii die decima 
irish arch. soc. no. 1 5. 2 K septima 


septima mensis Decembris, anno Domini milesimo, septingentesimo nonn. 

the Lord Lieutenant and General Governor of His Majesty's Kingdom of Ireland. 

Westmoreland. At the humble request of Sir Chichester Forteecue Knt. i 

Given under our hand and seal of Arms at His Majesty's Castle of Dublin, the i" day 

of January, I7Q1. 

"[Signed] R. Hobart." 

It may be necessary here to observe, that the family in question did not stand in 
need of this fabricated account of its origin and descent. . ill be found 

faithfully detailed in Mac Firbis's great collection of Irish ' _ I ved in 

the library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. See also the "Genealogies, Trii 
and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach," p. 325. To this day the Joyces retain some of the 
great characteristics of the ancient Irish. " Populus magnus sicut I j<rocer* 

homines statural, et fortissimi." — Usser. in Primord. p. 726. - Min- 

strelsy, vol. 1., p. 332; Lond. 1831. 

NOTE R. See page 46, note*. u Edmond Burk. n 
On 29 th Oct. A. D. 1327, this Edmond " Burk"' or De Burgo (after the death of 
his father the Red Earl) andWalter, the son of William De Burgo (which Walter is not 
mentioned by Lodge) were appointed to the offices of ju the peace in the 

counties of Connaught, Tipperary and Lymerick, with power to protect the land- 
Richard late Earl of Ulster in those counties — Rot. Pat. 20 Edw. II.. for which 
Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Ireland, p. 33, N° 13. And on 5 Sept A. D. 1333, the 
same Edmond, three months after the murder of his nephew William third Earl of 
Ulster, at Carrickfergus, obtained a grant of all the land* and the said 

earl William, in Connaught, during the minority of his heir (Eliz. afterwards wife of 
Lionel Duke of Clarence) rendering therefore, to the Exchequer, £200 yearly. And 
a writ of liberari facias thereupon issued, directing Re. S schml of C 

naught, to deliver unto him the possession of the same. — Rot. Pat. 8 Edw. IIL See 
the same Calendar of Patent Rolls, p. 40. N°. 119. This writ was the cause of his 
death, and also that of the Seneschal, de Flete, a> related by our author. 

In Hibernia Dominicana, p. 224, the following _ he'archh- 

Athenry. " Obitus Domini Edmundi de Burgo, Mae an larla, qui in Saccuni immi- 
fuit in Claustro Fratrum de Roba, & submersus in Lacu Mask per Mac-Padin. k alios 
de Roba, Anno Domini 1337." Brief as this entry is, it varies in three points 
from the account given \>y our author. It is moreover stated, note (') that the victim 
was called " Edmundus na Fiesoga, i. e. Barbatus." Archdall has here added error 

to error Monast. p. 495. See the annals of Cloninacnoise, and I Four 

Masters, for their accounts of the transaction. A. D. 1 ; ; s 

2 5 l 

Of the " Fryer's House of Balinrobe," mentioned by our author, p. 47, Ware is silent; 
wherefore Archdall, in Monast. p. 495, says of it, " when or by whom founded is not 
recorded." But, in a description of the County of Mayo by Eobert Downing, A. D. 
1684, preserved in MS. in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, it appears, that in 
" the now Shire Town called Ballinrobe, taking its name from the River or Rivillett, 
(the Robe, in Irish, Rodhba) is the ruins of an auncient Augustinian Mindicant Friery 
or Priory, built by Tutallus [Cuarnl] O'Maly, lord of the Owles, in the Reigne of 
Brianus Boruvius King of Ireland, about the beginning of the Eleventh Century. 
There was likewise a small abbey or cell of the Joanitar, called Taghown or St. John's 
Hotise, now altogether gone to ruine; and a small cell called Kilcrava, it was a small 
House of Nunns." Their possessions appear to have been few. On 2nd July, 1608, 
Thomas Nolan of Ballinrobe, gent, obtained a grant by patent, of the four quarters of 
land in Ballinrobe, for ever. — Rot. Pat. 15 . Jac. I. p. 1. 

This Thomas Nolan, before the date of the above grant, resided at "the Crevaghe," 
now called Creagh, in the barony of Kilmain and Co. Mayo. In the Indenture of Com- 
position for that county, A. D. 1585, which see, Appendix I., it was provided that 
he should have the castle of the Crevaghe, and 3 quarters of land thereto adjoining, 
free from the Composition rent, " in respecte of his sufficiencie to act as a Gierke in 
the said Countrey." This provision may be taken as a proof of the low state even 
of elementary education in the West of Ireland, at that period. To this may be 
added, as a matter merely coincident, that the next grantee of those very lands in 
the succeeding century, under the Act of Settlement, was Mr. James Cuff, ancestor 
of the late Baron Tyrawley, and of the present proprietor of the Crevaghe, whose 
first appearance here was in the capacity of clerk or secretary to Cromwell's Commis- 
sioners of Transplantation to Connaught, as appears by the following order : " By 
the lo. Deputy and Councill. It is ordered that Mr. James Cuff be and is hereby 
appointed secretary to Sir Charles Coote, and the rest of the Commissioners appointed 
and nominated in a commission bearing date this day, for the setting out of lands to 
the transplanted Irish and inhabitants of Connaught and Clare. Dated at Athlone, 
thei6th June, 1655. T. H. C. C." — Orig. Council Book, Dublin Castle. On 12th April 
following, Mr. Cuff was himself appointed a Commissioner of assessment for Mayo, (Id.) 
where he afterwards acquired considerable grants of forfeited lands, and among others, 
of the town and manor of Ballinrobe, forfeited by the descendants of Thomas Nolan. 

The above Thomas Nolan was one of the first " English Tavern" Keepers in Con- 
naught. When the old Irish Biataghs (see Stat. Kilkenny, p. 4,) and " houses of 
hospitality" ceased, they were succeeded by " English inns" or taverns. On 21st De- 
cember, A. D. 1 61 6, a license was granted to " John Coman of Athlone, merchant, and 

2 K 2 Thomas 


Thomas Nolan of Ballinrobe, esq. to keep taverns, and sell wines awl spirituous liqu< . 
The former in Loughrea and all Galway co. except the town and pariah oi' Atheni 
the town of Galway, and the barony of Kilconnell; also, in the town of Burrysowle, 
and in the baronies of Moriske, Burrysowle, Irrus, Costellagh, and Gallon in Mayo co., 
in Athlone, in Roscommon and Westmeath co'., in Ballymote and all Sligo co. except 
the town of Sligo, in Ballintobber and all Roscommon co. except the baronies of Ath- 
lone and Boyle, and the towns of Ardcarne and Elffin. — To the latter in the town 
Callow, and in the whole barony of KUconnelL and in the town and barony of Kilmahje 
in Mayo co. during their own lives, and those of Barnaby Coman brother of John, 
John Nolan son of Thomas, of Peter Nolan, son of Richard Nolan late of A' 
merchant, deceased, and of Jane or Jennet Coman daughter of the ^aid John." — Rot. 
Pat. 14 Jac. I. p. 2. d. N°. 58. This was one of the extensive Monopoli - _ at 

that period, for more of which see ante, p. 240. 

NOTE S. Seepage 52, note '. " Moycullin barony — Gnomore, Gnobeg." 

In the document before referred to, p. 44, note e , preservedin the British Museum, 
and entitled the "Division of Connaught, A. D. 1586," Titus- B. xiii. fo. 399. this barony 
is described as follows: " The barony of Muckullen, containing Cosarg [Coip-paipjt], 
Gnovore, Gnobeg, Loghcurb and Keildromedirge, 20 mylee Long, 20 broad; and 
this rate, plowlands 5. Murrogh ne doe chief in the saiw. — Parishi - 6, viz. Vicar; _ 
of Rahune, Killaen, Galway, Muckullin, Kylcumayne, Killinkelogh. — Gentlemen and 
castles (20) viz. Rory O'Flahairte of Muykullen ; Murrogh ne doe of Nowghe and of 
Achneuir (Aghnenure) Thomas Colman, Mynlagh(2fenfo) ; Jonick O'l; 
Owen O'Halorane, Bearne; (Barna) Domynick Lynche, Tyrellan; Rollond Skeret, 
Short Castle; (Castlegar) Donell oge O'Hologhan, Qwarown Brown {Carrotcbrotrt,): 
W m . .& Redmond M c W". Ffiegh, Kellyn; Redmond M c Thomas. Ballvmuritty : Red- 
mond ^eogh, Ballindully; Richard Beg. Cloynecanyn; Darby Angny, Lyaacowry; 
John Blake fitz-Ricard, Kiltullagh; John Blake fitz-Ricard. Kiltorog; Thomas Bk 
Ballemicro; Thomas and John Blake. Turlagh ne sheamon ; Mnrierl . .or. Tul- 

lekyhan; Martyn Lynch, New Castle."— Much of tin phical information con- 

tained in the foregoing document, could not be procured elsewhere, at the present day. 
All the castles, with the exception of that of Menlo, the residence of Sir Valentine 
Blake, baronet, are now in ruins. 

The barony of Moycullen was created A. D. 1585: and it was so called from the 
castle, which was itself named from Magh, a plain or field, and Uttinn, mentioned 
ante, p. 52, note (z). It was formed of the two ancient territories of Gnomore and 


2 53 

Gnobeg, for the origin of which, see Ogyg. p. 387, " Gnomore et Gnobeg duo filii 
Lugadie," &c, and Mac Firbis's Book of Irish Pedigrees, "bona t>eatbnuib," 7c. 
O'Dugan, in his topographical poem before referred to, p. 143, states, that in the 
twelfth century, Mac Conraoi was chief of Gnomore, and O'Heyny chief of Gnobeg. 
" ITIej Conpaoi pei6 00 jjjabap Mac Conry, meek, you shall find 

Qp ^no mop na mioncallao, Over Gnomore of smooth callows, 

O'h aonaib cm ^r\6 m-beaj m-buan, O'Heyny over Gnobeg, lasting, 
Neao nac oaibbip lp nac Diombuan. A nest not poor, not transient." 
See, likewise, Cambrensis Evers, p. 27. After that period, the O'Flaherties seized 
upon this territory, after having been driven from their own ancient inheritance, on 
the east side of Lough Corrib, by the De Burgos. The latter afterwards pursued 
them across the lake; and, in A. D. 1256, Mac William Burke plundered Gnomore 
and Gnobeg, and possessed himself of all Lough Orbsen (Corrib). — Four Masters. In 
A. D. 1584, Morogh na doe (na d-tuagh, i. e. of the battle-axes) O'Flaherty, who had 
been previously appointed by Queen Elizabeth chief of all the O'Flaherties, was heredi- 
tary chieftain of Gnomore, and resided in the castle of Aghnanure. Bory (Roderic or 
Roger) O'Flaherty, our author's grandfather, was hereditary chieftain of Gnobeg, and 
resided in the castle of Moycullen. Between these kindred chiefs there long subsisted 
violent territorial disputes, of which a curious detail will be found in Appendix II. 

NOTE T. Seepage 60, note \ " O'Halloranr 

The MS. fragment in Trin. Coll. Lib., H. 2, 1 7, here referred to for this ancient 
family, states that " O Halloran is the chief of the twenty-four townlands of Clan 
Fergail ; and of these are the O'Antuiles and O'Fergus of Koscam." " O h-GU- 
mupcm caipeac cecpi m-baile picec cloinoi pepjaili, ajup oipein hi Ctncuili ujup 
hi Pepjupa Ropa-caim." See also the Book of Ballymote for same, fo. 54. This 
document refers to the twelfth century. These twenty-four townlands of Clan Fer- 
gail lay east of the river Gallimh, or Galway. The name Clan Fergail is now obso- 
lete; but Roscam, on which are the remains of a round tower, is still well known. 
It lies about two miles S. E. of Galway. Mac Firbis, in his Book of Irish Genea- 
logies, gives the pedigree of the O'Halloran family for twenty-five generations, as 

follows : 

" Gocaib lTluijmeo&oin (a. e. Eochy Moyvane, A. D. 358, father 

358) arcnp of 

6piain, acaip Brian, father of 

Gonjupct, Aengus, 


2 54 







Conchabaip, chara-luipeach, 


Caioj calcaip, 




^yolln-poepain net poola, 











Allmuran, a quo O'Halloran, 





Connor of Cath-lury, 


Teige, the -t." _ 




Gilla-Stephen of the pin 








J oh nock. 

Davock" {David Ope). 

In the thirteenth century, the O'Hallorans were dispossessed of their ancient inhe- 
ritance of Clan Fergail, by the De Burgos ; and were obliged to emigrate, with the 
( ^Flaherties, to Iar-Connaught, where they built the castle of O'Hery in Gnomore ; 
and also, according to tradition, the castle of Rinvile in Northern Connemara. 
our author's Ogyg. p. 376, for this old family: and the "History of Ireland. 
Doctor Sylvester O'Halloran of Limerick, who states, vol. iL. p. 389. that he was him- 
self "descended from the House of Clann Fergail." But there was another family of this 
name in Thomond, for which see Catlireim Tltoirrfhealbhaialt. or the Chronicles of the 
Wars of Thomond, at A. D. 1 309, which family was l> descended from the stock of the 
O'Briens, and the other Dalcassiaus." — O'Brien, Diet. p. 514. The learned historian 
claims for " the House of Clan Fergail" the celebrated St. Finbar of Cork, and 
Aileron, surnamed an c-eajnam, or the wise, for whom ao Dasher in Primord. 
pp. 818, 966 ; O'Conor's, Annal. Ulton. pp. 56, 57, and Petrie's Tara, p. 99. He also 
claims for this family the " invincible" William Ockhani, mentioned by Harris, in 


2 55 

Ware, vol. ii., Writers, p. 82 ; but Wadding renders this claim more than doubtful. 
See Harris, in loc. ult. citat. An account of the historian O'Halloran will be found 
in Fitzgerald's History of Limerick, Appendix, p. lx. 

In A. D. 1585, the " O'Halloran" was one of the contracting parties in the Inden- 
ture of Composition for Iar-Connaught with Queen Elizabeth, which will be found in 
Appendix I. It appears from the "Description of Connaught," preserved in the 
British Museum, and quoted in the last additional note, S, p. 252, that Jonick O'Hal- 
loran was proprietor of the castle of O'Hery, in Moycullen barony. On 27th March, 
A. D. 1 61 9, " the east quarter of Barney was granted by patent to Teige and Moyler 
O'Halloran." — Rot. Pat. Jac. I. And on 28th Nov., 1638, Stephen Lynch obtained a 
decree in Chancery against Edmond O'Hallorane, of Barney, for £410. 19s. Sd., and the 
lands of O'Hery to be charged therewith." — Orig. enrolled. This decree is supposed to 
have led to the transfer of the Barna estate to the Lynches, by whom it is possessed to 
this day. The following documents relating to the O'Hallorans, who since that time 
have shared the vicissitudes of most of the ancient Irish families, are considered suffi- 
ciently curious for preservation. They are taken from the originals, in the possession 
of the Editor : 

" Carta Dermicii O'' Halloran. 
" A.D. 1594. 

" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Dermicius, alias Dermoid duff M c Shane 
O'Halloran de Bearna in comitatu Galway generosus, pro quadam summa pecunie mihi 
per Edmundum Halloran de Galwey mercatorem pre manibus solute, dedi, concessi, 
vendidi et barganizavi, et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi eidem Edmundo omnia et 
singula maneria, dominia, castra, messuagia, terras et cetera hereditamenta quecunque, 

cum omnibus et singulis eorum pertinenciis in villis, campis, locis de Rine- 

moyly, Ayrdnegrivagh et Tulaghvor, que mihi jure hereditario pertinent, in baronia 
de Balynahensy infra comitatum predictum. Habendum et tenendum omnia et sin- 
gula premissa superius expressa, cum omnibus et singulis eorum pertinenciis prefato 
Edmundo Halloran heredibus et assignatis suis, imperpetuum ; de capitalibus dominis 
feodi illius, per servitia inde debita et de jure consueta. Et ego vero predictus Dermi- 
cius alias Dermoid O'Halloran et heredes mei omnia et singula premissa prefato Ed- 
mundo Halloran heredibus et assignatis suis, contra omnes gentes, warrantizabimus, 
acquietabimus et imperpetuum, per presentes, defendemus. Et ulterius sciant me 

prefatum Dermicium alias Dermoyd O'Halloran fecisse, ordinasse in loco meo 

posuisse dilectum mihi in Christo Nehemiam Ffolain generosum, meum attornatum 
ad intrandum, et possessionem et seisinam capiendum pro me, vice et nomine meo, de 
et in omnibus et singulis premissis, cum omnibus et singulis eorum pertinenciis. Et 



post hujusmodi possessionem et seisinam sic inde captas et habitas, deinde pro me, vice 
et nomine meo, plenam et pacificam possessionem et seisinam inde et de qualibet inde 
parcella prefato Edmundo deliberandum et tradendum. Habendum et tenendutn sibi, 
heredibus et assignatis suis, secundum tenorem, vim, formam et effectum huju- pre- 
sents carte mee inde ei confecte. Ratum et gratum habens et habiturus totum et quic- 
quid predictus attornatus meus fecerit in premissis per presentes. In cujus rei testi- 
monium presentibus sigillum meum apposuL Datum vicesimo septimo die JuniL 
Anno regni domine Elizabethe, Dei gratia Anglie, Francie et Hibernie Regine, fidei 
defensoris, etc. tricesimo sexto. 

" Present Nicholas Lincu. fyz Marks. 
Hew, is sign. 
TTlc t)abnc. 

Dorby alias Diermovd Hallor^n. •+"" 

" I Eremond Hallorine sonne and heyre of the within named Ed. Halloraine do 
release unto Edmond Flahertye of Rinvite esq. all my right to the castle and land- 
Rinvile, by virtue of this deede or any other deede whatsoever. In witnesse when 
have heereunto subscribed my name the last of October Anno Dni 1638. 

" Erkmond Halloraine. 
" Present Hugh Flahertye. Nicholas Browne." 

" Carta Joh. O'Halloran, 
" A. D. 1594. 
" Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Johannes O'Halloran de Galwev. piac&tor, 
dedi, concessi et hac presenti carta mea confirmavi Ambrose Martin de Galwev pre- 
dicta mercatori, omnia et singula manerium, castrom, messuagium, terras, te neme n t *, 
prata, pascua, pasturas, boscos, suboscos, moram, montium, aqua^. gurgitaa piscaram 
et alia hereditamenta quorumcunque, cum omnibus et singuUB eorom pertineneiis que 
habeo, habui, seu quovismodo in futuro habere potero, vel aliquifl alius habet vel ha- 
bere debet, vel aliqui alii habent vel habere debent, ad meum usum in villi-. 
hamletis de Renvt/le, vel in aliquo alio loco in ErconnaghU in comitatu Galwey pre- 
dicta; habendum et tenendum omnia et singula premissa superius expressa, oono 
recitata et specificata cum omnibus et singulis eoruni pertineneiis. prelate Am- 
brose Martin heredibus et assignatis suis, ad usum predicti Ambrose, heredum 
et assignatorum suorum imperpetuum, de capitalibus dominis feodi illius per 
vicia inde debita et de jure consueta. Et ego vero predictus Johannes G"Halloran 
et heredes mei omnia et singula premissa superius expn - - - recitata, 

et specificata cum omnibus et singulis eorum pertinenciis. prefato Ambrose Mar- 
tin heredibus et assignatis suis contra omnes gentes warrantizabimus, acquiet- 


2 57 

abimus et imperpetuum defendemus per presentes. Et ulterius sciant me prefatum 
Johannem O'Halloran fecisse, constituisse, ordinasse, deputasse, et in loco meo possu- 
isse dilectum mihi in Christo Edmond boy M'Bryne de Irislona, et Dermod M'Hyue 
de Shanvalliard in Erconnaght predicta, yeomen, meum verum et legitimum atturna- 
tum, ad intrandum et possessionem et seisinam capiendum pro me, vice et nomine meo, 
et post hujusmodi possessionem et seisinam sic inde captas et habitas, deinde pro 
me, vice et nomine meo, plenam et pacificam possessionem, et seisinam omnium et sin- 
gulorum premissorum superius expressorum, cum omnibus et singulis eorum perti- 
nenciis, prefato Ambrose Martin heredibus et assignatis suis deliberandum, secundum 
tenorem, vim, formam et effectum hujus presentis carte mee, inde ei confecte per pre- 
sentes. In cujus rei testimonium, presentibus sigillum meum apposui. Datum apud 
Gallwey vm.° die Septembris, Anno Domini, 1954. 

" John O'Halluran, bis mark" {viz., a curiously shaped fishing-hook). — Orig. 

" Morrertagh O" 1 Hallurane and Teig is Dede, the 
" 17 of Oct. 1606. 
" Be yt knowen into all men by theis presents, that wee Morrirtegh fytz Davocke 
O'Hallorane, and Teige fytz Davocke O'Hallorane of Rynvilly in the county of Gal- 
way yeomen, have gywen and graunted into our welbeloued land- lord, Morrogh ne 
Moyer O'Flaherty of Bonnowen in the county of Gallewey aforesaid gentle, all that 
quarter of land sett, lying and being in Rynvilly within the Barony of Ballenehensy in 
the county of Galewey aferesaid, frome us our heires, executores and assignes, into 
the said Morroghe ne Moyer O'Flaherty his heires, executors and assignes, sole and 
proper use for ever, uppon condicion and forme folowinge, viz. to sey, that yfe in 
cause that the said Morrirteghe O'Hallorane, Teige O'Hallorane or ther heires sheold 
happen to dwell in and uppon any part or parcell of that land, that then he or they 
shall yeald and pay into the said Morroghe ne Moyer O'Flaherty his heires, exe- 
cutores and assignes, the just some of six shillings and eight pence sterr: corant law- 
full money in England, for and out of every cartron of that quarter of land, that he 
or they shall occupie or meynure yearly, otherwyse yf it shald happen that the said 
Morroghe ne Moyer O'Flaherty his heires or assignes shall occupie or meynure anny 
cartrone of that quarter of land, that then he his heires or assignes shall yeld and pay 
into the said Morirtegh O'Hallorane and Teige O'Hallorane or their heires, the just some 
of wane {one) shilling and eight pence ster. yearly : provided allweys that the said rent 
of six shillings eight pence ster. is to be paid yearly out of every cartrone in Eynvilly 
to Morroghe ne Moyer O'Flaherty, in respect of and consideracion of his lordshipe in 
that soylle. In withnes whereofe we have sett hirinto our signes and sealles. this 1 7 
IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2 L of 

2 5 8 

of October 1606 — Teig O'Hallorane is sign & seall — Morteigh O'llallorane is sign 
and seall. — Present at thensealling and delivery hereofe, wee whose Mtm.- inswethe. 
— Nichas Martin, Richard Lynce fytz-Nicli. Davy O'Dowan, testis." — Orig. 

" of the Clagann, A. D. 161 2. 
" Be it knowen to all men by theis presents, that wee Margarett nyne Dermott 
nior (yHalluran late of the Clegan in the countie of Galwey, and Onora nyne 
Jonecke O'Halluran of the same, for a certaine soome of mono}- to us in hand well and 
truely contented, satisfied and paid, have remised, released, and for us and our fa 
for ever, quitt claimed by these presents, unto Morugh ne Moyre O'Flaherty of Bo- 
noven in the countie of Galwey aforesaid, gent, in his full and peaceabL d and 

seisin being, his heires and assignes for ever, all that our rijrliT. title, claime, demand 
and interest, which ever we have had, or which for ever hereafter we shall have, our 
heires, executors and assignes, of all and singuler the cartron of land with tliappurte- 
nances called Knockbane, the cartron of land of Lacknehae, the cartron of Knock m c Gil- 
lechrist, the haulf quarter of land in the Kealmor, the cartron of land of Knockyle. the 
cartron of Kleganbig and Fallereagh, and the cartron of the Kyllyne called Sranelana, 
with their hereditaments and appurtenances, situated in the (J lagan in the barony of 
Ballenehense within the countie of Galwey, soe as neither we the said r and 

Onora nor our heires, nor any other person or persons whatsoever by us. for u», or in 
our or any of our names, any right, title, claime, demande, or interest of and in the 
lands, tenements hereditaments with thappurtenances aforesaid, or in any parte or par- 
cell thereof; and that we may not dispose, claime, or sell the Bsme for ewer hereafter, 
but of all actions, rightes, titles, claime, demaund, and interest, shalbe excluded for 
ever by these presents. And we the said Margarett and Onora and our heires, all and 
singuler the lands, tenements and hereditaments with the appurtenances aforesaid, 
unto the said Morogh O'Flahertie his heires and assignes for ever, against us and our 
heires, and against all other person or persons whatsoever lawfully haveing, claimeing 
or which for ever hereafter shall lawfully claime, into the lands, tenements, and here- 
ditaments with thappurtenances aforesaid, or into any parte or parcell thereof, anie 
right, title, state or interest, of, by or under u» the arid Margarett and Onora, our 
heires or assigns, shall save, warraunt, acquitt and defend for ever, by these 
In witnes whereof we have hereunto set ouer signes and seales, dated the fifteenth day 
of September A°. D". 1612. — Margrett nyn X Dermot mor (THalloran. Onuer inn 
X Jonicke O'Halloran. — Beinge presente at the signing, sealing and delivery of this 
deede we whose names are subscribed. — Forinan m c Dermote Follan is marke. p. p. — 
Morrogh X Marrey O'Dovane, is marke. — Davy X O'Dovane is marke. — Kn , . 
X og m c Knohor m c Owen." — Orig. 

" Donoqhe 

2 59 

" Donoghe m'. Moyller et al. is dede A. D. 1614. 

" Be yt knowen to all men by theise presents, that wee Donogh m c Moyller O'Hal- 
loran, Moyller Granae O'Halloran and Teige mac Donoghoe O'Halloran of Bearney, 
in the county of the towne of Galway, gent, for and in consideration of the some of 
sixteine poundes ster. currant money in England, to us before the perfectinge hereof 
payed and contented, of and by the hands of Morough O'Flahertie, alias Morough ne 
muyer O'Flahertie of Bonowen in the countie of Galway, gent, have graunted, bar- 
gainned, sould and confirmed, lyckas by theis presentes wee doe give, graunte, bargann, 
sell and confirm, unto the said Morough ne muyer O'Flahertie all that the castell, com- 
monly caled the castell ofEinviel-okuoy, and three cartrones of land thereunto ajoyn- 
ninge, viz. the cartron of Inveran, whereuppon the said castell is situated, the cartron 
of Ardenegrevagh, and the cartron of Korrwoher, all situated lyenge and beinge in 
Ier-connagkt, within the barrony of Ballinehinsey in the said county of Galway : To 
have and to hould unto the said Moroghoe O'Fflahertie his heires and assignes for ever; 
to hould of the chief lords of the ffee, by the services thereof due and by lawe accustomed. 
And we have appointed our welbeloved in Christ Ffargananym m c Searvreh of Moerysh 
gentleman, our true and lawfull attorney to deliver livery, seisin and possession of the 
said castell and landes with thappurtenances unto the said Moroghoe O'Fflahertie, 
accordinge the purporte, effect and true meaning of this our present deed ; hereby 
ratefienge and confirminge all and whatsoever our said attorney shall doe or happen to 
be don in the premisses, firmely by theis presentes. In wittnes whereof we have 
hereto putt our handes and seales, the last day of the month of Aprill An". Dom. 16 14. 

" Present when the said Ffarganannim mac Searvreh the attorney, delivered livery, 
seisin and possession of the castell, towne and landes within specified, unto the said 
Moroghoe O'Fflahertie, wee whose names ensue, Edmond O'Halloran m c Donell O'Hal- 
loran, testis— Ffernando Folain — William O'Duan — Rory Oge Duan, testis Orig. 

'■'■Erevan CPHalloraine his deede of Mullaghglasse. 
" A. D. 1645. 
" Be it knowne unto all men by these presents that I Erevan O'Halloraine of Mul- 
laghglasse in the countie of Galway, gent, for the sum of seaven pounds fouer shillings 
ster. currant lawful money of and in England, to me before hand well and truely con- 
tented, satisffied and paied, have given, granted, confirmed, bargained and sold, like as 
by these presents I doe give, graunt, confirme, bargaine and sell, unto Edmond Ffla- 
herty of Roynvoyly in the said county of Galway Esq r . his heires and assignes for ever, 
all that the cartron of Mullaghglasse, with the appurtennances, being in the barony of 
Ballynehensy within the county of Galway, and all woods, water-ways, easures, pro- 

2 L 2 fitts. 


fitts, comodities, houses, lands, tenements, hereditaments and appurtenances thereunto 
belonging or in anie wise appertaining: To have and to hould all and singuler the 
foresaid hereditaments before given, graunted, bargained and sold, unto the said Ed- 
mond Fflaherty his heires and assignes for ever, to his the said Edmond Fflaherty. las 
heires and assignes sole and proper use and behoofe for ever, from the cheefe lords of 
that fee, for such services as are thereout due and accustomed. And I the said Erevan 
O'Halloraine my heires and assignes, all and singuler the aforesaid hereditan. 
before given, graunted, bargained and sould, unto the said Edmond Fflaherty his heires 
and assignes, against all manner of persones, shall save, warrant, acquitt and defend for 
ever, by theis presents. And further be it knowne that 1 the said Erevan O'Hallo- 
raine, with my proper hands, have delivered full and peasable possession and seisin of 
all and singuler the aforesaid hereditaments, unto the said Edmond Fflaherty, accord- 
ing to the true meaning, intent and effect of this my present deed; provided alwaies and 
uppon condition that, whensoever hereafter I the said Everan O'llallorain, my heires 
or assignes, doe well and truely content, satisfie and paie unto the said Edmond O'Ffla- 
herty, his heires or assignes, the full and just sum of seaven pounds fouer shilling - 
currant lawfull money of and in England, of a good, fine and weaghtie coined silver, as 
at this day is currant in that reahne, having five shillings to every ounce troy-weaght, 
and fouer Irish ounces to every pound therof, in one entheix paynu-nt, that then and 
from thenceforth, itshalbe lawfull forme the said Erevan O'Hallorain my heires and 
assignes, into all and singuler the said hereditaments to reinter, and the same to have 
againe and repossesse as in my former estate, anie thing herein contained to the c 
trary notwithstanding. In wittnes whereof. I tin- said Erevan O'Hallorain hav 
hereunto my hand and seale, the 19th of November 1645. 

" Erevan O'Halloraine (seal). 
" Being present C. Dowan testis, &c" — Orig. 

"Indenture, c/ h Jan. 1681, between Nicholas Lynch fitz-Marcus of Barney in the 
county of the town of Galway, gent, and Ffinyne Hallorane of Galway, gent, recit 
John Whaley of Newford co. of Galway. esq. (Grantee ohder the Art of Settlement) 
in consideration of £644 1 3s. 9^., to him paid by the said Nicholas Lynch, by deeds 
dated 15 th and 16 th October 1681, released unto the said Nicholas Lynch, among 
others the lands following : and that the said Pfinyne Hollerane paid unto tl. 
Nicholas £83 4s. 2d. sterling, part of the said larger sum. and in trust received f 
said Ffinyne towards the same : the deed therefore witnessed, that the said Nicholas 
Lynch, in consideration thereof, granted and released unto the said Ffinyne, one-third 
part of the lands of Pollneromy, Gortetlevey, Parke ne Toriny, part and parcell of 
the quarter of land of Cnocknecaragh, and a rateable proportion of the said John 



Whaley's interest in the moiety of Mincloone, (Domnick Browne of Carrabrowne & 
Richard Martine's interest therein always foreprized and excepted) and also a propor- 
tion of the quarter of land of Rahune, lying on the left hand of the King's high-way 
leading to Barney ; and then in the occupation of Lisagh Hallorane, all situate in the 
west liberties of Galway. To hold the same to the said Ffynine his heirs and assigns, 
for ever. Witness Thady M c Namara — Dominick Halloran — George Halloran — An- 
drew Ffrenche. 

"On 15 th Feb. 1709, the same Feenine Halloran demised to William Brock of 
Glanineagh, C°. Clare, one-third part of Poulnaruma and TiefgarrafF ; which the said 
Feenine held in common with his nephew Myles Halloran, together with the said 
Feenine's proportion of Mincloone, for 31 years at the yearly rent of £6 10s. ster- 
ling— Reg d . 13 th May 17 18." 

Since that time, the O'Halloran family has lost even those remnants of its ancient 
inheritance. Individuals of the name still abound in Iar-Connaught and the western 
islands ; but, with very few exceptions, they are all reduced to a state of poverty. 

NOTE U. See page 69, Note q. " The Craft of evill spirits." 
" William Sacheverell, Esq. late Governour of Man," who was contemporary with 
our author,in his account of that island (London, 8vo., 1 702), and of " some remarkable 
things there, in a letter to Mr. Joseph Addison of Magdalen College, Oxon" (the well- 
known writer in the Spectator), speaking of the " light generally seen at People's 
Deaths," says, p. 15, "I have some Assurances so probable, that I know not how to disbe- 
lieve them.'''' The Governor then givesan instance, of the truth of which he was " assured 
by a Man of great Integrity," and thus continues : "Whether those fancies proceed 
from Ignorance, Superstition, or Prejudice of Education, or from any traditional or 
heritable Magic, which is the opinion of the Scotch Divines concerning their second 
sight, or whether Nature has adapted the organs of some Persons for discerning of 
Spirits, is not for me to determine, since I design the whole for an Introduction to a 
Story which happened in the year 1690, upon the late King's going into Ireland, of a 
little Boy then scarce 8 years old, who frequently told the Family in which he lived, 
of two fine Gentlemen who daily Convers'd with him, and gave him Victuals, and 
something out of a Bottle, of a greenish Colour, and sweet taste, to drink. This 
making a Noise, the present Deemster, a Judge of the Island, a Man of good Sense 
and probity, went into the Mountains to see if he could make any Discovery what 
they were ; he found the Boy, who told him they were sitting under a Hedge about 
a Hundred Yards from him. The Deemster bid the Boy ask them, why he could not 
see them, accordingly the Boy went to the Place, put off his Cap, and made his Reve- 


rence, and returning said, It was the Will of God they should not be Been, but the 
Gentlemen were sorry for his Incredulity. The Deemster pull'd a Crown-piece out 
of his Pocket, and ask'd the Boy what it was ; the Boy answer'd he could not tell, he 
bade him ask the Gentlemen; the Boy went as before, and returning told him, they 
said it was silver, but that they shew'd him a great deal of such silver, and much 
yellow Silver besides. Another day a Neighbouring Minister went into the Moun- 
tains, the Boy told him they were in a Barn hard by, exercising the Pike : he went 
to the door of the Barn, and saw a Pitch- fork moving with all the proper Postures of 
Exercise, upon which rushing into the Barn the Fork wa- struck to the roof, and no 
Person to be seen. Another day the Boy came and told Captain Stevenson that one 
of 'em came with his hand Bloody, and said he had been in a Battle in Ireland ; the 
Captain mark'd the day, and tho' they had no News in mar a Month after, it agreed 
exactly with the time Colonel Woohley had given the Irish a considerable Defeat I 
could give you an hundred other Instances during their stay, which was al>ove t 
Month, but at last the King came with his Fleet into Ramsey Bay. which one of them 
telling the other before the Boy, he answer'd, it was well the King wa< there in Per- 
son, for had he sent never so many Generals, hi- Affaire would not Prosper; and 
speaking to the Boy, told him they must now go with the Kin- into Ireland ; that 
he might tell the People of the bland, there wou'd be a Battle fought betwixt Mid- 
summer and St. Columbus Day, upon which the future Fortune of Ireland would 
depend, which exactly agreed with the Action of thi That the War would 

last 10 or n Years, according to one Information, or 12 or 13 according to another, 
(which is the only Variation I could observe in the whole Story) the Boy I ry 

young, and having forgot great Part of it himself before I came into the Island : but 
that in the end King William would be Victorious cm t all hi- Enemies He that 
considers the Youth, and Ignorance of the Boy, which rendered him incapable of 
carrying on an Imposture, must needs allow there is something uncommon i* d. < 1 
there had been a Conspiracy of all the best of the People to deceive me. and even- 
Person mentioned is still living, and ready to attest (if need require) upon Oath what 
I have alledg'd. For myself lean assure you I have transmitted it with the uti. 
fidelity, tho' much short of my Original Information, and only beg you to a 
the whole as a Testimony of the Real Esteem of Sir, your most humble servan:. W 

Boldly as our good governor had inveighed against "Ignorance. Superstition, and Pre- 
judice of Education" in the beginning of his letter, it i- evident that, towards the end of 
it, his own credulity became sadly bewildered. FromSpeetator No. 1 10, it may be inferred 
that the enlightened Addison himself believed the narrative, and even alluded to it in 



the following words. " Could I not give myself up to this general testimony of man- 
kind, I should to the relations of particular persons who are now living, and whom I 
cannot distrust in other matters of fact." The learned priest Verstegan, who belonged 
to the generation before our author, in his " Restitution of decayed Intelligence," p. 85, 
has related an occurrence which he also seems to have firmly believed, viz. " A most 
true and maruelous strange accident of the pide piper, that hapened in Saxony not 
many ages past; which great wonder hapned at Hamel in Brunswicke on the 22 day of 
July in the yeare of our Lord 1376." These instances may suffice to shew that other 
learned men have agreed with our author in opinion, that " the craft of evill spirits is 
more than our judgements can sound out." Ware gravely ridicules O'Brasil, and those, 
qui " oleam et operam perdiderunt" in search of it. — Antiq. c. xxviii. 

See ante, p. 20, note ( u ) for the celebrated Mananan, the son of Lir, who gave name 
to the isle of Man, as we are informed by some of the learned historians of that " king- 
dom;" and who further state, that the old Statute Book of Man describes him thus: 
" Mananan Mac Ler, the first man who held Man, was ruler thereof, and after whom the 
land was named, reigned many years, and was a paynim : he kept the land under mists 
by his necromancy. If he dreaded an enemy, he would of one man cause to seem one 
hundred, and that by art magic." But see Mac Firbis's account of the Belgse of Ireland, 
preserved in MS. in the library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, which states, that 
old authorities relate, that the inhabitants of the isle of Man sprung from Beothach, son 
of Iartas, and from Semians and Fergus the red-sided. " a oepio pleacca ele, piol 
6heocaij mic lapccnp, ajup piol Semianp, ajup piol Peapjupa lecoepcc ipeao 
pud i TOanuinn." According to Orosius, Man was first inhabited by the Scots of Ire- 
land. Even still, many of their adventurous descendants resort thither, and, no doubt, 
are much indebted to the " Mists.' 1 '' But this appears to have been the case from the 
earliest period, " in earn tamquam in asylum Ultonienses confluxerunt." — Gratian. 
Luc. 12. 

NOTE V. Seepage 82, note, 8 . " Rats." 
The following curious communication, on the subject of this note, is taken from the 
original, preserved in the Manuscript Library, Trinity College, Dublin. B. I. 1. 3. p. 316. 

" To Dr. Molineauz at his 
House in Dublin. 

" DonegaU the gth of June 1708. 
" Sir, 

" Altho I have delayed writing to you, yet I have not forgot my promise : I 
thought it better that the account I send you should be slow than lame, rather tedious 
when it comes, than imperfect. 

" I have 


" I have made dilligent inquiry about Ratts in this Country : and find, that it is 
certain (there being no reason why the whole country should deceive me in an affair of 
this nature, wherein they can have no interest to tell a lye) that there is a con-iderable 
tract of Land about Donegall wherein there is not one Ratt, tho' Ballyshannon on the 
one hand, and Killybeggs on the other, the first ten, and the latter 1 2 mile- distant from 
it, have enough to send Colonies to the adjacent Countries. This is the mi 1 
because Donegall is a sea port town, as well as the other two, tho' not near so much 
frequented by ships: but such as ships come to, even sometimes now, tho former! . 
am told) it had greater trade. I have seen one or two ships there, which might easily 
have left some ratts for breed, for they say generally ships have enough of that Cargo 
to spare. So that notwithstanding Donegall is not so much frequented with bhipping, 
yet there has not been opportunities wanting for rats to come thither from shij 
tis well known, that in the time of the wars, the Grayhound Man-of-War, which wanted 
not rats (as is probable) lay sometimes in the river not above halfe a mile from Done- 
gall, which place they might safely goe to from the ship, which i- cu-tomary to 
animals. But it is not only the town of Donegall that is blessed with tin 1' that 

vermin, the whole Parish of Drumholm. and two or three more of tin- adjacent Pa: 
pertake of the same happiness, tho' they have tin- in common with other places, that 
they are alike pestered with mice. I was at first doubt full whither or no Ballyshan- 
non and Killybeggs had Rats, but now I have gott a perticular account from Henry 
Caldwell Esq r . a considerable merchant who is eldest son to S r James Caldwell, that he 
has had damage done him by rats in his store-house at Killybeggs, and an intel 
person told me, that about a fortnight before this, at Killybeggs, he was disturbed all 
night by ratts, and saw severall in the morning, for they were bo bold, that they ran 
about the Bed, and for demonstration that there are many at Ballyshannon Mr. Cald- 
well told me a very odd story, viz. thai the men who take car* lerable salmon 
fishing, which he farms from the Lord Folliott, do Prophesie whither there will be few 
or many salmon catcht that year, by the number of rats tiny see upon a little Island in 
the river, where they make up their fish. So if they see many rats they expect many 
salmon, if few Rats they Conclude they will take but a few fi>h. I do not mention 
this as if there was any thing to be depended on as to the ol the persons 
concerned in the fishing, tho they T build much upon it, but I give it a- an instance that 
there are Rats in abundance at Ballyshannon, tho they do not come within 2 or 3 
miles of my house, which is not above five or six at i'urthest from Ballyshannon. 

" As to the other Story which you have heard, concerning some part of the Bar 
of Boylogh and Bannogh viz, that Cattle cannot five there in summer. I can find no 
great matter in it. It is sandy ground, as I am told, and I believe little grass grows 



there in a dry summer, and perhaps there may be unwholesome herbs amongst it, this 
makes the people drive off their cattle in summer, and by that means they have top 
grass in the winter. I am apt to believe that all sandy ground is much of the same 
nature, for I observe that my own cattle do not much love to stay upon a sandy warren 
that is near their pasture. I suppose it is for the same reason that the cattle do not 
thrive in the Rosses (that is the name of the place) in summer, so I apprehend no great 
matter in the relation, but if you think it worth a more exact scrutiny, at any time, I 
shall be ready to obey your commands. 

" This, sir, is a tedious letter, but I choose rather to be impertinent than defective. 
Could I be so happie as to be able to serve you, you should always find how ready I 
would be to show how much I am, sir, your most affec'' humble servant, 

" Tho. Wadman." 

NOTE W. See page 84, note m. " Athenry." 
This town was founded by a colony of Anglo-Norman settlers, who were brought 
thither shortly before the middle of the thirteenth century, by the De Burgos ; and from 
that time until towards the close of the sixteenth century, it was a place of considerable 
importance in the west of Ireland. In A. D. 1249, a battle was fought here between 
the Irish and English, of which the following account is given in the Annals of Clon- 
macnois, as translated by Conly Mac Geoghegan, and preserved in the MS. Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, F. 3. 19. 

" A. D. 1249. The [Irisli\ nobility of Connaught went to Athenrie to prey and 
spoile that towne, on the day of our Lady the blessed Virgin Mary, in the middest of 
harvest. There . were a great armye, with Terlaugh mac Hugh. The sheriff of 
Connoght with many Englishmen were in the said towne before them. The sheriff 
and Englishmen desired them, in honnor of the Blessed Virgin Mary, whose day then 
was, to forbeare with them that day, which the said Irish nobility refused to give any 
respect, either in honor of the Blessed Virgin or holly roode. They assaulted the 
town against the will of the said Terlaugh, which Jordan de Exetra the sheriffe and 
Englishmen seeing, they rushed forthe to meet with the said Irishmen, where the Virgin 
Mary wrought miraculouslye against the said nobillity. When the Irish nobility saw the 
Englishmen, and horsemen well appoynted with harnish, armes and shirts of mail, make 
towards them, they were daunted and affrighted at theire sight, and presently discom- 
fitted. Hugh mac Hugh O'Connor was killed in that presence. Dermott Roe mac 
Cormach O'Melaghlen, the two sonnes of O'Kellie, Bryen and Dery mac Manus, 
Carick an Tivall mac Neale O'Connor, Brithgalagh mac Keigan, the sons of Dermott 
Backagh O'Connor, the two sones of Loghlyn O'Connor, Daniel mac Cormack mac Der- 
irish arch. soc. 15. 2 M moda 


moda, Finanagh mac Braiman, Cowmowan mac Cassurley, with many more, were killed 
in that place." See also the Annals of the Four Masters, at the same year. 

This victory gave confidence to the new settlers, and the town consequently in- 
creased. On 14th October, 1 3 10, a murage charter was granted to the bailiffs and good 
men of Athnery (Athenry) empowering them, for three year^ from the then feast of 
St. Luke the Evangelist, to levy and take the customs therein specified, for the pur- 
pose of enclosing the town with a stone wall. — Rot. Pat. 3, 4 Edw. IL m. 3. This is 
one of the earliest Anglo-Norman documents of the kind now remaining on record in 
Ireland. The commodities specified in it, and the customs chargeable on them, are 
here extracted : 

" De quolibet crannoco cujuscunque generis bladi venali, unum obulum — de quo- 
libet crannoco salis, unum quadrantem; de quolibet equo vel eqoa, hobimo, bate vel 
vacca venali, unum obulum ; de quolibet carcasio bovis vel vacce venali, unum obulum ; 
de quolibet corio bovis vel vacce, hobbini, equi vel eque, frisco, salsato, aut tannato, unum 
quadrantem; de quinque baconibus, unum denarium; de decern ovibus vel caprie, unum 
denarium; de quinque ^ora's unum denarium; de decern agnis unum obulum; de qua- 
libet centena pellium ovium tanatarum vel schorlingorum, duos denarios ; de qualibet 
centena pellium agnorum, caprarum, leporum, cuniculorcm. mdpwm, Mftrw sea squir- 
rellorum unum obulum ; de qualibet centena pellium eervorum, bi&arum, damorum vel 
damarum, unum denarium; de qualibet centena Pa nni hibernici, quatuor de:. 
de qualibet centena linee tele, duos denarios; de quolibet Panno integro ang/icauo cujus- 
cunque coloris, duos denarios; de quolibet Panm hibernico integro, unum obulum ; de 
qualibet folynga, unum quadrantem; de quolibet dolio vini, quatuor denarios; de qua- 
libet centena ferri, quatuor denarios; de qualibet centena de canabo, quatuor denarios; 
de quolibet salmone, unum quadrantem, de qualibet lampreda, unum quadrantem; de 
qualibet pisa uncti, cepi, butiri et casei, unum denarium ; de qualibet carrectata de 
tandust, unum denarium; de qualibet carrectata maeremii, unum obulum: de qualibet 
carrectata bosci, unum quadrantem; de de qualibet centena cere, quatuor de- 
narios ; de quolibet sumagio mellis, unum denarium ; de ; de qualibet centena de 

Verdegris, vel alterius cujuscunque coloris, duos denarios j de duobus millibus ceparum, 
unum obulum; de qualibet meysia alkcum, unum denarium; de quolibet summagio 
piscis maris, frisci vel salsati, unum obulum ; de duobus miliarum quorumcunque da- 
vorum, unum denarium; de qualibet centena ferroru hi equormn et clicorum ad carrec- 

tas, unum denarium; de qualibet centena , unum obulum; de qualibet centena 

piscis sicci, unum denarium ; de qualibet centena a ngulllurum, unum quadrantem; de 
decern petris canabi, unum quadrantem ; de qualibet centena de tes/is, unum denarium ; 
de qualibet centena cujuscunque eris vel cupri opera ta vel non opera ta. qua- 


tuor denarios ; de qualibet pari roiarum ad carectas, unum obulum ; de duabus solidatis 
cujuscunque mercimonii quod non nominatur in litteris istis, unum obulum." — Rot. 
Pat. ut supra. 

In A. D. 131 6, another battle was fought near Athenry between the natives and the 
settlers, in which the former were again signally defeated. This battle is described in 
the unpublished Annals of Clonmacnoise before referred to, as follows. " A. D. 13 16. 
Ffelym O'Connor heareing of the returne of William Burke to Conaught from Scotland, 
he proclaimed that all his people from all parts where they were, with such as would 
joyn with them, wou'd gather together, to banish William Burke from out of Conaught, at 
whose command all the Irishrie of Conaught from Easroe to Shew Veghty or Eighty 
were obedient to him, and came to that place of meeting. Donnogh O'Bryan, prince of 
Thomond, O'Melaghlen king of Meath, O'Roirk of the Breifnie, O'Fferall chieftaine 
of the Annalie called the Convackne, Teige O'Kelly king of Imanie, with many others 
of the nobility of Ireland, came to this assembly, and marched towards Athenrie to 
meet with William Burk, the lord Bremingham and others, the English of the province 
of Conaught, where they mett, and gave battle in a place neare the said towne, in which 
battle the Irish men were discomfitted and quite overthrone. 

"Ffelym O'Connor king of Conaught was therein killed, alsoe Teige O'Kelly, king 
of Imanie, and eight and twenty of the chiefest of that familie, Magnus m c Donell 
O'Connor tanist of all Conaught, Art O'Hara prince of Swynie, Melaghlen Carragh 
O'Dowdye, Conor oge O'Dowdye, Murtagh M c Connor O'Dowdye, Dermott m c Dermott 
tanist of Moylorge, Mortagh m c Tachleagh m c Dermoda, Mortagh m c Dermoda m c Ffe- 
rall, Mullronye oge m c Magnussa, John m c Murogh O'Madden, Donnell O'Boylle, 
Donnell m c Hugh m c Conchenan prince of the O'Dermotts, and his brother Mortagh, 
Donnogh O'Moylloye of Ferkeall with his people, the sone of Murrogh O'Manon and a 
hundred of his people, Neale Ffox, prince of Teaffa men with his people, Ferall m° John 
Galda O'Ferall, W m . M c Hugh oge O'Fferall, Thomas m c Awley O'Fferall, five of the fa- 
mine of the M c Donoughes, viz. Tomaltagh, Murrogh Murtagh, Connor Mortagh, and 
Melaughlen m°Donnough, John mac Kiegan, O'Connor's chiefe judge, Conor and Gil- 
lernew, the sons of Dalere-docker O'Develen, the men called fear-imchar-nehonchon, 
Thomas O'Connolan of the kings guard, all which persons with many others of Mounster, 
Meath and Conaught (which were tedious to resite) were slaine in that battle, as a cer- 
taine Irish poet pittifully in an Irish verse said — 

" IDop mac pij nac abpaim a amm, bo mapba lp an mop maioin, 
Oo plua5 mi6e lp muman, cpi'iaj lem cpioi in carujao, 

" This battle was given upon the day of Saint Lawrence the Martyre, Felym O'Con- 
nor then being but of the age of 2 3 years; in the fifth year of whose reign, Bowrye 

2 M 2 m c Cahall 


m c Cahall roe O'Connor (before mentioned) deposed him for one half yeare who Voting 
killed as before is declared, Ffelym succeeded for another half yeare, untill he was slaine 
at Athenrye aforesaid." See also the Annals of the Four Masters at A. D. 1 316. 

For more than two centuries after this decisive engagement, Athenry continued tc 
increase in wealth and population; but about the middle of the sixteenth century it 
began to decline. The causes of its decay are well described in the following extract 
of a letter from Sir Henry Sydney, Lord Deputy of Ireland, to Queen Elizabeth, 20 th 
Aprill, A. D. 1567, which appears in voL i. p. 90, of" Letters and Memorials of State," 
published by Arthur Collins, Lond. Fo. 1 747 : " From thence I went to your Hi. 
towne of Galowaye, the state whereof I found rather to resemble a Towne of Warre, 
fronteringe upon an Enemye, then a civill Towne in a Countrie under one Soveraigne. 
They watche their Walls nightelie, and gard their Gates daielie with armed Men. They 
complayned much of the Warres of Mac William Exeter and Oflartye again^te the Erie 
of Clanrycardes two Sonnes which he hath by two Wives and both alive, and the. 
yonge Boyes in the Lief of ther Father, yet likelie long to live, doe strive who shall* 
their Father's Heire, and, in the same Strife comitte no small spoiles and damage to 
the Countrie. From thense I travelled thoroughe a greate and an aunciente Tovrne in 

Connoghte called Anrye. {Athenry) The Towne is large and well walled, and it ap- 

perith by Matter of Record there hath be in it three hundred good Hovr<eholdert, and, 
since I knewe this Land there was twentie, and now I finde but /over, and they poor, 
and as I write readie to leave the Place. The Crye and Lamentation of the poor Pe< pie 
was greate and pityefull, and nothinge but thus, Succor, Succor, Succor. The Erie ol 
Clanricarde could not denye but that he helde a hevie Hande over them. For which 
I ordered him to make them some Recompence, and bounde him Dot t<> exacte upon 
them hereafter." 

This " pityefull" appeal does not appear to have had any effect, for the " greate 
and auncient Towne" of Athenry still continued to decay. Sir Henry Sydney, alter a 
lapse of nine years, again visited the place; and, in a dispatch to the lords of the Coun- 
cil in England, dated 28 th April, 1576, contained, vol. 1., p. 102. of the " Letters and 
Memorials of State" before referred to, he writes as follows : " After I had remayued 
in Galway three whole Weeks, I departed from thence the x.\ii tb oi Marclie. and passed 
thorough Athenrie, the most wofall Spectacle that ever I looked on in any of the Qtuen't 
Dominions, totally burned, Colledge, Parishe Churehe. and all that was there, by the 
Earles Sonnes; yet the Mother of one oftheim was buried in the Churehe. 1 tokc 
Order for the Reedifinge of the Towne, and the Woorke is begonne: and I have taxed 
for the Satisfienge of the old Inhabitants indifferently upon that Countrie. w 
the Abilities of eche Person, and the Qualitie of their Fawlte. as I thought m< - 

sonable : 


sonable ; which shalbe confirmed and ratified by Order of Commissioners authorized 
under the greate Seale, accordinge to the Meaninge of her Majesties Lettre graunted to 
theim of Athenrie, and the Somme of this Taxation amounteth to twoe Thowsand 
Pounde : and I doubt not to levye it, and the rather, for that the Earle is entred into band 
of v. M. l. [£5000] to see as well this performed, as the first Order taken at Lymericke 
agaynst his Sonnes in my Predicessors Tyme. I have cut the Towne almost into two 
equal Partes, it beinge before full as bigge, with a faier high Wall, as the Towne of Cal- 
lyce. I tooke from the Earle, the better to answere the Expectation of the People, 
twoe principall Castells and Keys of strength ; the one called the Castle of Bellane- 
slowe, which standeth betwixt Qalway and Athenrie; the other called Clare, and 
seated betwixt Galway and Mac William Ewghters Countrie ; and by this Kind of 
Proceedinge, having greatlye satisfied the old Inhabitaunts of Athenrie." 

The works directed by the Lord Deputy " for the reedifinge of the towne," had 
scarcely commenced, before it was again attacked by the " Earle's Sonnes." " They 
took and sacked it, destroyed the few houses w ch were lately built there, set the 
new gates on fire, dispersed the masons and labourers who were working, and 
broke down and defaced the queen's arms." — Hist. Galway, p. 87. See also the same 
work, p. 94, for further proceedings taken in A. D. 1584, "to rebuild and improve" 
Athenry. But this ill-fated town was yet to experience further vicissitudes. In A. D. 
1596, the celebrated Irish chieftain of Tirconnell, Hugh Ruadh (or the Red) O'Donnell, 
made a predatory incursion into Connaught, where he committed much devastation, 
and in his progress took and destroyed Athenry. The following translated extract 
from the " Life" of that extraordinary man, preserved in MS. in the library of the 
Royal Irish Academy, details the particulars of that transaction : 

" A.D. 1596. 
" O Donel appointed Mac William Burke (Theobald a ) to meet him at Athenry, and 
he came accordingly. That town lies a short distance to the East of Ath-cliath Mea- 
dhruidhe b . It was a powerful fortress and difficult of attack. On that occasion the 
(Irish) soldiers assaulted the fort, and cast fire and firebrands at the gates on all sides, 
and burned all the wooden defences of that strong fortress on the outside. They then 
took scaling ladders, and, placing them against the walls and battlements of the fort, 
ascended to the top of the high, thick, strong, fortress. Some of them leaped from 
the battlements down on the streets, and maintained their ground, though many of 


a This was Theobald, first Viscount Mayo, better b A place now called Maaree, about six miles 

known to his countrymen by the name of " Tibbott S. E. of Galway. 
na long," Theobald of the Ships. 


their best heroes were wounded in a sharp conflict. The gates were instantly forced 
open by the host, who pressed forward to the centre of the castle ; and proceeded to 
break open the stores, the well-guarded apartments, and strongly secured bed-chambers. 
They remained in the castle until they stripped it of all the riches and treasures which 
it contained. They destroyed the entire fortress ; but the people of the Queen made 
great havoc of those who attacked that royal castle. Numerous and invaluable were 
the spoils of every kind taken in that fortress, of riches and treasures of brass and iron, 
of armour and cloathing, and of every thing necessary and useful to the people therein, 
which they had previously collected. O'Donel and his host remained in the town that 
night, and evacuated it in the morning, after stripping it of every thing valuable. And 
they then sent their scouts and scouring parties to prey Clanrickard, on both sides of 
the river." See also the Annals of the Four Masters at the same year. 

The day after O'Donnel had thus stormed and plundered Athenry, the Earl of 
Clanricarde dispatched the following report to the Lord Deputy : 

" Lough Reogk, Jan*. 16" 1596. 
" My very good Lord, 

" May it please your lordship to be advertised, that this 15 th of Januarv 
Hugh Eoe O'Donnell, Tibbott Bourke M c Walter Kyttagh. with many others of their 
adherents of Ulster, and of this province, came into this countrie of Clanricard, with 
3000 foot and 200 horse, and burned and spoyled thone half of the country, and assaulted 
divers castles therein, but wone none of any account as yet, and divers of their men 
were killed and hurt about the castles ; they have entered Athenree, where thev 
encamped the last night, whether they got the castle or not, is more than I vet heard. 
They report that they will remain in Clanricard until after skrafetyde. which they 
may well perform if forces be not sent presently by your lordship to resist their 
violence. The poor country is so ruinated and brought to such desolation that thev 
no not how to live for want of releife. The enemy's do bragge that they will hue 
seidge to my owne howses, which I hope shal be to little effect ; although I doubt 
divers other holds in the country maie be lost for want of reliefe. Doubtless thev will 
not leave any corn or cottage unburnt in three days within the whole countr 
which we beare, and God willing will most contentedly, in respect that we sustain the 
same for our daily service and due obedience to our natural and most gracious prince's, 
from whom we will never swerve, for any losses or afflictions whatsoever. I have 
sent to my Lord Thomond for his aj'de, whose coming I expect daily, although not 
yet come ; but God knoweth our forces both are nothing in respect to theirs, but God 
willing our best endeavours shall not want, and still as occasion shall be ministered 
your lordship shall be advertised thereof; within the meane time I leave to your lord- 


ship careful and most honourable consideration ; and humbly take leave from Lough 
Reogh the xvi. th of January, 1 596. 

" Your Lordship's most humble 
at command, 

" Clanricarde." 

{From the original in the British Museum, Cotton. Lib. Titus B. xiii.] 
The Mayor of Galway also made the following communication : 
" My most humble duty remembered, may it please your lordship, Hugh Roe 
O'Donell, and other the rebells of Tyrconell, coming of late to this province of Con- 
naght, assembleth with them, Tibbott M c Walter Kittagh Bourke, whom he made 
M c . William, with all the rebells and renagates of Connaght, wasted, burned, and 
destroyed this last week, almost this whole countie of Galway ; wherein, on Saturday 
last, they sallied Athanrie, burnt the gates thereof, and having entered the same, after 
continuing there one night, in the morning sallying the castle there, and being with- 
stood, took all the wall-towers, and as manie of the inhabitants as waited them they 
withhould prisoners, and put to ashes all the rest of the towne, besides the said castell 
that resisted them, and the bodies of the abbey and churche ; and thence afterwards 
upon Sunday last at twilight, came to our subburbs, and sent a priest and another 
layman to our gates, then being shut, offering that they would do no harm, if we will 
relieve them with wine and other necessaries, to which we answered for that night, 
that we mistrusted, O'Donnell himself was so nigh, and if so was, our auncient cus- 
tome hath been not to open our gates at night for any affairs, with which the messen- 
gers departed. The next morrowe O'Donnell sent a line under his own hand, praying 
to send him victuals and other necessaries for his money, except powder and ammuni- 
tion, otherwise he should annoy us the best he could : whome wee aunsweareth he 
did pick a quarrell for himself and the rest of his associates, breaking their allegiance 
to their natural prince, destroying townes, contrie and goods, of her mat ies loyall sub- 
jects ; that unless they would revert to goodness, to God, their prince, and neighbours, 
we could not afford them no relief. Upon return of which answer he staid our messan- 
ger till he caused divers houses of our subjects to be fired; and the wind being at 
east north-east, right against that side of our town, hindered us much in not disco- 
vering the enemies till the flame was up, and then O'Donell, Tibott Bourke M c William, 
M'Dermoud, and all the chieftaines that were with them, being in the Abbey-hill, 
began to retire, and sent some loose shott to play upon our town, and being confrunted 
with like loose shott, as the inimies thronged on this side of the hill, a greate piece of 
ordinance was by us discharged, which scattered them, and clustering again another 
greater peece was let flie, which utterly daunted them, that they retired so farr that 


our loose shott gained the hight of the ridg of the hill, and saved the houses that were 
not burnt, and we heare the rebells had then wounded and killed some vi. per- 
sons, and that night camping in the farther part of our ffranchises, 6ent some 
bands to fire the houses that before were rescued from them ; but before that afternoon 
we discovered them, so that saving one house, lying beyond the greene, they missed of 
their purpose, and the day following they burnt every vilage down to the county of 

Mayo, and very well even to the poole of Loghcoirbe to leave nothing undes- 

turbed, amongst which about twenty villages appertaining to us were not pretermitted. 
Their speeches, as wee understand, are very blasphemous against us and all the rest of 
her majesties constant subjects, threatening they shall shortly be worst- usc-d by the 
Spaniards, then the poor inhabitants of Athenry hath been used by them, whom t:. 
left mother naked without anie whitt in the world to live on. And thus, &c. Galway 
the xix' h of Januarie. Your L. most humble at command, 

" Oliver oge French, Maior." 

[From the original in the British Museum, ut supra.'] 

Athenry never recovered from the effects of these repeated outrages. After this 
time it was that the " blind prophesie" noticed by our author, p. 8+, ante, was applied 
to it, In A. D. 1634, the following petition (now first printed from the original draft 
in the Editor's possession) was presented to the Parliament then sitting in Dublin. 

" To the honorable the Knight>. Cittizens and 
Burgesses in Parliament assembled. 
" The humble petition of the Portriffe, Burgesses and Comonaltie 
of Athenry. 
" Shewinge, that wheras the Towne of Athenry, being scituated in themidest of the 
countie of Galway, was built and fortified for defence in the very beginning of the 
conquest of this kingdome, by the first plantators of the said county, and continued 
in greate wealth and power, untill that in y e tyme of the late Rebellion. y e same was 
by the Rebells taken by suddayne assalte, and was then burned and sacked, and soon 
after was infested with the contagious sicknes of the Plague which then visited most 
partes of this Kingdome, since w ch tyme the said Towne decayed in trade and was dis- 
peopled, untill y' by direction of y e state and by the consent of all y* inhabitantes of 
the s d county, both for the convenience of the scituation, for the ease of the people, 
and for the restoringe of that Towne to its former state and condicion, it was appoynted 
that the comon Gaole of the shire should bee built and kept there; and that the As- 
sizes, Quarter Sessions and County courts should be alsoe houlden and kept t": 
which accordingely for awhile continued therein, in w ch tyrne though very short that 
Towne recovered soe much of its former beauty y' without doubt it would by this have 



beene in a fayer and florishing estate, but by reason y' the sheriffs, for gratuities or 
some privat consideration, hould theire countie courts in divers obscure villages, where 
neyther lodginges nor entertaynments can bee expected ; and that, by the favor of the 
Custos Eotulorum and of the Justices of the peace, the quarter sessions are kept at 
other places in the said countie, and y e generall Assizes are alsoe removed to Gallway, 
and yet the said Gaole and prisoners being still left in the said Towne of Athenry, the 
poore inhabitants thereof, bearinge the charge and danger of the prisoners, and havinge 
noe benefitt by the courte, the said towne is fallen againe into its fformer misery and 
desolation, out of w ch there is but smale hope of rayseinge it, unles yo r honnors favor 
bee expended towards it. For as much, therefore, as it is equall and just that they 
that feele the burthen of the Gaole, should tast of the bennefitt of som of the said 
courts ; and for that by the statute the county courts should be kept in some one cer- 
teyne place; and for that the said towne is well waled and fortified, and seated in the 
most convenient place of the said county ; and for that it would much conduce to the 
weale publique of the whole county aforesaid, for encresinge of trade and comerce, to 
have the said towne well peopled and frequented ; your petitioners most humbly pray 
that the said quarter Sessions, Assizes and county courts, by your honors comaund, 
may bee continually kepte in the said Towne of Athenry, or els that the said Gaole 
may bee removed to some of the townes where the said Courtes are kepte, And youre 
petitioners will ever pray," &c. — Orig. 

See p. 196, ante, for a deed of feoffment by Philip, the son of William Erla, of pre- 
misses in Athenry, in A. D. 1391- A coeval indorsement on this deed, states that the 
grantor was called Bermingham, " Carta de Brernigham dicto Phillipo Erla. 1 ' This 
indorsement seems to prove the truth of an old tradition that the sept of " Erla" 
was a branch of the Berminghams, formerly barons of Athenry, and the most ancient 
Anglo-Norman barons of Ireland. The title is now extinct, or perhaps only in abey- 
ance. Mr. Kilroy of Galway, the respectable proprietor of the hotel there, is mater- 
nally descended from the Erla family. Some individuals of the name Erla, may still 
be traced in the vicinity of Athenry, but sunk in poverty. The old " Cittie" itself, 
once the bulwark of the Anglo-Normans in Connaught, is now reduced to the state of 
an insignificant village. 

NOTE X. Seepage 105. " Abbey of Tombeola." 

O'Heyn and De Burgo have collected all the information, probably extant in 
Ireland, respecting this old foundation ; but it is also probable that further particu- 
lars may yet be discovered in the Irish Monastic Eecords preserved in Rome, and 
other parts of the Continent of Europe. Belonging to the same order as Tombeola, 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. NO. 1 5. 2 N viz. 


viz., that of the Dominicans, was " Our Lady's Church" mentioned by our autl. 
39, ante. The following unique compact relating to this latter foundation ha- been 
transcribed by the Editor, from the Original still preserved in the coir. 

" A. D. 1651. 
" This Indenture witnesseth, that whereas Saint Dominick's abbey near Gall way 
in the Weast Francheses of the same, commonly called Our Lwly^s charcft, in I 
combustious and warlicke tymes, is found noisome and of dangerous consequence to 
the safety and preservation of this Toune of Gallway, if possessed by i ..<:$, as 

late experience declared when the same was possessed by The Lord Forbous, and the 
Parleiment partie under his conduct. Whereupon, the Mayor, sherifs, free Burgesses 
and Commonaltye of the said Towne of Gallway, and the Count ie of the said Tc 
Gallway, conceaved it necessary to pull downe and demolish the said Abbey for the 
preservation and safty of the said Toune. Whereunto they craved the consent of 
father Pierce Buthler now prior of the religious Order of the Dominicans in Gall- 
way, and the rest of the said convent, who for the good and securii -aid Toune 
and Corporacion, their freinds and benefactors, have thereunto consented ; the said 
Toune and Corporacion promissing, assumeing, and undertaking, in tyme of peace to 
re-edifie soe much thereof, as appears in the scedule hereunto annexed to have beene 

by them broken downe, and leave the said abbey in a- g 1 case a- they Law found 

it when they pulled it doune, or as much woorke a~ the same may come into in true 
vallue, within their francheses, as to the prior and convent of the said 
the tyme beeing, shalbe tought meete and required : in consideration and pursuance 
whereof, wee Oliver French Knight, mayor of his Ms of Gallv, 

French Fitz Edd. and Peeter Lynch Fitz Anthony sherif) free b oigcnoBB 

coumonality of the said Toune of Gallway. doe by theise presents promisse, cove- 
nant, undertake and assume to and with the prior and convent of the said Abbey of 
St. Dominick's Order and their succe»or#. that the Corporati. !way shall 

after theise warrs in hand, and peace establidied 111 tins Kingdome, build, erect and 
re-edifie the said Monasterie, and leave the same in as good condition, plight, man- 
ner and -forme as the same was at the tyme of pulling doune and den. i the 
same, and alsoe to perforate all such covenants, provisos and undertakeings, as t: 
Corporation of Gallway have formerly engadged themselves, under their commoi. 
for or concearning the re-edifieing of the said Monasterie; and that wee the said ( 
racion shall build and erect as much woorke as the same will come unto, there or any 
where else without this Towne. or in the liberties thereof, on their owne groui. 
the said prior for the tyme being, in dischardge of our ooi • s, the honnor 
B. Lady and advanceing of Holly Church, and y' before any other woorke shall be 


donn for any other religious work, within the corporacion or francheses of the same. 
In Wittness whereof, wee the Maior, Sheriffes, free Burgesses and Coumonalitye have 
heereunto putt our coumon seall ; Given at our Toulsell of Gallway, the twentie 
day of September, in the yeare of our Lord God one tousand, six hundred, fiftie and 
one." — Orig. 

The following document, relating to the same foundation, may be considered 
curious, as describing the particular divisions and dimensions of the old church 
alluded to. 

" A true relation and returne of the undernamed persons, qualified by the 
Mayor and Prior of the said Convent, to try the particulars that were 
demolished and pulled doune of S\ Dominickes abbey, otherwise called 
our Ladie's Church, in the West Francheses of Gallway, upon presseing 
occations, in order to the preservation of this Toune against the Par- 
lement forces under the comaund of S r . Charles Coote, now incamped 
aboute this Towne, io° Augusti 1651. 
" Ittim first, there are sixtie seaven feete longe in the side of the church, next the 

doore In the side oppositt to the same, from the pincle of the stiple, sixtie fower 

foot longe. — From the stiple to the pincle of the queere, seaventie fower foote longe. 
Fortie fower foote in breath, betweene both the wall, with fower arches in the midle, 
in the bodie of the church. — Twenty two foote broade in the queere betweene both 
the wales — In the chapel, towards the north, nyneteene foote longe, sixteene foote 
broade, and twelve foote in bight in the wall. In the wale of the bodie of the church 
and queere, twenty three foote in hight to the battlement, and the wale in tickness 
two foote and nyne enciis. — Lasorous house is twentie seaven foote longe, twenty 
foote broade, eighteen foote high, with two chimneys, six windowes, one of which is 
two lights and the rest one light.— In the bodie of the church three windowes of three 
lights, and two gables of three lights. — In the chaple three windowes of three lights, 
and one gable of three lights. — One gable of five lights in the pinicle of the queere, 
one gable of two lights in the side of the queere, six windowes of one light in the 
north side of the queere, and one window of two lights in the north (south) side. — All 
this, besids the battlement and breast wall of the same, together with a small stiple, 
the most of all being made of hued stone, weare demolished and pulled downe as afore- 
said If any of the said battlement or hued stones be brought home for the use of St. 

Nicholas' Church, payment or satisfaction is to be made to the said religious order. 
"Walter Browne Fitz-Marcus. Christo: Bodkin. Alexander Linche. 
Martin French, Chamberlyne [ ]." — Orig. 

For a view of " Our Lady's Church," taken before it was so demolished, see the great 

2 N 2 map 


map of Galway, made A. D. 1651, and preserved in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin. On the above compact, John O'Heyn (for whom see Harris's Ware, voL ii. 
p. 295), writes as follows : "Ecclesia erat vetustissima, sed a Fundamentis de-tructa 
est ex Concilio Catholicorum Civium, ne Inimicus Cromuellus, obsessurus <-undem 
Locum, Fortalitium sibi faceret in ilia Ecclesia. Ex conimuni tamen < totus 

Magistratus spopondit, quod, advertante Pace, totus Conventus recedijUaretotr in Forma 
priori, Expensis Civium, et si sperata Tranquillitas affulsisset in Patria. id fa 
proculdubio, erant enim valde pii, et potentissimi Divitiis nmltis accedentibus ex 
ingenti Commercio maritimo, quo hie Locus exuberat specialiter prae reliqui- 
Partibus." — Epilog, p. 22. 

NOTE Y. Seepage 109, note ( m ). " Mageogkegan/a,, 
In A. D. 1567, the head or chief of this great and ancient Irish family wa» Coaly 
Mac Geoghegan of Kinaleagh (Cineal Fiachack) in Westmeath; respecting whom Queen 
Elizabeth, in that year, directed the following letter (now first printed) under hi 
manual and signet, to the lord deputy and chancellor of Ireland. 

" Elizabeth, '" By the Queue 

" Right trusty and welbeloved, wee greete you well. Wh« ' ( Mm 

Geoghegan of Kenaleagh, our faithfull and lowinge subject, hath humbly submitted him- 
self to our trustie and welbeloved Sir Henry Sidney, knight of our order, and deputy 
of our realme oflreland, recognising himself as a faithfull subject to us and our a 
offrino-e to surrender his estate for him and his sequele, and to receave from u> an 
estate according to our pleasure. We in consideration of his said Mibmission and offers, 
are pleased to accept and allow him as our liege man and faithfull subject : and are 
pleased that he shall receave from us these graces and special] favors in maner and 

forme followinge First, that the said Conley Mac Geoghegan deliver unto you our 

said deputy, a full and pleyne particular, note and extent of all the manors. casteD* 
lordshipps, landes, tenements, signories, rules, rents, duetyes. custumes, and comodi- 
ties whereof he is by any maner of meane seised at this present And after. 1 
and order, that our chauncellor shall accept and receave of the said Conley Mac G 
o-an, by dede to be inrolled in our court of Chancery within that our realme of Lrland, 
the submission of the said Conley Mac Geoghegan, and the surrender and resignation 
of his name of Conley Mac Geoghegan, and of all the said manors, castells, lordships. 
sei<moryes, rules, hereditaments, comodities, and profits, with all and singular their 
appurtenances. — After which submission and surrender so made, our pleasure is, that 
you our said deputy cause our letters patents, under our great scale of that our realm.-, t. 


be made to the said Conley Mac Geoghegan during his lyfe; the remaynder to his sonne 
Rosse alias Roger and the heyres males of his body; and the remainder after them to 
the heyres males of the body of the said Conley lawfully to be begotten, of all the said 
eastells, manors, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, to hold of us, our heires and 
successors, in capite by knight's service, and yeldinge, payenge, contributinge and 
doinge to us, our heires and successors, all souch rents, services and attendance, as 
now by any lawe, composition, use or custome he is bound or might have, with souch 
words of variance as to you our said deputy, by assent of the said Conley Mac Geoghe- 
gan, shalbe thought convenient. Neverthelesse, yf it shall seeme necessary to our said 
deputy to alter or change the said rents, duties and attendance, which the said Conley 
is presently holden to doe, into other kynds meeter for our service, we authorise you 
so to do. Item, our pleasure is, in consideration that all manner of obedience is by the 
said Conley Mac Geoghegan, for him and his, offred to us, that is due from a good and 
faithfull subject, that the said Conley and his said heyres males of his body, their 
issues, ofspringe, posteritie, sequele, servants, tenants and followers, shall to the utter- 
most of their powers, contynue for ever faithfull, true and loyall subjects to us, 
our heires and successors, as others our subjects of that realme are bounden by 
their allegiance to do : And, in like manner, shall accept, obey, effectually accom- 
plishe and fulfill the statutes, lawes, writts, processe and ordinances of us our 
heires and successors. And if you our said deputy and counsayll there thinke 
necessary to deale with the said Conley more particularly, we are pleased that you 
shall and may add to the said letters patents so to him to be made, such farther articles 
and covenants on his parte to be observed by him, his said heires, sequele and followers, 
for their better instruction how to behave themselves towards us our heires and suc- 
cessors, and to all other our lovinge subjects, as to you shalbe thought mete and 
convenient. In consideration whereof let it be expressed in the said letters patents, 
that we accepte him, his said heires, posteritie, servants and followers, into our pro- 
tection, to be used, supported, favored, maynteyned and defended as any outher of our 
lovinge subjects, and to be free and exempt from the exactions, servitude and oppres- 
sion of all others, contrary to our lawes, demandinge any thinge of him or them. 
Yeven under our signet, at our Pallais of Westminster, the last day of February 1567, 

in the tenth yere of our reigne. 

" To our trustie and welbeloved our deputy 
and chauncellor of our realme of Ireland 
for the tyme beinge, or to the justices 
of our said realme, and our chauncellor 
there." — Rot. Pat. de ann. 1 1 °. Eliz. <l. — 

From the original roll. 


2 7 8 

Conly Mac Geoghegan had by his third wife, Margery Nugent, daughter of CI 
topher lord Delvin (Delbkna), Hugh boy (buidke, or the yellow:) ' .. who 

died ioth June 1622, leaving Art or Arthur Geoghegan of Castletown in the county 
of Meath, Esq., named in the note, p. 108, his son, who married Giles or Julia (also 
named therein), daughter of James Mac Coghlan, and had Hugh his eldest and 
Edward or Edmond his second son, also named in the note as joint patentee with his 
mother Giles, in the letters patent or grant there referred to, bearing date 1 5th May 
1678. In this grant, the castle and lands of Bunovzen, &c. were limited to Giles for 
her life, remainder to Edward and hi- heirs male, remainder to Edward Geoghegan 
the younger, grandson and heir to Art, and his heirs male, remainder to Conly 
Geoghegan late of Lerha and his heirs male ; with remainder to Francis earl of Longford 
and his heirs for ever, according to a deed of settlement made by said Art, of those la:, 
dated 22nd June 1666. By privy signet dated at Whitehall, 20 Oct. 1677 :^ng 

directed Giles and Edward her son, to pass certificate and patent of the lands allot<-d 
to said Art in Connaught, in common with other transplanters, pursuant to the Art 
of Settlement. — Rot. Pat. 29 Car. II. 3 p. f. 

Edward Geoghegan the patentee of Bunowen. \ra; succeeded by his son Ch^ 
whose eldest son, Edward, died A. D. 1765. aged 73 year-. Hi- son Kichard suc- 
ceeded, and conformed to the Protestant faith on 1 8 th April. 1756: the certificate of which 
conformity, numbered 28 for that year, is preserved in the Rolls' Office, Dublin, lb- 
appears to have been a lover of science, and a man of enterprizing genin& Scon after 
his conformity, he visited Holland to ascertain the Dutch method of reclaiming land 
from the sea ; and on his return home he succeeded in recovering a considerable tract 
of the lands of Ballyconneely near Bunowen, 1 ly erecting a weir or dam to oppose the 
encroachments of the ocean. On this work he placed the following inscription : 
" Hos terminos, Deo favente, posuit mari Richardus Geoghegan, qui persaepe corruen- 
tem aggerem luctando restituit, pauca ducens solera • venntue esse imp -• - 

bilia. Opus perfectum fuit anno Domini, 1758.'" This crentleman was enthusiastic 
respecting his Milesian origin; and he was often heard to declare, that, although not the 
"chief of his name," yet that he prized his ancient Irish descent beyond the pedL 
or title of the proudest peer of France or England. In A. D. 1 780. he erected a con- 
spicuous octagonal building, on the site of the " old fortress of a down (dun) on the 
top of the hill" of Doon, mentioned, p. 109, by our author, as a monument to com- 
memorate the concession of free trade to Ireland, as appears by the following inscrip- 
tion thereon: "Deo liberatori Hibernise, A. D. 1780, has ae - - eravit, anno 
eodem, gratus et laetus, E. G." He died 4 th Jan.. 1800. aged 83 years. His eldest 
son and heir, John, assumed the surname of O'Neill only, by virtue of the R ; - . 



manual, dated 19th Dec, 1807; and was succeeded by his eldest son and heir, John 
Augustus, the present talented and accomplished proprietor of Bunowen ; who, the 
elder branch having failed, is now the head or chief of the Milesian family of Ma- 
geoghegan of Ireland. 

NOTE Z. See pp. 112, 113, note ( r ). " Imay, Ballymac-Conroy, Castle of Down." 
The island of Imay or Omey (called also in old writings Imaith and Umma, but 
the meaning of the word does not appear), is situate on the western coast of Iar- Con- 
naught, and gives name to the parish of Omey. This parish is bounded north by that 
of Ballinakill, east by Ballinakill and the parish of Moyrus, south by Moyrus and the 
parish of Ballindoon, and west by the Atlantic ocean. The island of Omey is men- 
tioned at an early period of our ecclesiastical history. The account of the erection of 
the monastery founded there by St. Fechin in the seventh century, and referred to, 
ante, note r , p. 11 2, is here translated from the Latin of Colgan, as follows : 

" On a certain night, the holy man being in the monastery of Easdara [Ballysa 
dare in the present county of Sligo], was by an angel admonished in his sleep, that 
it was the divine will that he should go to a certain island of the ocean, which is called 
Imaidk \Omey\, situated in the western district of Connaught. St. Fechin obeys the 
admonitions of the angel, and, with the intention of gaining many souls to Christ, 
and increasing the monastic institute, he, accompanied by some disciples, sought the 
island just mentioned, where he proposed to dwell and build a church. But the inha- 
bitants, by the suggestion of the Devil, endeavoured by all means to exclude him ; 
whence, at night, they, several times, cast into the sea the spades, axes, iron tools, and 
other instruments which his monks used in the work of building ; but as often as they 
were thus cast, so often, being cast back on shore, they were found by the monks in the 
morning. But when the man of God and his monks, thus meeting with the opposition 
of the people, persisted in continual labours, watchings and fasts, and the people, 
hardened in malice, denied them all nourishment, at length two of the brethren 
perished, being exhausted through want. But St. Fechin, having poured forth for his 
servants a prayer to the Lord, in complying with whose will those who were thus ex- 
hausted had perished, merited that they should be recalled to life. And when the 
rumours of the occurrence had reached the ears of the king, Guarius the son of Colman, 
he took care that sufficient nourishment in meat and drink should be brought to St. 
Fechin. He added also his royal phial, which even to this day is called Cruaeh 
Fechin. Afterwards, all the islanders, being converted to Christ, were baptized by 
St. Fechin, and they consigned themselves and their island to the use and service of St. 
Fechin and his successors. The man of God founded another monastery in a neigh- 


bouring island which was formerly called Inis-iarthuir [but] at present Ardoilen." 
To this Colgan adds as a note (12). " This, from being a noble monastery, was made 
a parish church of the diocese of Tuam, in which St. Fechin is held in great veneration, 
as the patron of the church and the island; from which also we have received tip 
Book of the life of St. Fechin, of which we have made mention above in the n I 
the former life of St. Fechin, N. 1." 

Gaurius, the king mentioned in this extract, was the generous and hospitable 
Guaire king of Connaught, who died, according to the annals of Tigernach, in A. D. 
663. From the foregoing narrative it appears that Omey was one of the last 
retreats ofPaganism in Ireland. In A.D. 1017, the Four Ma-ters record the death of 
Fergus, vicar of Iomuith {Omey). Upwards of three centuries ago, a branch of the 
ancient family of O'Toole of Leinster settled in Omey, under the protection of the 
western O'Flaherties. 

" The CfTooles of Conmaicne-mara''' (Conamara). 
On 12" 1 Sept. 1540, the Lord Deputy of Ireland wrote to King Henry VIII. 
that the peace with "the Otholeys {the G'Tooles of Li adeth upon M 

nexte; and yt it is thought good by us all here, that if they will not com to >uche con- 
dition of peace as shalbe thought by Your Magesties Counsell to 1"- 1" vour 1. 
and suertie, that we shall, with all diligence, procede to their utter baniskment, whiche is 
more to be don with peyne then with any grete power. For theos same Otholes be 
men inhabyting the montynes, wher they neyther sowe come, neyther yet have inha- 
bytation, but only the woodes and marrcyses. and yet do more harme to your E 
Pale, then the moost parte of all Irelande." — State Papers, Lond. 1834. vol. iii. p. 239. 
See also p. 266, for a subsequent communication to the kintr respecting 
wherein he is told that "this Thirrologh i- but a wretched person, and a man 
grete power, neyther having house to put his hedd in, nor yet money in his poi 
buy hym a garment, yet may he well make two or three hundred men. Assurin. 
Hieghnes that he hath doon more hurte to your English Pale then any man in Irlande." 
On this occasion, Tirlogh and his brother Art oge petitioned the King f t grants o{ the 
territory of Fercullen, and the manor of Castle-Kevin, in the present county of Wick- 
low, for which see the same State Papers, p. 270: and. for the King's letter directing 
patents to be passed to them, see same, p. 279. The curious conditions on which these 
patents were granted, have been omitted in the published State Papers alluded t< 1 : but 
they will be found enrolled on the Patent Roll, 32. 33 Hen. VIII. Rolls Orhce. Dublin- 
Anterior to this period, a branch of these " O'Tooles of Leinster" emigrated to the 
west of Ireland, and settled in the island of Omey in Iar-G mnaught, where their descend- 
ants still remain, note ", ante, p. 1 17, but mostly reduced to a state of poverty. In the 



Office of Arms, Dublin, I find the following " Pedigree of the O'Tooles of Conmaicne- 
mara in West Connaught." 

" Tuathal {Toole) O'Toole. 

Dunchain O'Toole. 

Dermod Sugach O'Toole. 

Dermod Oge O'Toole. 

Awley O'Toole. 

Hugh O'Toole. 

Toole O'Toole. 

Felim O'Toole. 

Theobald O'Toole. 

Edmond O'Toole, of Conmaicne-mara." 
In A. D. 1586, the last-named Theobald (Tibbott) O'Toole, who is described as " a 
supporter of the poor, and keeper of a house of hospitality" (i. e. a Biatagk), was hanged 
by a party of Sir Eichard Bingham's soldiers, who were sent on a predatory excursion 
to Iar-Connaught. — Four Masters. The present O'Tooles of Conamara are reduced to 
poverty; and are utterly ignorant of their origin. 

" Ballymac Conroy." See page 1 1 3. 

In Irish 6aile mic Conpoi, the townland of Mac Conroi. This Conroi was the 
first chief of the territory of Gnomore, in Iar-Connaught. See Additional Note S, 
p. 253. Many centuries after his time, some of his descendants emigrated westward 
towards the coast, and settled in this district of Ballymac Conroy, to which they gave 
name. After the introduction of the English tongue into Iar-Connaught, the name of 
the clan Mhic Conroi was anglicised " Mac Conry," " M'Enry," and finally, but im- 
properly, " King," as if the original name was Mac an Righ, i. e. son of the King. The 
district of Ballymac Conroy was also anglicised " Kingstown ;" and thus the ancient 
name was wholly obliterated. The following instrument appears to have been entered 
into before these latter changes were made : — 

" This Indenture made the twelfthe of Aprille Anno Domini 1 6 1 5, betwine Morroghe 
ne Moyer O'Fflaherty of Bonnowen in the county of Gallwey, esq r one thone partie, 
and Knohor {Connor) m c Conry of Balle m c Conry in thaforesaid county also gentl. one 
thother partie: witnessethe that I the said Morroghe ne moyer O'Fflaherty have 
demissed unto the said Knohor m c Conry his heires, executors and assignes, for ever, 
all that the haulfe cartrone of Eigherpoete set. lyinge and beinge in Balle m c Conry 
within the barrony of Ballenehensse, in length and breathe as it dothe extend, together 
with all turffes, meadowes, pastures, mountaynes, watters, flyshings and all other 
thappurtenances thereinto belonginge : To have and to hold to the said Knohor 

irish arch. soc. no. 1 5. 2 O m c Conry 


m'Conry his heires, executors and assignes' sole and proper use and occuppacion for 
ever; yealdinge and paying by the feast of all Bte : yearly, the just some of six shillings 
and eight pence sterling, together with fower pence ster. to the said Moroghe and his 
heires, collectors or sargents: And also yealdinge the king's rents and all other contri- 
butions together with O'Fflaherty is rent, if any should grow, over and besides tha- 
foresaid some of six shillings and eight pence ster. and I the said Morroghe ne .' 
O'Fflaherty mine heires, executores and assignes, the said Knoher m'Conry hifl heires, 
executores and assignes, in the possession, use and occupation of the same, shall save, 
warrant, acquite and defend against all manner of personne and personnes whatsoever. 
In withness whereofe wee have hereinto interchangeably sett our haunds and sealls, 
the day and year first above wrytten. Morrogh MF. ne Mover O' Flaherty. Present 
wee whose names insueth : Te. O'Fflahertie. — Donnelle oge si' Conk t, is marke. 

— Edmond m'Donnell m c Conry Richard Lynche." — Or if/. 

The last-named witness was a Galway lawyer, by whom legal instruments were 
prepared for the natives of Iar-Connaught at this period. These instruments were 
sometimes written in Irish, often in Latin, but generally in English, although it was 
then almost an unknown tongue in the district. Those in English usually con- 
tain certificates of having been read and explained in Irish to the contractu ! 
The following testamentary disposition by one of the Clan M'Enry, has been 
transcribed by the Editor from the original, preserved with other curious documents 
in the diocesan Registry of Tuam : — 

"Jesus, Maria. 

" The last will and Testament of Bryan M Enry, made the i3' b of Ffebrua: 
the yeare of our Lord God 1691, in the presence of Patrick Martin. Ed. M c Bryan, 
Murragh M c Bryan, &c. First, I bequeathe my soule to God Almighty, and my 
body to be interred in the church of Kill. 2. I bequeath a good in-calfe cow and 
calfe of a yeare old next May to my sister Sicily. 3. 1 bequeath a hefier of a yeare 
old last May to my Unkle Murrogh, and a mare to my father, and ■ Mar;. 

ban M c Enry. 4. I order a cowe of two yeare old la-t May to be given I 
Martin, and three sheep to be given to my wife. 5. Edmond M c Moyler owes me 
seaven shillings, and John M c Myler two shillings, which I order to be given to the 
three priests. 6. M r . Patf Martin owes me nine shillings. Bryan M c Enr. 
twelve shillings, John Shoy five shillings and ten pence. Owen M" Derm 
M c Dermott and Donnell Moghan owes me five shillings. 7. I owe William S 
rett ten shillings, Edward Martin one shilling, Anstas Martin three shillings, and 
John Kelly three shillings, which is to be paid out of the above debt, as Pat'. 
Martin shall think fitt."— Orig. 

- C 

2 8 3 

" Castle of Down.'''' See page 113. 

The castle of Down or Doon, in Irish Caiplean an t)una, was situate on a high 
rugged rock on the mainland, N. E. of the island of Omey. Its site is now occupied 
by the ruins of an old house, but the outer walls of the original building, four feet 
thick, are still traceable. Opposite the castle, on the south side of the inlet of the 
ocean called Streamstown Bay, stood the chapel of Kill, said to have been erected 
about 250 years ago, by one Dubhdara Mac Conroi ; who, according to tradition, was 
put to death by the O'Flaherty who then resided in Doon castle. The chapel and 
castle may be seen marked on Larkin's large map of the county of Galway. 

In this vicinity lived the bard Mac Sweeny (mentioned ante, p. 112, note r ) who 
has celebrated the castle of Doon, in a curious poem in his native language, entitled 
"GBpan an phuca," the song of the Puca or Goblin, a hairy sprite somewhat akin 
to the well-known Brownie of Scotland, but more mischievous. This production I 
am induced to insert here as a specimen of modern Irish versification. It is popular 
among the natives of Iar-Connaught, and is generally sung to music. 

" Qbpdn an phuca. 

" Gipeocai6 me aip maiom a n-ainm an oomnaij, 
Qjup pacpaib me a comnaibe aip cnocainin ban, 
t)eanpai6 me ceac ann ap leaccaob an bocaip, 
Q D-pogup oo'n corhjap a bup ajup call. 
Q n-cnc a m-bei6 ajam peap bealai j ajup bocaip, 
Caiopeam luce eolaip, peap loinje ajup bdib, 
6iai6 pjol aj luce ealaoan 'p aj ojdnaij 65a, 
Q lopj an eolaip a ceacc aip mo ppaio. 

Ip e lompdo na 5-cailleac lp na peanoaoine epionna, 
tD'pdj meapball aip m'mncinn, ip neull ann mo ceann, 
Ca a pa6 50 b-puil an puca ann 6 aimpip na ofleann a , 
^o b-pacai6 na oaoine e, acr nt puil piop cia an c-am ; 
Miop b-e pin 00b aic liom-pa a ceacc pdice an jeimpe, 
Q Beir oeanarh iopbaipe a pcij an mo ppaio. 


a It is generally believed that the Puca has sur- going out on that night, for fear of encountering this 

vived the deluge. He is supposed to be particularly formidable phantom of the imagination. To reason 

busy on All-Hallow- eve ; and many persons avoid with them on the subject is useless. 

2 O 2 


'S 50 m-bfonn pe 'net cac ip 'na rhaoa 'pan oioce, 

'S nap ooicce 'na phuca e, na na pean jeappdn ban. 

Q comappanaij oilipe cujalo 6am conjnam, 
Qjup oibpeocaio me an puca amac ap an die, 
Cuippeao paof jeapa e ip paoi oaoippe na h-urhlacc', 
7\an a reacc aon oioce coloce niop ^atpe lond an TTldm b . 
Chinn pe aip a n-^piallac ip aip piidopuij 00 6upca, 
Ip aip an meio peandipio 00 bi 'p an die, 
dec peolpao-pa piop e 30 bun cnuic an ouna c , 
Pflap a b puil caiplean a' phuca ruap 1 n-a bdpp. 

Pa^paio m£ ann pin e 50 j-caireeap pdire an £eimpe, 

Cabaipe mapcuioeacc 00 riiaopaib, opeam eipj$eap poim la, 

Ho tonnpoioeao pe Caipiol rpe ceapc-ldp na TTIuimneac, 

CImac 50 Sliab caopac, no anonn oo'n cip ban : 

Mo ceibeao pe 'na ceannpopc aip maijipqiio bpui jne, 

Sioxaib paea Cpuacain no Pmnbeapa mea6a d , 

No a paipe pean caiplean aip aipopean no puaiopeao, 

^o bun cnuic an ua^nip no anonn 50 Sliab 6djan e . 

Cuippio me pjonpa le h-lomaipe an liondin*", 

'S ni leijpio m ^ aniap € rap TTIhdm an tuipe moip, 

lTluna n-oeanaio pe aicjjeapp rpe 6haile na h-inpeB, 

N'dir a m-beio penepi maioin ip neoin. 

Mi leijpio me ropam aip calum na aip euinn e, 

'S biaio aipeacup jpinn ajam poime 'p an poo, 

lp ma capcap 00 lac e h , peap mair rd 'pan dp po, 

6ampi6 6e piopa oe'n leicceann no an c-ppon. 


!> See ante, p. 120, ' lomaipe an liondin — See this place de 

e The hill of Down or Doon, on which stood the scribed, p. ."> 1 . 
castle of that name, mentioned pp. 113, 283. * Ballynahinch. for which *r 

"i.e. Cnoc meada piUll.-For this well- "John Joyce, better known by the name ■ 

known hill, see p. 147. Shane na Baine.-Ue was one of the giganUc race 

e i. e. Sliab 6drna na o-cuar, a mountain inhabiting the Boss mountains ; and was remarkable 

in the county and barony of Roscommon. The name for bis stature, strength, and good-humour. He has 

is incorrectly translated " white mountain 1 ' in the been frequently mentioned by modem tan* 

Statistical Survey of that county, p. 1 9. fair specimen of a rural Irishman. 

28 5 

'S ea6 Rlaiciap O'tDuBam an piopanad lucmap', 

Cpann peapca na cuipe nap clip a n-aon 5066, 

t)a B-pajao pe jpeim pfobam, no coppain na guailne aip, 

Ceajpao pe an puca lp mo cainic a piam. 

T?acpamn-pi a m-bannaio oa 5-cuippioe rap cuan e, 

N ac 0-ciucpa6 an puaij aip an bealac po map, 

'S nac peapao an cleapaio a n-aon ceapo oe'n coije, 

Niop Jaipe lona Conooin no Cuaomumain Ui 6p>ain i . 

Ua muimjin mair aj-am-pa ap jnfom phaopuij Seoijij, 
^o b-p6acpaio p6 pop e le cumap a cnam, 
Cineal na n-jaipjioeac lp na pioipioe cpojanca 
^bluaip le Scponjbou cuj-amn ap bpeacain anall k . 
t)a 5-cappaioe 66 an puca a 5-ceapc-lap a' bocaip, 
Ce cum an cpacnona no camall poim la, 
6heir p£ '56 lapcao 16 baea lp le oopnaio 
Jjo j-cuippea6 pe moit) aip $ar\ pilleao 50 bpar. 

Ca B-puijpeao-pa capall com maic leip an b-piica, 
6heic meanmnac, lucmap aj- lmceacc 'p aj- coioeacc, 
'S 06 mbao ciop aj ceann Qcla 00 coijpeao pe uallac, 
6heic pe a leac-uaip aj jeacaio Baile aca cliac. 
Capab 66 6aci ' a n-oeipe na h-of6ce, 
'S 6 o^anaih aoip opfpil a pic n-oiaio mna, 
Chiomain p6 leip e 50 coin Rinne maoile m , 
'S cauepion pjpiobca cape le na ceann. 


■ O'Dubhain, Anglice Duane, an old Milesian fami- ' Lackey or Malachy O'Malley, a wit and 
ly of Iar-Connaught, anciently attached to the O'Fla- " Rhymer" who lived near the mountains of Partry, 
herties, and still highly respectable. Of this family and of whom many facetious stories are still related, 
was Counsellor Mat. Duane of Lincoln's Inn, London, The ludicrous employment of Puca-driver here as- 
distinguished in the last century for his learning and signed him by his friend, Mac Sweeny, gave occa- 
antiquarian knowledge. See an interesting letter sion to several good-humoured sallies between these 
from him in the Irish Magazine, Dublin, 1809, p. rival wits, which are still remembered by their ad- 
425. mirers. 

> The district of Thomond or Clare. m Rinvile, the residence of Henry Blake, Esq. 

k This alludes to the British extraction of the This place, with Aughris, the seat of Geoffrey Coneys, 

Joyces, for which see ante, p. 45 ; and Additional Esq., and the other localities mentioned in the suc- 

Note Q, p. 246. ceeding stanzas, are well known in this district. 


Chuaio an puca 50 ^aillirh aip maioiri oia haoine, 
Gj iappai6 aobap bpipce oe'n eaoach 00b peupp, 
Chaimj an oeipeanap, lp cuic aip an oloce, 
C^up copaij pe. 05 caoine n-uaip a o'lmei^ an la ; 
6hi pe aj p5peaou6 'pa5 imceacc rap cimcioll, 
55o b-pujao pe oloean apcij leip na mnuib. 
Seolao 50 h-Gacpuip lp 50 baile Conpoi e, 
Gmac cpe cnoc maoir.ip ip cope lnnip meaooin. 

Q corhappana oilpe pa buachailioe 65a, 
Qn rheib ajaib cuijiop claonap mo cuip, 
Cijioe cu5am-pa a n-ionao mo conjanca, 
^o 5-ceapam an cuipc-peo a n-arai6 cpl la, 
Cuippeamuio ceac ann a n-ainm a lepuic, 
^o n-oibpijeam a' puca amac ap a laun, 
'S 6 ainm biap peupcu aip Cpiocan a c-piompa, 
Gjupcaiplean ITIic Suibne cuap 1 n-u bupp. 

But the most popular of Mac Sweeny's compositions is an ironical description of a 
" Conamara Wedding," wherein he recapitulates, in a strain of considerable humour, 
the preparations made for the feast, and enumerates the guests to be invited on the 
occasion. It has been said of the description of an entertainment at Templehouse in 
Sligo, in the last century, that it might be considered "as the ne plus ultra of all the 
subjects, that the wit of man has ever devised, to excite and continue the loudest 
peals of laughter." — Walker's Memoirs of the Irish Bards, vol. i. p. 331, Dub. Ed. 1818. 
To apply this to the following effusion might be thought presumptuous; but we may 
safely affirm that no one who understands the Irish language can hear the " Cona- 
mara Wedding" recited or sung by a native, without acknowledging the comic 
powers of the author". Had Mac Sweeny received the advantages of our well-known 
countryman, O'Keeffe, he would, probably, have displayed equal wit and humour. 

n In the first four stanzas, a rich assortment of mu>i</." The eatables are next provided, beginning 
dresses is ordered for the bride ; and, for the feast, an in the fifth stanza, with a profusion of fish, from tb* 
abundant supply of wine and whiskey, beer in boat- herring to the " tortoise;" in the sixth stanza, wild 
loads, tea and spices of all kinds, including " nutmegs fowl in great variety : and in the seventh, all kinds 
and saltpetre:" with all the necessary apparatus of of meat, from the ox t" the badger: with a humorous 
" knives and forks" (which, it appears, were not hint that it would be prudent to have these latter 
at that time in general use in Conamara), pipes, viands either boiled or roasted. In the three follow ■ 
tobacco, cards, backgammon boxes, and " bands of ing stanzas the guests are enumerated. These coo- 


bainip phe^i nf h-Ga jjia°. 

Q labpaip pheicin 1 ', jluaip 50 capaib, 
O 'p cu ca cum a oeanea, 
Cabaip leac a baile abbap papcail 

Cfjup cloca pabapiooa, q 
6p6ja 'p pacenp, cnocaio jallba, 

Qjup pibinije oeapa cpioca, 
^louep ip bobp lp jac aon nib Deap 

t)dp po jann b'aon bean 'p an pi^eacc. 
6106 pin agab pompebope, 
Spanjleo pile ip bpep-cap mop 
Pouoepeo haippin, uebje pomatum, 
TDupp mate oeanea 
Chum a gleupca, 
Ce habaij peap a copujab. 


6ipje aip maioin 'p jleup bo capall, 
'S imcij leac 50 h-eupja, 

Siop 50 ^aillim map b-puil na ceannaijee, 
Uabaip leac jac n! bap peibip ; 


sist of the great Milesian families of Connaught, 
with some " Strongbonians" and " Cromwellians," 
" TiD nap coip"; and they end with the neigh- 
bouring gentry, and others of Iar-Connaught, who 
are summed up with some keen touches of wit. To 
complete the irony, the father of the bride is intro- 
duced, and the furniture of his cabin displayed, viz., 
a pot, a spinning-wheel, and a kneading-trough for 
dough; although bread was a luxury which the 
family never tasted. The spirit of this curious poem 
would be entirely lost by translation. See Tytler's 
" Principles," chap. xiii. 

" The wedding of Peggy O'Hara," but more 
generally called the " Conamara wedding." The 
number of English v, ords, borrowed for want of corres - 
ponding terms in Irish, shews the increase of the Eng- 

lish language in Iar-Connaught. These alien addi- 
tions would be indignantly rejected by the older bards. 

i* Laurence Fechin, i. e. Laurence the son of 
Fechin. The surname was Coneely, for which 
see ante, p. 27, note '. It is common in the 
west of Ireland to make the Christian name of the 
father answer as a surname for the son. Hence 
Fechin Coneely's son is called Laurence Fechin. 
This practice has tended to multiply surnames. 
With this Laurence the irony commences. He was 
a little lame tailor of Cloghaun (Clifden), a bad 
horseman, and certainly the most unfit provider of 
a feast that could possibly be selected. 

1 Rascal. A slang name formerly given in the 
west of Ireland to an outside great-coat. This is 
one of the borrowed words. 

pion a'p bpanDi, piucpa canoi, 

Piobap, coppe a'p cea leac, 
Gn pjian 'p an pope, 'p an miaprhcnc jeal, 

'S na DeapmaiD coioce an peacap. 

Qn puo do biap an bainip mop, 
Cearpap aip piccio oe luccceoil. 
6anop op mupic uj an j-ciiilpionn 
Ip lao 50 pujac 
CI5 peinm ciuin aip ceaoaib. 

Cabaip leac mupcapo, miapan cupcaipo, 

Cuppeen mop ip ceapoc, 
6ioo an jac lam leac cupla lap 

Qjup lao-pin lun lamaica 1 ", 
GblaiD, ualnucp, cnocaio jalloa, 

Cemonp le punch a oeanarii, 
Ume oecancepp, beoip 'na ceann-pan, 
6106 do bopo-pa jleupca. 

6ainip cacbapac 50 leop, 
Cucaib milpe ip pancacep mop, 
pion a n-jlainlo, punch a 5-canaio, 
Q laim jac pcappuioe, 
Ct m-beal jac bealaij, 
loip oa ceann na miopa. 


Cabaip leac baD oe leann maic laioip, 

66n luce can ip piompa, 
Na oeapmaiD jpaiceip, cabaip do paic leac, 

Nucmej a'y palcpecpe ; 
Paca capoaio, bopca caiplip, 

peac, na paj na oiplfje, 


r "Jamaica," i.e. rum. "Geneva" i.e. gin, is dered genuine, as it was more frequently "smug 
often substituted for this word ; but rum is consi- gled" into Conamara than Geneva. 


Sm ip a Ian nac b-puil 'pan 5-capoa, 
Cobac laioip ip piopaib. 

Qn puo a biop an paclaip mop, 
, Q b-puil an Gipinn oe luce ceoil, 

Spoipc ip aiceap, glop ip caipmipe 

Ppip an ainnip, 

Q5 luce eala6na na eipe. 

Sjolbapo Ppancac s pa£ jan ariipup, 

tanja ip cpopj ma peioip, 
6peac ip bpaban, ponnac, j'jaoan, 

6106 50 po maic jleapca. 
Ni mop 6uic pionall, fm ip peippill, 

po^nann pin oon meio pin. 
6pan ip ballac ip cnuoan oeapj 

Oo conjnam cum an peapca. 

Caiepip copbapb, pluc ip pol, 

^liomac muipe ip papcan mop. 

^ac lapjr, aip aiceap ip an eclaoac, 

^0 piu an copcoipe. 

t)o peip mo ruijpin ni beib aip eapbaio, 

Caicpip a cup le cede. 


Paj peap junna ip cuip amac e, 

Q mapbpap oumne eanlaio, 
Naopga ip peaboj, miap rnaic opuioeog, 

Cpeabap caoc ip ceippeac ; 
Cupla colum biop a 5-colamn, 

Sin ip buinnean leana', 
tonnoub, jealban, cpucac pearinap, 

Uibjeon, ip maic an c-ean e. 


s Sjolbapo ppancac. — Afish known inEng- ble for his booming in the leana, " the sedgy shal- 
lish by the name of " Maiden-ray." Raia clavata. low." Ardea stellaris. 

' 6uinnean leana. The bittern, remarka- 

1RISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2P 


Ccnrpiom parpuipjloe, d' pujjail 
p a 5-cup ap pceuepp puap aip clap, 
Caca ip bapoal, je ajup janoal, 
Coileac ppancac, bioo piao pancac 
Qn a opeam pin, 'nuaip a Blop piao jleupca. 


Paj pjaca mapcuijeacc 'p bioo ja leajao 

6uproi|iije na cipe, 
Oeanpap peunnao 50 luar capaio, 

lp muipbeocap psaca caopuc. 
Qn piai^ mop beannac", bpoc an jleanna. 

Sin 'pen etlicc maol leac 
Uan ip luan, jubap ip mionan, 

Ni copcapjaca b-puije ru. 

6106 luoij5 mair biaoca jleupra aip bopo, 
Cope mop pearhap, ip pijin 65, 
TTliolbuioe ip comin, cupla picin, 
Do peip mo rui^pe. ip moioe an r-einneuc. 
lao a beir bpuirce ip popcra. 


Sjiop oe pjioppab plop 50 Slijeac 

"S cabaip O'Concubaip" cpean leur. 
ftpianai^, Oulaij, plairbeapraijj, rDuilli^. 

O'Ceapbaill "p O'Neill leur: 

u Qn piaiJ5 mop 6eannac. — The ml Walter Coneys, who built the first boose in Clifdto. 

mountain deer. See p. 121, note*. see p. 1 ll'. n.>t<- r . Th.' •• -reat doctor," it appears. 

* The Milesian families here invited wera (he was an itinerant quack. - i weB- 

O'Conors Sligo, the O'Briens, O'Dalys. O'Flaherties. known " smuggler" of the name of Pa<: 

O'Malleys, O'Carrolls, O'Neills, Mac Carthys, Cloch a Stone. Gordon mor, or Gordaa the great, ■ 

O'Brien Lord Clare, O'Rorke, O'Hara, and Mao testy old pedagogue ; Bkhard Martin, the late 00- 

Sweeny Fanad. Among the neighbouring gentry, lonel of duelling celebrity ; If. St George ofHead- 

the " Strongbonians" and " Cromwellians" enume- ford ; the Blakes and 1 1 I "Mistress Davis." 

rated in the succeeding stanzas, we find Geufl'ry a lady who used to boast that she was " a Crom- 

Coneys of Achrisbeg, the Bodkins, the Lynchesj and weOian with a Williamiu 


6iod leac Hlac Capcaij, Cijeapna an Chldip, 
O'Ruaipc a nfop 6'n m-5peipne, 

Sin 'p O' h-6ajpa, TTIac Suibne pdnaio, 

lp Clann (Dhoncaio na Ceipe. 

6106 Scpongbonianp leac 50 leop, 

lTluincip Cpomell, 516 nap coip 

Qn meib o' a 5-cine nac 5-cuipim an puime 

6heipim aip pao 50 leip 661b. 


Uiucpaib an lomao aip an ccuipeao 

m6p uaiple na cipe, 
Seacpun Conep a b-puil a n-lomai6, 

66iDicInije ip tinpi je, 
&huicep Conep cpoice jjjan ceilj, 

'S Seumap 6haba Ppionnpa, 
Gnooccup mop, ip mai^ipcip Seon, 

'S a ihuincip leip cap cimcioll. 

^luaip aip Paipje TTlipcep Scone, 
Supep-capjo ip^opoon mop, 
Ct ccoinne jpeice, nf nac peioip, 
Ueoinj pabouppa cup le ceile, 
^jo 0-C1516 piaoaip nu copcaib. 

Cupla paim a bi 'pan lacaip, 

Qip ap mian liom cpaccao aip aon piocc, 
Ripceapo lTlaipcfn, Sc. ^eopje, lTlanpepj, 

laplaij ip cijsjeapnai j a n-aoinpeacc; 
6punaij, 6lacaij phupbaic alamn, 

Ctjup uaiple bpeaj na h-Gipeann, 
&haicep 65 na oeapmaio pop, 

Oap liom niop coip a cpeijionn. 

6106 jac buine map cuaib pe a 5-ceim, 
Q n-ionao puioce aip leic leip pem, 
^an aon j'a b-caicije ace pilioe 
placa ip pleapjaio ealabna, 
Ce h-ajaio aipce a oeunam. 
2 P 2 XI 



Nac mop an oeapmao pinne an peap 

t)o cuaio aj cpuinniu^uo an peapci, 
hugo, ITIapia, Nopa ni Pharapcaij, 

Siobun ip mai^ipcpeap Daibip. 
Qinnopm, Ruaiopi^e, 6pi£io ni 6hpuaoaip, 

lTlaipe n! Cuarail ip benup, 
6pijib ip Uomap, mumcip Cioeain, 

Ip Sreapan ceann an rheio pin. 

6u6 e puo pein an jliomac coip, 
Qp aije pajbab pcnr an oip, 
Qp tomoa cpopjan 1 n-a boran, 
Cupna ip qiomun ip maiot iceam. 
Poca, lopao ip cpiarap.'' 

The ironical song or mock-elegy which follows, is an old favorite in Iar-Couna . 
It has been attributed to Mac Sweeny, but improperly, lor it is now ascertained to be 
the production of a cotemporary bard of perhaps superior powers, the late Kichard 
Barret, a native of Erris in Mayo; and every lri>h reader will, we think, I 
at finding it preserved here. It is entitled Eoghan coir, which may be paraphrased 
Owen, the honest and humane. This hero is still remembered as one of the most ra- 
pacious " land-agents" of his time. For poignancy of wit. and felicity of expn 
these few stanzas have seldom been excelled. Mr. Knight, in his Account of Erris, 
Dublin, 1836, 8vo. describes Barret as "a man of real genius, though entirely unknown 
to the world. His humorous compositions, in Irish, were exceedingly pleasant. 1 
rally ironically satirical ; he extravagantly praised those for qualities of which th«y had 
the opposites." — p. 121. The following is one of the latter description: — 

"Gojjhcm coi|i. 

" Nac 6 po an pjeal oeacpac 'pan efp-p, 
Q n-anacaip cpoioe ajup bpom, 
O pa^bup pe Cpeajcm an line 

^o o-cei6 pe £0 o-ci an Pal mop. 
Q leir^io oe pjpeaoao 'p oe caoine 
Nfop cluineao 'p an o-rip-pi pop, 
^18, ni puil ajainn a n-ionjnao, 

O cailleao. papaoip ! Gojan coip. 


2 93 

6hi jnaoi ajup jean aj jac n-aon aip, 

Qn peanouine cpion 'p an c-65, 
6hl an paibbip 'p an baibbip a n-gpab leip 

lTlap jeall aip a cpoibe mair, mop, 
Ce coja lp le poja na cipe 

X)o caireab pe pfopaio oip, 
lp le oaoine bocca eile niop ppib leip 

froibeal oe'n c-pibin o'ol. 

Ca Gncoine Ouabain aj caofneao, 

lp ni beib Seajan O'&aoijilla b-pao bed, 
O cailleao a 5-capaio 'p an cip po 

'p e b'pajbaio a 5-cpoioe paoi bpon; 
Qn anacaip caraip niop pineab, 

'p e meapaim, pa liaj na poo, 
Qoin neac buo rheapa oo'n ofp-pi 

lond an buine bocc maol, Gojan coip. 

6uo po rhair ag cogbail an ciopa e, 

6u6 fteafi aije mi no 66, 
^o n-biolcaio an bo aip an aonac, 

No an jioca 00 bioeao 'p an c-peol. 
'S e oubaipr Seamap pheabaip mic Riabaij, 

lp e aj ajaipc aip Rfj na n-beop, 
t)o peip map bi pe-pion 00 oaoinib 

^up ab ariilaib beio Cpiopoa 66. 

Qon agup peace annpa line, 

Gjup oce bo cup piop paoi 66 w , 
Cpa jlac pe-pion ceab le na oaoine 

Qgup niop labaip pe gioj niop mo. 
Ca pe beapbea, pjpiobca, 

5 U P calam ip cpioc gac beo, 
lp com pao ap beiomio 'pan c-paojal-po 

Ca mipoe ouinn bpaon beag b'ol. 

" A. D. 1788. 


2 9 4 

NOTE A. A. Seepage 115, note w . " Bofia isle.'' 

The island of Bonn was surrendered to the Parliamentary forces on the 14th of 
February, 1652. The articles of capitulation will be found among the curious collec- 
tion of that class, announced for publication by the Irish Archeological Society. The 
few extracts, from other original sources relating to this island, which follow here, 
may be found useful by the future topographer. 

After the surrender, the " State'' ordered that the fortifications at Bonn should be 
repaired. But on 20th Feb. 1655, Sir Hardresse Waller, and Colonels HJewBOD and 
Sankey represented to the Council of State, that "the works at Boffin should be aban- 
doned, and the garrison drawn thence to some other place ; and £1 000 to be advanced to 
block up the harbour." It was accordingly ordered, " that if any undertaker will un- 
dertake to block up the harbour there, and secure the performance, he may have £600 
for so doing; and to sell the barque Elizabeth of Gal way, which was sent to Bumn to 
carry lime-stone there." — Original Council Book, Dublin Castle. 

This intention of blocking up the harbour was afterward- abandoned, and the State 
again resolved to fortify the island. On 3rd June, 1656, it was ordered, " that a fort 
be erected and built on the island of Boffin, and that tin- other fortifications thi 
repaired, for the defence of the said island; and that of the 22 guns in the island, 6 or 
8 of the shorter size be sent to Galway for the State's use, and that, instead of t). 
longer be senttoBoffyn with good carriages, bullets, &<■." — LI. On 12th June, 1656, 
ordered, "that it shall be taken into consideration to send an able, pious, and orthodox 
minister of the gospell to be settled at Bofin, to be paid with the company."' Also 
" that Sir Charles Coote do consider of ordering that Colonel John Honnor, the gover- 
nor there, shall suffer no Irish to keepe any boats upon any parte of that a 
Ir-conaght, the co. of Mayo, or adjacent islands; also to exclude all ill-affected Irish 
out of that island, and clearing the same of all dangerous and disaffected persons."' 
Also, on same day : " Whereas this Council Board is informed that there is a ne 
of appointing a Justice of peace for the island of Baffin, to take care for the mendinge 
of highways from Galway towards the said island, and also to regulate other disi.irdt.-rs 
there — ordered that the Lords Commissioners of the great seale be and are hereby de- 
sired to put Lieutenant Colonel Honnor, governor of the said island, in the commis?ion 
of the peace for the counties of Galway and Mayo." — LI. The useful work her. 
gested, viz. "the mending of highways from Galway towards the said Island," was not 
effected, in consequence of the political chaDges which soon after took place; nor was 
any improvement of the kind attempted for more than 150 years after that period. 

On 1 2th Aug., 1656, Sir Charles Coote, Lord President of Connaught. certified 

" that 

2 95 

" that the town of Galway, the isles of Arran, Inisbuffyn, Clagganbay, Lettermalin, &c. 
were then garrisoned ; and conceived most necessary that they should be continued as 
standing garrisons." — Original 'Council Book. Soonafter this, James Darcy petitioned the 
Council, setting forth, " that the Commissioners of Loughreahave lately assigned him 
a proporcon of wast and course mountayne land in the barrony of Ballinehinsy, in the 
territory of Ire-Connaught, which yieldeth very little profitt either to the petitioner, 
or any other inhabitants that might be drawn to reside thereon : And, that, although 
the principall profitt of the said land, in all times, hath been by fishing on the sea 
coast, yet the Governor of Innes-Boffin, and others, have'lately seized on some boates" 
(see the preceding order of 12th June, 1656) " belonging to some tenants who reside 
on parte of the said landes, and would not permitt the said tenants to take any fish on 
the said coast without disturbance." — Order : " Eefer the same to Sir Charles Coote, 
to give such order therein as he shall hold just. Council Chamber in Dublyn, the 
26th Jan., 165!-. Thos. Herbert, Clarke of the Councill." — Id. 

The Council books from which the foregoing extracts have been taken, contain im- 
portant documents relating to the general history of Ireland, at that period. Other 
notices of Inisbofin and the " Owles," taken from the same sources and intended for 
insertion here, are reserved for an opportunity which it is hoped may yet occur, of il- 
lustrating the History and Antiquities of Mayo, particularly its western districts. The 
future topographer of that great and interesting county, will derive valuable informa- 
tion from the " Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach," printed for the 
Irish Archaeological Society, A. D. 1844. 

NOTE B.B. See page 1 1 8, note x . " Robert Martin." 

" Trial of Mr. Robert Martin for the murder of Lieut. Henry Jolly; at the bar of 
the King's Bench, Dublin, 2nd May, 1735. 

" The Court being sat, and the following jury sworn, viz. Michael Burke — Thomas 
French — Henry Burke — John Burke — Ross Mahon — William Boylan — John Holli- 
day — John Broughton — "Walter Lambert — David Poor — George Davis — ( One omitted.) 
The first witness for the Crown was Lieut. Geo. Bell. — Was not present at the time of 
the quarrell between the prisoner and deceased, but very soon after deceased"s death, 
saw him lying on the ground, in a gore of blood ; and his body with several fresh 
bleeding wounds, three of which were on his right side close upon his breast, and one 
of them pierced out of his back quite through and through his body. Deceased had 
also two wounds more on the left side, which penetrated the very cavity of his body. 
Having been asked by the Court had deceased any other wounds, he said, a few on his 
left hand and arm, but they would not prove mortal. He felt to know if deceased had 



any pulse, and found none. This testimony he gave at the Coroner's Inquest on the 
deceased's body at Galway. The Court and the Prisoner asked this witness way few- 
questions, his testimony being only grounded on the description of the deceased's 

" Captain Edward Southwell, sworn — Mr. Jolly and witness were diverting them- 
selves in a billiard-room at a coffee-house in Galway. The prisoner Martin furiously 
came up into the room, drew his sword, and instantly demanded satisfaction of the 
rascal who spit upon him as he was passing by. Witness answered it was he that did 
it, but through no affrontful design, and in the most humble manner asked his pardon. 
Such humility little availed, for Mr. Martin insisted upon further satisfaction, and, 

being in a very great passion, witness said, ' Let me go to my barrack for a sword I 

will very speedily return, and comply with your request ;' there being no sword 
between either Mr. Southwell or the deceased, Mr. Jolly. 

" Prisoner asked witness was the first attack by the deceased with any instrument 
not a sword, at the billiard-table, before the prisoner drew his -word? Answer. N 

"The next evidence was Robert Watson, the coffee-boy, who swore that there were 
four yards' distance at the Billiard-table between Mr. Martin and Mr. Jolly: the latter 
standing by the window, and Mr. Martin at the door with his -word drawn, and 
approached Mr. Jolly. That Mr. Jolly took up a chair to defend himself, through 
the frame of which the. prisoner made several thrusts at the di a 

" The evidence on behalf of the prisoner were Julian Mathews Xich< " ] 

Donnolly ; and others who, to their knowledge, gave their several testimonies in 
favour of the prisoner. Donnolly's testimony appeared very much in his favour, and 
of great moment to the jury. The Court then summed up the evidence, and char; 
the jury; who, after some stay, brought in the verdict NOT GUILTY. Dublin, 
printed by E. Waters, Blind Quay, 1735." 

This report was evidently a hasty and imperfect publication, is-ued immediately 
after the trial, to gratify public curiosity; and cannot, therefore, be much depended 
upon. The panel was from the venue of the offence; and the lenity of a "Gal-/ 
jury" has since become proverbial. The traverser ten yea: mbreoed 

Protestant faith. See Certificate, No. 96, dated 14th July. 1745, on tn e "Convert 
roll" containing that year, in the Rolls Office, Dublin, in which he is described as 
" Robert Martin of Dangan in the county of Galway, Esq." He died an aired man 
about A. D. 1792. Lieutenant Jolly was interred in St. Nicholas' Church. Galway; 

where the following inscription may be seen on a small mural monument: "Near 

this place lies the body of Henry Jolly, Lieutenant of Grenadiers in the Hon. General 
James Dormer's Regiment of Foot." 


IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2 Q 





Composition beheeen Queen Elizabeth and the Lords, Chieftains, fyc. of Connaught. 

A. D. 1585. 

T was not until late in the reign of Elizabeth that the province of Connaught was 
brought under subjection to the Crown and laws of England. The proceedings 
by which that event was achieved were commenced by the Lord Deputy, Sir Henry 
Sydney, in A. D. 1575; and completed by a succeeding Deputy, Sir John Perrot, in A.D. 
1585. The project was, to divide the province into shires; then to induce the lords 
and chieftains to receive sheriffs into those shires; and, finally, to prevail on the chiefs 
themselves to surrender their Irish titles and tenures, and to receive back their pos- 
sessions by patents from the Crown, to descend in hereditary succession according to 
the laws of England. In a dispatch to the lords of the Council, A. D. 1576, Sir Henry 
Sydney writes, that he had " proved before theim," i. e. the lords and chieftains of 
Thomond, " (lately annexed to the presidenty of Connaught by the Name of the 
countye of Clare,) the verie Eoote and Origine of their Euyne was the uncertaine 
Graunte and vnstable possession of their Landes, wherevpon grewe their Warres, I 
brought them to agree to Surrender all their Landes, and take it of her Highnes 
agayne and yeelde bothe Eent and Service." — See " Letters and Memorials of State," 
before referred to, p. 125. Fo. London, 1747, vol. i. p. 102. 

On 28th April, 1576, the Lord Deputy further informed the Council that he had 
" devided Connaught (besides the East Breanie or Oreilies, and the Annalye or Offeralls 
countrie) into fower counties ; namelye, Sligo, which was a Parte of nether Connaught 
and Maio, which was an other parte of the same: Galway, which was called Upper 
Connaught, and Rossecomrnen, which was called the Playnes of Connaught. 

2 Q 2 " Out 


" Out of the countye of SlufO I had nothing but I at those humbly e 

written from Ochonnor, affirminge that he durst not come. the Warn 

hapned betwene Odonnell, and Con his nephewe; but lewd and malitio rather 

made hym afrayd, as I take it. He hath tinder his Tyrannic Dow Mac 

Donoghes, twoe Okares, and Agare, and yet he hym selfe trybutarie to ODonmdL 
They be all men of great Landes, and they shall not chuse, but yeelde bothe Bent and 
Service, to the Crowne; all but Ochonnor hym selfe, have offered it, and he, to be dis- 
charged of Odonnell, will most willinglye do it; I loke daylie for Oncarcke. wfc 
Countrie called West Breanye is also a Porcion of this Countie, with whome I doubt 
not but to conclude for a good Rente and Service for the Que i 
these countries, are well enhabited, and ritche, and more Haunted with Straungi 
then I wish it were, unles the Quene were better answered of her C 
moche for the Countye of Sligo. 

" Out of the countye of Maio, came to me to Galway, first scaven principall men 
of the Clandonells, for everye of theire seaven Linagies one, of that surname, and en 
bitinge that Countye, all, by profession, mercenarie Soldiers, by the name of GaUogi 
they are verie stronge, and moche of the wealth of the countrie is under theiiu: I 
are able to goe where they will, and withe the Countenaunce of any meane L 
Force, to make Warre with the Greatest. Theise humblye Bubmitted theun 
and their severall Linagies to her Magestie, protestinge, by othe, and byndinge th 
selves by Endenture and Hostage, never to stive any, but with Allowaunce of the 
Govornor. Troth it is, I was enformedby Dyvers Advertisments, that Mac WilJ 
Ewghter wold not come to me; and therefore Idrewe this Plott, that I wan his cfa 
Force from hym, in getting theise ClandoneBs: But it fell oul otherwise in the Ende, 
for MacWilliam verye willinglye came hymselfe; and moche the rather, by the good 
Perswasions, and Meanes of the Deane of Ghrid Churche, one of this ConnseU, whome 
I sent into Connaught, when I went in Mounster, onely to sonnde the D 
the Potentates, and great ones of that Province; and therein he did good service, and 
surelye so is he well able, both for his owne skill, and the creditt that others n ; 
in hym; if it please your Lordship to bestowe a thankful! lettre upon hym. it will be 
verie comfortable to the olde Man, which I humbly beseache your Lordships to doe. 
I founde Mac William verie sencible, though wantinge the Euglishe tongue, yet 
imderstandinge the Lattin; a lover of Quiet and Civylitie, detden »us to holde his La- 
of the Quene, and suppresse Irish Extorcion, and to expulse the Scotts, who swarme 
in those quarters, and in deede have almost suppressed theim ; in some Proffe wli< r 
he taried with me, most of the Tyme I remayned at Gahcajj. and thence went with me 
to Athlone, and departed not till I went from thence, where verie reverentlye, by Othe. 


3 oi 

he shewed his feaultye, and did his Homage, as Humblye bynding hym selfe, as well 
by Othe or Indenture, ever hereafter to holde his Landes of her Majestie, and her 
Crowne, and to pay yerelye twoe hundered fyvetie Markes Sterlinge, and to fynde 
twoe hundered Soldiors, Horssemen andFootemen, for two Monethes by the Yere; and 
to geve theim Foode in that Proporcion, as I trust, in Tyme, shall suffice bothe for 
their Meate and Wagies. In one of his Peticions exhibited unto me, he humblye 
besought (doubtinge that I would have taken away the Bonnaught from the Clan- 
donells, which they have of him and his countrie) that they might (with drawinge it 
from hym) holde it of the Quene. This Devise was underhande practized by me, and 
they, verie glade of this Overture made by hym, humblye desiered to hold it of her 
Majestie; and so, by Indenture passed betwixt the Galloglas and the Quene, they 
presentlye doe. This, my Lords, is an entraunce of no small Consequence, bothe for 
the reducinge of the Countrie to her Majesties Obedience, and no small Increase may 
be made besides to her Commoditie, and the Augmentacion of her Revenue. He 
received his Countrie at my Handes, by Way of Senesshallshipp, which he thanke- 
fullye accepted. The Order of Knighthoode I bestowed upon hym, whereof he semed 
verie joyous ; and some other little Triffies I gave hym, as Tokens betwene hym and 
me, where with verie well satisfied he departed. This is all I thought necessarie to 
write of Mac William, savinge that he was desierous I should sende thether an 
Englishe sheriffe, as I have lykewise donne in all the other Counties within that Pro- 
vince, which, of late, hath bene omitted : Mac William protested he would obey hym 
I sent, and geve hym Findinge for a sufficient Strenth of Men on Horssebacke and 
Foote; which I accomplished accordinge to his Desier, and sent one with hym. 
Surelye, my Lords, he is well wonne, for he is a great man; his Lande lyeth a longe 
the West North West Coast of this Realme, wherein he hathe maney goodly Havens, 
and is a Lorde in Territorie of three Tymes so moche Lande as the Earll of Clan- 
ricarde is. He brought with him all his Betheren, Mac Phillipjnn, who in Surname 
is a Bourke, as he is; and, besides theim, a great Nomber of Owners of Landes and 
Castells, lienge in the same Countrey : Omaylle came lykewise with him, who is an 
originall Irishe Man, stronge in galleys and Seamen; he earnestlye sued to hold of the 
Quene, and to pay her Rent and Service. At that instant were also with me Mac 
Phaten, of Englishe surname, Barrett; Mac Ivyle, of Englishe surname, Staunton; Mac 
Jordan of the lyke Dexter, Mac Custelo of the lyke Nangle, Mac Morris, of English 
surname, Prendergast; and theise v shewe Matter of some Recorde and Creditt, that 
they have not onely bene Englishe, which everye man confesseth, but also Lordes and 
Barons in Parliment, as they theim selves affirme ; and suerlye they have Landes suf- 
ficient for Barons, if they might weeld their owne quietlye ; but so bare, barbarous 


3 02 

Barons are they nowe, as they v have not three Hacki: arrye theim and ti 

Trayne Home. There were with me maney more of lower Degree, and no deep* : 
Wealth, as the Chiefe of Clanandros, and Mac T/tomyn; both they, and maney m 
Barretts, Cusackes, Lynches {Lynottes) and of sundrie Englisfie surnames, now degene- 
rate, and all lamentinge their Devastacion, and with one Consent crienge for Justice and 
Englishe Government, in so miserable (and yet magnanimous) Manner, as it would make 
an English Harte to feele Compassion with theim ; and thus for the Countye of M 

" Touchinge the countye of Galway; first, I finde the Towne of Gulvray moche 
decaied, both in Nomber of expert sage men of yeares, and younge Men of Warre, in 
respect of that I, have seene; which great Decay hath Growen thorough the horrible 
Spoyle donne upon theim, by the Sonnes of the Earle of Clonricharde, in so moche as 
it was evidentlye proved before me, that fiftie Howseholders of that Towne doe nowe 
enhabite under Mac William Croghter. And it seameth. they have not ou 
their Wealth, but with it their Wittes and Hartes; Surelye it may well seme they 
were in Pointe to have geven up all, and almost to have forgotten that they received 
any corporacion of the crowne; but I trust they are nowe revived, and I hope on 
mending Hande. Duringe mine Aboade there, the Earle of Clanricarde continuallye 
attended on me, and so did the Earle of Thomounde, the Archbishopp ol Ttioiu. the 
Bishopps of Clanfert and Kilmagkogh, and the Baron of Athenric. by suruauit Beri- 
mingkme, as poore a Baron as lyveth, and yet agreed on to lie the aum ron 

in this Lande; Oflahertye, Okelley, and maney of their Surnames, which are verve 
great; Madden, and all of any Accompt of that Surname; Oit(wghton. and maney 
other pettie Lordes ami Capteines of Countries, all were with me, con- -- - 
they ought service, cravinge thai fchej might hold their Landes immediatlve of her 
Highnes: Theise are the principal] of this Countye, savinge Boche as be i 
Clanrickards Sute or Surname, as Oheyne, originall Irishe, and in old Tyni 
great, nowemeane: Mm Cough, Mac Hubbert, Mac Davye, Mae Ednumnd, Mae Red- 
mounde; all theise Burls, and many more, but all holdinge of the Earle oi Cla>, 
(by due Service saj^eth he) but Thorough Oppression, Bay they, but all - tor 

Reformation crye for Englishe Governement and wokl feyne b< dd of the Queue and her 
Crowne.... I departede from thence the xxii"' of Mai - through 

Athenrie. I went thence with the Earle of Clanrickarde, and was verye honora; 
enterteined with hym. The next Night I lodged in the KeUie* Countrie, and the 
Night followinge in the Castle of Kossecommon. 

" I stayed at Rossecommon but a night, both for that I had apointed Provision at 
Athlone, which is in the Same Countye: as also, for that I found nothinge there laved 
in to furnishe me withall, and therefore willed the Assemblie 



duringe my abode at Eosscommon, Chonnor Donne come unto me, whose Auncestor, 
they say, was sometymes called Kinge of Connaught. The Castle of Eossecommon I 
tooke from hym in my former Governement, whose Auncestors possessed the same 
the contynuance of cxl Yeares, and never came into English men Handes : vnder his 
Eule there are, Obyrne and Offlun. Chonnor Eoe came not at me, for Feare I wold 
make hym make Recompence for Hurts donne in the Rebellion Tyme; under hym is 
Oflanigan, but I can have theim when I will, and make theim bothe Arme in Arme 
beare and drawe, with their Fellowes. Mac Dermod was with me, and one under hym 
called Mac Manus; theise people, and some more pettie Lordes enhabite the Playnes 
of Connaught, and are all destroyed by the Scotts chieflye. The Countrie is large, and 
of excellent Soyle ; the best, and all the rest Beggars, desireous to be delyvered from 
the Tyrannie of their stronger Neighbours they all craue to be subiected to the Eng- 
lish Governement. A number of perticular Cawsies were ended duringe my beinge at 
jLthlone, wher I remayned ix days in which Tyme was executed a notable Rebell of 
the Burks, whome I cawsed to be apprehended in the countye of Gal way; and by 
Order of Lawe, (for Burninge comitted by hym in Westmeithe) he was indyted, 
atteinted, and executed as a Traytor, (whose Landes I have Cawsed to be seised to her 
Magesties Vse); and thus moche for the countye of Rossecommon. 

" I look day lie for Ochonnor Sligo, Orwarcke, and Odonnell, and Con Odonnell, his 
Nephewe, and doubt not but so to agree with theim, as the Scottes shalbe sone 
banished out of that Province of Connaught." — Letters and Memorials, Sj-c, vol. i.p. 104. 

The foregoing is, perhaps, the most interesting of all the dispatches made by Sir 
Henry Sydney, during his then government in Ireland. It has been introduced 
here, as explanatory of the causes which led to the Composition with Connaught, 
and introductory to the documents connected with that measure, which follow. 
See in the same Collection, vol. i. p. 114, a curious account of the Deputy's pro- 
ceedings with O'Rourke, O'Conor Sligo, O'Donnell, and the O'Kellys, which con- 
cludes thus: — "The O'Kellies and I are agreed, and Articles of the same drawne 
betwene us to be perfected at Michelmas Terme next ; from which Terme for ever, 
they shall pay for their Countrie in Rent and Service, better than fyve hundred 
Markes gerelge." Soon after that, the Lord Deputy was recalled, and the progress of 
this " Civil Reformation" of the province was in a great measure suspended, until the 
government of Sir John Perrot, in A. D. 1585 s . 


a The following intermediate State document may Sir Nicholas Malby, Knight, for the better gover- 

serve to develope the views of Government, in A. D. merit of the Province of Connaght. At Westmin- 

1579, respecting the " Civil Reformation" here re- ster the last of March, 1579, in the xxi. yere of our 

ferred to. It is entitled, " Orders to be obsarved bv Kaiffne. 


The achievement of the "Composition," appear^ to have been a principal object 
with Sir John Perrot. Accordingly, on 15th July, 1585, a commission issued, di- 

" Elizabeth R. 

"Ffirst, forasmuch as We have determyned to 
unite, and by theise presents do unite the Country of 
Thomond otherwise called the Countie of Clare to 
your govennent of Connaght as yt was in the tyme 
of Sir Edward Fitton or any other President* or 
governor of that province ; Our pleasure is that you 
do carefully consider of the nomber of Baronyes 
within that Countie, and after view & consideracon 
of the same, to resarve upon the said Baronies bui 1i 
yerely somes of money, services of men, laborers in 
our works & cariadge horses by consent of the gentle- 
men and freeholders as ratably is resarved in the 
rest of Connaght by the late Composicons made by 
you there, the same to passe by Indentur betwene 
you & the said gentlemen of Thomond. 

2. " Also that you have a BpetiaU regard to the 
comen quiet of that countrie of Thomonde and to 
prevente such hurts hereafter as have bene don be- 
twene those of Thomond & the Inhabitaunts of Clan- 
ricard, severelie punishinge those on both sides the 
mountayns that shall give any mayntenaunce to the 
proclaymed Eebels of the Bourks, & others that live 
in those parts, unlese they shalbe lycenml by you 
to gev them releefe when any such Rebell shalbe 
protected by you, & not otherwise. 

3. " Also wheare by advice of our Counsell heere, 
wee have thought it necessary that the north parte 
of the cittie of Lymerick from Xewgate upward where 
the Castell standeth, might sarve as the Sliire towne 
for the Countie of Clare at the tyme of the assist s, 
because a good Jurie maie be had there for thorderly 
trial! of all the Coimtrie causes, That uppon your 
impartinge of those our orders to the Lord Justice 
of that Realme that he and you resolve upon som 
meane how to drawe the Major & inhabitaunts of 
Lymerick to consente thereunto either by parliament 
or otherwise, or at least for a tyme t\ 11 som apte 
place in Thomond maie at the Countrie chardges be 

circuited with a wall, which we think not harde to 
be broght to passe in this peaoaMe tyme. wherein 
we are contented that the laborers to be resarved to 
us in the • omposicons be imployed, & do refer to 
you the choise of the place, »* b we conoeave mak 
fitUe be at Quyne, Killaloe. or Innis. yf Clare 1 
ours, but graunted to thearle of Tliomond ;.- 

4. " Forther yt i- to be wissh'-d that in • 
Countie ol < onnaght where there are not alredieapt 
& saulfe places for thi of the Assises It 
Cessions, that the Countie at their chardges were 
induced by good ] 

circuit a convenyent place apte for a to»ne. with a 
walloflymi places we are contente to 

incorporat with Buch liberties, to drawe inhabitaants 
to yt. as to other Corporaoons of like situacon within 
that Bealm have ben graunted: Ffor passing* of 
which graunts, these shalbe sufficient warrant to the 
Governor for the tyme Ix-inge : which Our determy- 
nacon & desire to ha' '.aces of strength 

builded. we will you in our name to signihV to all 
those under your intie 

peribrmeoneworkeintl e .at thaptest 

place be at - Bures 

(Bvrxthoot) for the County • Roscoman 

for the Countie of B< acoman, *; at BaUenaaloe for the 
County of Galloway. 

5. '• An 1 5ug uppon a w^ 

ill ( bruit and disabili- 
tio of liis Countrie, obtayned -rante for a 

graunt to passe in Irelande for the fredom of his 
lands, in considi t Irish per annum, to be 

payed by hym, which graunte he hath nether passed 
there, nor obsarvid the condicons to l>e performed on 
bis parte: we tliink it unite that ye treat* with hvm, 
to yelde to such Comp - t the cap- 

tayns of Countries within that Province have con- 
1 unto, ratibly accordinge to the quanutie of 


rected to Sir Richard Bingham Governor of Connaught, the Earls of Thomond and 
Clanrickard, the Baron of Athenrie, Sir Tyrrelagh O'Brien, Sir Eichard Bourke Mac 


his countrie, which we thinke reasonable, as well 
in respect of our chardge and expences as setling a 
Goverment ther for defence of hym, and other of his 
qualitie, as also that the condioons to be observed 
by hym have not ben kepte accordinge to the worde 
and meaninge in our former graunte. 

6. " Also, we thinke yt convenyent that Connaght 
be restored to the auncyent boundes, & that the go- 
verment thereof be under you, especially of all the 
lands of Connaght & Thomond, beinge within the 
waters of Shenyn, Loughrye, & Lough Erne; & be- 
cause Maguyer chalengeth som Hands in the Lough, 
& som uppon the mayne uppon Connaght side, Our 
pleasure is that you make chalenge of a rente, by waie 
of Composicon, for so muchtherof as is out of Ulster, 
thinking yt also reasonable that for his lands in 
Connaght he shall beare with that province accord- 
inge to the quantitie of the soyle, & to the Composi- 
tions resarved uppon others, wherein our pleasure is, 
he be as favorably dealte withal, as any other of Con- 
naght that hath compounded (the goocbiess of the 
soyle considered). 

7. " Also whereas at our chardge a bridge hath 
ben lately buylded at Ballenslowe uppon the river of 
Sucke, & that there is great liklihode that the same 
should be shortlie overthrowne yf the Castell there 
weare in the kepinge of thlrish, or any doubtfull 
or undutifull subject; We have thought mete in 
respect of our service that the said Castell be con- 
tyneued in our hands & possession, being in the 
comen passadge to Galloway: And therfor do will 
you to kepe yt to our use, with a warde therin 
accordinge to the chardge now assigned in our 
establishment of thArmy, tyll such tyme as yt maie 
further be assured to us, either by release from the 
arle, by Composicon, or Act of parliament. 

8. " Also where the arle of Ormond claymeth 
certayn lands in the Countrie called O'Kellies Coun- 
trey, & claymeth also by a graunt from us to have 


them free, whereuppon the fermors of the same Iandes 
deteyne xl 1 ' per ann. wherewith you are chardged as 
parcell of the Composicons. We have ordred that 
the Earle shall, within twelve monethes next ensu- 
inge, acquaynt our Counsell learned in that Realme 
with his tytle, & yf yt fall out to be good and 
sufficient, then thearle shall be compounded withall 
& consideracon had of hym to the value, and you 
to receive the hole Composicon of the Okellies, And 
tyll the tytle be decided & the Earle satined, the 
said xl 1 ' per ami. shalbe allowed to you uppon your 
accompte yerely, by the Auditor for w ch this shalbe 
sufficient warranto to hym & to his Deputie. 

9. " Also where Sir Edward Fiton late President 
in Connaght, hath in his custodie certeine books of 
the devicon of Connaght, & other conteyninge orders 
taken in his tyme, & bondes of recognisaunces for- 
feited by divers persons to the some, as we be in- 
formed, of ten thousande pounds ; Our ples r is that 
you repaire to our Justice, requiringe hym to de- 
maund in our name the said bookes & bonds of the 
said Sir Edward ; And that our said Justice cause 
a doble to be made of them, And the duplicate to 
be delivered to you, the originalls to remayne in our 
Exchequir there, w th the chiefe Remembrauncer of 
that Court. Nevertheles no execucon to be don in 
the levienge of the said debts, without the privitie 
of the lord Justice and the reste of our privie Coun- 
sell there. 

10. "And we have thought good to let you knowe, 
that we take in good & acceptable parte the manner 
of your procedinge hetherto in your chardge, because 
you have used the sword no further than to such 
as have ben in open hostilitie and rebellyon, and 
that to the rest you have extended our clemency, 
after a mylde and curteous maner of dealinge ; in 
w ch course we wysh you to continewe, beinge a mat- 
ter most pleasinge to us, when we hire that our 
subjects shew their loialtie without force or con- 


3 o6 

William Eughter, Sir Donyll O'Connor Sligo, Sir Brian OTioyrke, Sir Morou. 
Doe O'Flaherty, and others: reciting, " Wher our province of Connaught and Tho- 


straynte to be used by our ministers: And therefor 
our pleasure is that you make often advertisments 
as well to our Justice there, (to whom the knowledge 
of the whole Realme appertayneth), as to as of 
the state of that Province, & of the particular dif 
con of the chiefe gentlemen to our service, to thend 
that we may uppon your good report reward & 
cherish those- that be well affected to justice & obe- 
dience ; and on the contrarie parte, punish the tricked 
& ill-disposed w lh all severitie. 

11. "And where wehaveappoyntedtoyouyerelj . 
thympost orcustome ofWynes within the Town 
Gallaway, as parcell of your intertaynement ap- 
poyntedinthestablishment; Our pleasure is that you 
do yerely indent with thofficer of our Casualties, or 
w ,h his deputie, as well for receipt of all such somes 
us shall growe uppon that ympost, as for fynes or 
any other casualties thai -hall com to your hands 
within your chardge: And forth. 
much of them to your disposicon, as you shall think.- 
good to bestowe either in the necessarie repanu "ii> 
of our howses, or for reward of service under you. 
-ii as the same appere in your accompte, 81 be 
grounded uppon good & reasonabl' - 
whereof we assure ourselves of your care \ cuiiMdc- 
racon, that nothing shall be unnecessarily or vaynebj 

12. " And forasmuch as nothing is more neces- 
sarie to be loked unto carefully by you. then that 
record be duly kepte, as well of all manner of com- 
posicons, as of all other rents, proffitts, or casual t i e s 
that shall come unto us within your rule ; we will 
that not onely in such eases, lint in all controv. mil - 
betwene partie Jc partie, thorders taken by you be 
resestred by the Clearke of the Counsel] in Con- 
naght : And ffurther that all processes that shall 
passe from you for apparances or otherwise, l>e sent 
under the seale of the Province ; & so likewyse for 

.''• ire wyshe not Vj be ;rraunte<L but 
in cases of greate nece-- 

• 1 i:a. vTALSYHGHAM." 

Rot. Pat. 1\ Eliz. M. 9,/ BdU Off.DAtm. 
netary Walsinghai : raft of the for.- - 

•• Orders." i- -till presented in I 
Library, British Museum, Titos, I). XI! 
p. 226. It contains the following interesting clauses, 
which do not appear in the inrolment. 

x. •• Also, where we are desirus that 
should be erected in tl :v in 

convenient plao of Ir 
and educacon of youth in krni 1 
■ civ,- tin- town of (. loufi-rt, within that ; 
Connaui_ r ht. to be aptlie Beat) ■:. and 

comodity of the ryver of Shenin running by it, and 
because it i- also neeretothe midle of the Realme, 
whereby all men may with small travel 

children thether. we have I 
viewe the place, and consider with what char- 
same may be circuited with a wall, and what build- 
in- then already, and what net-i-- 
addid, and what mai 

Clonfert and Elfine ,'■■ that 

Colledge) might 2 
lernid men there. And wi: 
of that Province be not sufmi 
were well divided into swerall dtocesses. 
we will that you ad-, 
thend we may hereafter j^ 
tice to assemble I 

a oontribuyoon to be ycldid for the mainten^ 
lernid men in that or some • : '.ace in 

Irlande : for we rinde that the Runagates of that 
oacon, which under pr ly in the Uniwr- 

- beyond the seas, doe retome freight with suprr- 
stitiorj and treason, are th- 
sturre up o r subjects to undutiful' 


mond, through the contynuall dissention of the Lords and Chieftaines challenging 
authorities, cuttings and cessings, under pretexte of defending the people under their 
several rules, have run to all errors; and understanding the good inclination of these 
our subjects, through the good rnynysterie of our truly and well beloved Sir John 
Perrott, our Deputy, &c. to embrace all good wayes and meanes that may be devised, 
to conserve them in our obedience, and their rights and titles reduced from the un- 
certaintye wherein it stood, to continue certain for ever hereafter." The commis- 
sioners were empowered to call before them "all the nobilitie, spiritual and temporal, 
and all the chieftaines and lords of the saide countries and barronies, and in lieu of 
the uncertain cesse, cuttinge, and spendings aforesaid, to compound after their best 
discretions, and to devise and lay down all things that shall tend to the real good and 
quiet of that countrie ; which after the passinge of the same by Indenture, is meant 
to be ratified by Act of Parliament." — Orig. 

The following proposals were made by the Commissioners. " The Chieftaines 
of Countries, Gentlemen, and Free-holders of that Province of Connaught, to passe 
unto the Queenes Majesty, her Heirs and Successours, a graunt of tenne shillings 


for whom we mean shortly to provide by parlement ; 
and in the mean season, will you to apprehend all 
such as you shall lerne to remayne within yo r rule, 
that be so evill affected. 

10. " And wher Report hath bene made unto 
us, by o r Deputy of that Realme and by you, 
that Sir John Burk, comonly called M c William 
Enter, hath shewid great forwardnes in o r ser- 
vice embrasing all civility, and shewing good ex- 
ample to the Irishe Captens there in their Compe- 
titions : For as much as it is also evident, that he is 
dissended of a noble house of Englishe race, we are 
therefore resolvid to nobilitate hym w"' the Hon or 
and Titell of an Erie, during his lief; and that his 
eldest sonne shall also be a Baron, to hym and to 
the heires males of his body, and to have estates ac- 
cordingly of so much as is their own, with a salvo 
jure to all other that have right ; for performance 
whereof imder o r Letters Patents we now send war- 
rant to o r justice accordingly : willing you to con- 
feree with the said S r John Burk and his said Sonne 
and heire, towelling the names which they like to 
beare in their creacons, to thend it may be accom- 

2 R 

plished accordinglie. The like order we have also 
given for Morroghe ne doe Oflarty to be made a 
Baron. And therefore leave to our Justice and to 
you, to appoint a convenient tyme and place for their 
apparaunces before hym, to perfourme the ceremony 
of their creacons. 

13. [Concludes as follows] "And whereas we un- 
derstand, that divers howses freight with Friers re- 
maine in some parts of that Province unsuppressed ; 
o r pies'" is that you cause them to abandon those 
places, and to compell them to chaunge their cotes, 
and to live according to o r lawes; which howses may 
be apt places for the habitacon of such English men, 
as we meane shall have Estates in our lands in those 
parts.'' — Orig. draft. 

Titus, B. XII., No. 143, p. 598, contains a re- 
vised transcript of the draft alluded to, but the three 
foregoing clauses are omitted. For " Sir John Burk, 
Mac William, Euter," see ante, pp. 300-1 ; and 
Lodge, Ed. 1789, Vol. IV. p. 288. He was com- 
monly called Shane mor, Johannes niagnus, and 
died A. D. 1580. For " Morroghe na doe Oflarty," 
see ante, p. 60 ; and the sequel hereof. 

3 o8 

English, or a marke Irish, upon every quarter of land containii; j i 2C Acres, manured, 
or to be manured, as the phrase went, and was significantly set downe, that lev ret either 
home or come, that was, with tillage or cattell, in lieu and consideration to bee dis- 
charged from other Cess, taxation, or tallage, excepting the rising out of Horse and 
Foote, for the service of the Prince and State, such as should be particularly 
upon, and some certaine dayes labour for building and fortifaction for thi 
the people and kingdome." — Government of Ireland under Sir John Parrot, Knight, 
4to London, 1 626, p. 80. The narrative then continues as foil* ms : "According to which 
Commission, and the directions therein contained. These Commissioners did travaile 
through the several Counties of Connaught, first calling and conferring with the Lords, 
Chieftaines, Gentlemen, and Free-holders in their several! Precincts and P 
to finde their dispositions, how farre they wen' willing I scend, and yeeld to 

such a course, for the satisfaction of their Prince, and freedome of thema 
further burthens, to make their charge certaine, and that bul small. Th 
well propounded, and discretely prosecuted: most, and in a manner, all the principall 
possessors of land in that Province, as they were generally deall withall. did 
this contribution." — Id* 

The reasons which induced the aboriginal Irish lords and chieftain- I 
so readily "to this contribution," are thus stated by a learned modern writer. 
" Harassed by the perpetual aggressions of the warlike English families, who had settled 
in the chief towns, and fenced themselves round with formidable t 
entrenchments — divided also by family feuds, and shorn in a irreat measure of their 
honours and power, the native princes gladly accommodated thi 
proposals, in the hope of a settled form of government, and perhaps 
as defence against the Anglo-Irish lords, their rivals in power, who were better armed 
and disciphned than they. The old leading families of that province surrendered the 
exorbitant power which they had hitherto exerted over their wretched vaaaala Hut 
experience soon proved that the promised protection was inadequate!;. .. and 

they quickly returned to their Irish customs, and easily prevailed on their vassals to 
be governed by the maxims of their brehon laws.'" — (J'C I MS& S 123. 

■ After 

b Gratianus Lucius alludes to their proceeding .1- 

follows Camb. Evers. p. 29. "Percuni Bcriptum, 

quod iter quorundam a Joanne Perrotto BSbemue 
prorege, per Conaciam, & Tomoniam, anno post 
Christum natum 1585, stati redditus Regime : ac 
priscis possessoribus prsescribendi causa, delegatorum 

accurate prosequitur. In t>-to iHo decursu. nulla 
peni <litii> fuit. in qua. .'ripnis Hibemioe possessor 
oensum prisci tributi vice delegate statuentibus dob 
referrebat (,)u.»l etiam dob obscure scriptor rerum 
'n Hibimia Joanne F bt f uUb prorege, gestarum in- 
nuit Lib. Imp. paff. - 


" After treaties, succeeded Inquisitions to find what quantity there was in each 
Barony, and who were found owners thereof. Indentures were drawne betweene the 
Deputy in the behalfe of the Queene on the one part, and the chiefe possessioners in 
the several Precincts on the other, expressing so many quarters and quantities of 
Land, with the Rents thereon reserved, and such other covenants as were therein con- 
tained."— Government, he. p. 82. 

The Commissioners commenced with the " County of Clare and Thomond." Then 
followed the districts comprehended within the newly created " County of Galway." 
Among these, the following " Indentures of Composition" were entered into for the 
territory of Iar-Connaught. Those of the other counties of the province will be found 
in succession ; but as they all agree in form, the technical verbiage, to avoid prolixity, 
has been omitted in each except the first. Almost all the Ecclesiastical lands of Con- 
naught are held under these important, and hitherto nearly unknown, documents. 
The original inrolments are preserved in the Record Branch of the office of Paymaster 
of Civil Services, Dublin ; and the following are now, for the first time, printed. 


A.D. 1585. 


" The Country of the 0' 'FJlahertyes called Eyre- Conaght. 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Perrotte 
Knighte, Lorde Deputie Generall of Irlande, for and on the behaulfe of the Queenes 
most excellent Ma tie of the one parte, and S r Moroghe ne doe of Aghnenure in the 
county of Gallway Knight, otherwise called O'Fflahertie — Donell Crone O'Fflahertie of 
the Cnocke, competitor for the name of O'Fflahertie — Teig ne Boolye {na buile) of the 
Arde, otherwise called O'Fflahertie of both Con o Marrice — Owine fitz-Donyell Cog-hie" 

O'Fflahertie of Bonowen, gent Moroghe O'Fflahertie of the sam, gent. — Roger O'Ffla- 

harty of Moycullen", gent. — Danyell M'Rory O'Fflaharty of the Owre, gent Rory 

O'Fflaharty and Danyell his brother, sonnes to Moroghe ne Mooe — M c Thomas — M c 


1 ThisDonyellCogliie(t)orhnaillancoTai6) The latter was afterwards known by the name of 

had to wife Grace O'Mailly, well known in modern Morogh na Maor — See p. 108, ante, note "'. 

times by the name of Grauna Weak ; and by her d This Roger O'Fflaharty was chieftain of Moy- 

he had the two sons above-named, " Owine and Mo- cullen, and grandfather of our author, 

roghe." The first was slain in a. d. 1586, by the e Mac Thomas, chief of the Joyces. See ante. 

soldiers of Sir Richard Bingham Four Masters. P- 44, note f, and additional note P, p. 21G. 

Connor a — O'Halloran — M c Cahill Boy M' 1 >■ _and M' Enry'— Dominyeke 

Lynche of the Ballaghe, gent — Domynicke Browne of Beamy, gent.— William Mar- 
tyne of Gortetleva, gent — Richard Martyne of Ballyerter, gent— Anthony Linche of 

the Dengine, gent — Marcus Linch fitz-Nichollas of Furbog a I and Patrick 

ffrence of Curcholline, gent. — for and in the behalf of themselves and the rest of the 
Cheiftaynes, freeholders, Gent, ffarmers and inhabitants, having land or holdings 
within the countrey or terretorie of the O'FFLAHAETYES CONTEET called 
EYRE-CONAGHT, their heires and assignes, of the other pari 

" WYTNESSETH, that wher the said whole Cuntry of Eyre Conanght is devided 
into fower barronyes, that is to witt, the barrony of Moycullvn, the barrony of Bal- 
lynehynsye, the barrony of Boss, and the barrony of the illes of Arrt-n, which con- 
teyneth in themselves, as well by auncient Division as by late Inquisition and pi 
ments hereunto annexed, the nomber of 318 quarters of land, esteineing everie quar- 
ter, with his pastur, woodd andbogge, at 120 acres, as by a particular layinge downe 
of the same, in manner and forme followinge, yt may appeare — FIESTE in the 
barrony of Moycullen there is a quantitie of land called Gnnmore and Gno 
which contayne 52 townes, consistinge of 138 quarters, that is to saw within Gno- 
more, in Aghnenure, 4 q" — in Ardcollume, 4 q" — in BaHymymyn, 4 q" — in 
showne or Fwoaghe, 2 q rs — in Russhyne, 2 q rs — in the I 1 q* — in the h 

1 q r — in the Corre, 1 q' — in Ballyraghaine, 4q r> — in Ballyturlagoma, 4q" — in Balli- 
roschall, 4 q rs — in Ballywoghterarde, 4 q" — in Bally vickgillcwvo. 4 q" — in Ballynera, 
4 q" — in Ballyclonlorge, 4 q rs — in Curragheduffe, 2 q" — in Ru-muck. 2 q r * — in 
Leytrmyllane, 2 q" — in Ballynemoght. 4 q™ — in Killanelhire, 1 q r — in LewghilL, 1 
q r — in Clocke M c Cahill oge, 1 q r — in Tierny, 1 q r — in Killeame, 2 q** — in Letercally, 
1 q r — in Ballynhenry, 4 q™ — in the Ower, 2 q r ' — in Kildaycanioge, 1 q r — in Killu- 
ryne, 1 q r — in Kylgeane, 1 q r — in [nyse vickenchine, 2 q n — and in Ballynaghekear- 
nyn, 4 q rs — which in that part of Gnomore cometh to 79 quarters, th. moy tit- whereof 
is said to belonge to Moroghe O'Flahertie is cept, and the other 1 
O'Flahertis cept. And within Gnobegge, in Moycullen, 4 q" — in Ballyclonvduff, 4 
q rs — in Ballycoshowne, 4 q r ' — in Ballybarnae, 4 q" — in Ballineforbagh. 4 q" — in 
Ballynspiddell, 4 q rs — in Coyleroe, 1 q r — in Moyascraghe, 4q" — in Oheyrie, 4 q" — 


f Mac Connor, chief of a branch of the O'Fla- of Muredach mor. for whom Bee Genealogical table. 
herties, sprung from Hugh, the son ofRory . if Lough h M c Enrv. chief of the ancient Clan C<.>nr.» 

Kime ; for whom see the Genealogical table, post. Conroy. corrupted in latter times to "King." This 

s M c Donghe, chief of another branch of the sept was located in Iar -( _ -al centuries 

OTlaherties called the Clan Donogh, now Mac before the O'Flahertks. See oafe, p. 261. 
Donough, sprimg from Donogh aluinn second son 

3 11 

in Tullockyhamon, 4 q rs — in Ballimoilgorryne, 4 q rs — in Ballyquirecke, 4 q rs — in 
Corcullen, 4 q" — in Lettermillayne, 2 q rs — in Innishomictriere, 2 q" — in Airdberrae, 
1 q r — in Ballynteny, 1 q r — in Ballilwye, 2 q rs — and in Eynvilly Ohwye, 2 q rs , within 
that parte of Gnobegge that is said to be belonging to Gilleduffe O'Flahertie, cometh 
to 59 q™, and for the whole within that barrony cometh to 138 q rs . In thebarrony of 
Ballynehynsye there are 33 townes, consistinge of 84 quarters, that is to say; in 
Ballinehinsie, 4 q rs — in Ballymoylyne, 4 q™ — in Ballymongan, 4 q rs — in Ballindwyne, 
4 q rs — in Ballynclarie, 4 q rs — in Ballylurie, 4 q rs — in Ffeame, 1 q T — in Manynbegge, 

1 q r _in Ballyfihensie, 4 q rs —in Moynes, 4 q rs — in Moyrushe, 2 q" — in Urishelenane, 

2 q r ' — in Ardmore, 2 q rs — in Dowghan, 1 q r — in Ballyvickenrie, 4 q rs — in Ummy, 
4 q rs — in Carrowvegge, 1 q r — in Carrowahie, 1 q r — in Faydarge, 2 q rs — in Soyle- 
hearne, 4 q rs — in Cluggin, 2 q rs — in Moydollan, 2 q rs — in Ballinekillie, 4 q rs — in 
Moybillie, 2 q rs — in Moyhard, 2 q rs — in Abarrae, 2 q rs — in Dawrosse, 2 q rs — in Ryn- 
villy, 5 q rs — in Coyshinkillarie, 2 q rs — in Clannancrewee, 1 q r — in Ballickynealie, 
2 q rs — in Kilkernne, 1 q r — and in Inishtrevan, 1 q r — which are the whole within 
that barrony, which is said to belong to Teig ne bully O'Flaherty, and Daniell Coggie' 
sonnes called Owen and Moroghe O'Fflahertie, cometh to the aforesaid number of 84q rs . 
In the barrony of Kosse, there are nine towns, consistinge of 62 q rs of land, that is to 
say, in Ballyrosse, 4 q rs — in Ballynenaght, 18 q rs , gotten by the O'Flaherties from 
some of the Boorks, as is said, for an Ericke — in Ballykillebride, 4 q rs — in Ballyglan- 
trig, 4 q rs — in Ballyneclobricke, 4 q rs — in Ballydowlagh, 4 q rs — in Dwaght, 2 q rs , 
which is said to be the Joysce lands, bearing Signiorie as well to O'Fflahertie as to 
M c Thomas — in Tomsnawe, 2 q rs — in Dowrusse, 1 q r — in Tirenekillie, 1 q r — in the 
Carricke, 1 q r — in Tomnenean, 1 q r — in Brewnan, 1 q^ — in Moynteroyn and Cwy- 
laghe, 1 q r — in Glynglassie, 4 q" — in Carrae, 1 q r — in Fowaghe, 1 q r — in Sleive- 
parthrie, 4 q rs — and Ballybwyan, 4 q rs — which in the whole within that barrony, 
cometh to the aforesaid nomber of 62 q rs . In the barrony of Arren there are three 
illands, one called Arrenmore consisting of 24 q IS , and the other two consist-in^ of 
6 q rs a piece; which, in the whole, cometh to 36 q", being the Queen's Ma ties inheri- 
tance. — All which being drawen into one totall, cometh to the aforesaid nomber of 
318 quarters. 

" The said Sir Moroghe O'Fllaherty, knight, Donyll Crone O'Fflaherty, compety- 
tor, Teige ne Bulie, Owine fitz Doniell O'Fflaherty, Moroghe O'Fflaherty, Roger 
O'Fflaherty, Donyll M c Rory O'Fflaherty, Rory O'Fflaherty and Donyll his brother 
sonnes to Moroghe ne Mooe, M c Thomas, Mac Connor, O Halloran, M c Cahill boy 
M c Donoghe, M c Enry, and the rest of the gent, freeholders, & inhabitants of the said 
contrey, acknowledginge the manifold benefitts and easments they finde, in possesinge 


3 I2 

of their lands and goods since the peaceable goverment of the said Lo. Deputie, and 
the just dealings of S r Richard Binghame, knight, their chei: as well t._ 

comon mallefactors and spoylers, as also agaynst the unmeasurabl 
sions of all sorts of men of warr, heretofore layd upon them ; have, inconsideracon there- 
of, and for that the said Right honorable the Lo. deputie dothe promise, eovcnaunt and 
graunte to and with the said cheiftaines, gent., freeholders and inhabitants of th 
Earconnaght, for and in the behalf of the Queen"- Mat", that they and every of them 
their heires and assignes, for their lands within the said contrey, shall, from and after 
the date hereof, be freelie and wholy dischardged, acquitted and exonerated for ever, 
off and from all manner of cesses, taxes, chardges, exaccons, cuttings, yroposicons, 
purveying, eateing, findinge or bearing of soldiers, and from all other burdens what- 
soever, other than the rents, reservacons, and chardges hereafter in this Indenture 
specified, and to be enacted by parleament: willingly and thankfully for theni their 
heirs and assignes, given and graunted, licke a- they her* by doe give and graunte, to 
the said right Honorable the Lo. Deputy and his heirs, to the use of the Qn 
most excellent Ma'" her heirs and successours for ever, one yearelie rent char ■■_ 
tenn shillinges of good and lawful current money of England, goinge oul 
q r of 280 q rs of the aforesaid number of 318 q" of land, which in the whole amountcth 
yearelie to the some of £140 ster. payable at the feastes of St. Michael] tha 
and Easter, by eaven porcons. the first payment to beginne at the feast of St. M 
tharchangell next ensuing the date hereof, and soe yearele t'er ever at the severall 
feasts aforsaid, at her highnes' Exchequer within the -arae realm of Ireland, or to the 
hands of the Vice threr, or generall receaver of the same realme for the tyme beinge; 
and for lacke of money to be payed in the Exchequer aforesaid, the same thresurer 
or generall receaver to receive kyne, to the value of the said 1 - 1 muche there- 

of as shall remayne unpayed, at the rate of 13". 4* ster. for everie good and lawfull 
beof. And if yt fortune the said rente of £140 ^ter. to be behind and unpayed, in 
parte or in all, in manner and forme afoesaid. that yt shalbe Lawful] un: 
right honnorable the Lo. Deputie, or other governour or governoun of this realme 
for the tyme being, to enter and distrayne in all and singular the lands, tenements 
and heredytaments of the said 280 q rs ., and the di>m-s:-e taken to detayne and keepe, 
tyll the said yearelie rent as afore be fullie and wholie satisfied and payd : pr< \ 
alwayes, that if yt fortune anie parte of the quarters aforesaid, subject to thi- 
position, to be so waste as yt beareth nether home or come, that the same shall not 
be layd upon the rest that is inhabited, but shall be forborne both in rente and arrea- 
radges, duringe that tyme. 

" And further, the persons above named, for them their heires and assigns, doe 



covenaunt, promise & graunte to and with the said Right honnorable the Lo. Deputie 
and his heires, for and in the behalfe of the Queens most excellent Mat' 6 her heires 
and successors, not onelye to aunswer and beare yearlie for ever, to all hostings, roods 
and jurneyes within the said province of Connaght and Thomond, whereas and at 
what tyme they shalbe thereunto comaunded, by the lo. deputie or other Governour 
or Governours of this realme, or by the chcif officer of the said province, fiftie good 
hable footemen, well armed, uppon their owne proper costs and chardges, over and 
besids the rent aforesaid : But also to aunswer & beare to all generall hostings pro- 
claymed in this realme, twenty footemen well armed and furnished with carriadge and 
victualls, uppen their owne proper costs and chardge, dureing the tyme of the said 
generall hostinges, if the lo. deputy or other governour of this realme, for the tyme 
being, doe require the same. 

" And further yt is condiscended, concluded and agreed, as well by the said right 
honnorable the deputy, for and in the behalf of the Queens most excellent Ma ,ie , as 
also by the said Sir Moroge, Donyll Crone, Teige ne bully, Owen Fitz Donyell, 
Moroghe O'Fflahertie, Roger O'Fflahertie, Donyell M c Rorie, Rorie and Donyell, sonns 
to Moroghe ne Moe, M c Thomas, M c Connor, O'Hallorane, M c Cahill boy M c Donghe, 
M c Enry, and the rest of the freeholders and inhabitants of the said contrey, in manner 
and form followeinge, viz. that the names, stilles, and titles of captayneships, taynist- 
ships and all other Irishe aucthorities and jurisdictions heretofore used by the O'Ffla- 
hertyes, together with all ellection and customarie division of land, occasioning great 
streeffe and contention emongest them, shall from henceforthe be utterlie abollyshed, 
extinct, renounsed, and put backe within the said countrey of Eyrconnaght, for ever, 
but that their lands and inherytants shall lynialie discend from the father to the 
sonn, accordinge to the course and order of the lawes of England. In consideracon 
whereof, and for that her Ma tie doth moste gracouslie mynde of the benefitt and 
advancemement of everie good subject according to his degree, by redusinge of their 
uncertayne and unlawfull manner of takings from others, to a certayne and more 
beneficiall state of liveinge for them and their heires, then their said pretended titles 
or claymes did or could hitherto afforde them ; the said right Ho: the lord deputie 
for and in the behalfe of the Queen's most excellent Ma ,ie -, and also the aforesaid 
chieftaynes, gent, freeholders and inhabitants, one the behalf of themselves and the 
rest of the said contrey, their heires and assignes, doth covenaunt, promise, graunte 
and agree to and with the said Sir Moroghe ne doe, knight, otherwise called O'Fna- 
herty, that for the better mayntenaunce of the degree of knighthode, whereunto yt 
hath pleased her Ma tie to calle him, he shall have, hold, receive and take, by letters 
patenttes from her Ma* to him his heires and assignes, the castle of Aghenure, and 
irish arch. soc. 1 5. 2 S fower 

3 I4 

fower q rs of land with their appurtenaunces belonginge to the fame, in the barrony 
of Moycullen, as a free demayne to his said castle, freelie exonerated and di 
of and from this composicon; also the castle of Fowhaghe in the barrony aforsaid, 
and fower q rs of land with their appurtenaunces, as a free demayne to be joyned to 
the said castle, freelie exonerated and dischardged of and from this composition; also 
the castle of Ballinneaghe, and fower q™ of land with their appurtenaunces in the 
barronny of Eosse, as a free demayne to be joyned to the said ca.-tk-. freelie exonerated 
and dischardged of and from the said composition ; and also the castle of 1 
kearowahie, and 3 q rs of land with their appurtenaunces in the barr dlyne- 

hinsie, to be joyned as a free demayne to the said castell, exonerated and dii 
of and from this composition, withe the goods and chatties of person? attaynted of 
fellony, that shall happ or chaunce to dwell and inhabit within ti. • id quarters 

of land so to him assigned, and all other casualties and amerciaments that shall from 
tyme to tyme growe within the same ; and that he and his heires an-. - shall 

hold all and singular the premisses of the Queen's most excellent Ma'" her heirs and 
successours, by knight service, that is to say by the xx" 1 parte of a ki. _ 
her castle or mannor of Arkine in the greate iland of Arren, with suit and service 
to the curte barron and leete of the said cannor. 

" And that also Teig ne bullie O'Fflahertie ai all, for his better may. 

ance of livinge, have, receive and take by letters patients from 1 :a his 

heires and assignes, the castle of Ard in the barrony of Ballenehinsie, standinge on 
the land of Moyrus, and 6 q rs of land with the appurtenances next adjoyning I 
said castle, in the townes of Moyrusse, Moynish, Fynish, and Illamashine, as a ir^ 
demayne to the same, exonerated & discharged of and from the said comp - A 

of and from all other rents or demaunds of the said Sir Moroghe ne doe or his heirs; 
and also shall have, hould, possesse and injoy to him and his heir ssignes, the 

castle of Ballenehinsie, and nine other q™ of land subject to the composition, whereof 
he is said to be now seized as of his inheritance, in Ballenehensie, Ballh Ballin- 

clare, Ballindowyn, and other villadges in the said barronj of Ballini 
acquitted and dischardged of and from all rents and demaunds of the said S II 
and his heires: and that the said Teig ne bullie and his heirs shall hold all an.. 
gular the premisses of her Ma* her heires and successors, by knight service, viz. by 
the xx" 1 parte of a knight's fee, as of her castle or manor of Arkyne in the . 
iland of Arren aforsaid, with suite and service to the courte barron and lete of the said 
mannor. And that after the decease of the said Teig ne bullie. all such rents, duties 
and customs as are claymed to be belonging to the name of O'Fflahertie, shall in con- 
sideracon that the same is but extorted, be thenceforth utterlie determyned and 
extinct, for ever. " -^ nc ^ 


3 l 5 

" And that also Donell Coggye's two sonnes, called Oene and Morogh O'Flahirtie, 
shall, for their better mayntenaunce of livinge, have, receive and take by letters pat- 
tentes from her Ma' 10 to them their heires and assignes, the castle of Bonowne in 
the barrony of Ballynehinsie and six q rs of land with their appurtenaunces next 
adjoyning to the same, in Ballyndwyn, Mannynemore, Ballycare, and Ballimongaine, 
as a free demayne to the said castle, exonerated and dischardged as well of and from 
this composition, as also of and from all other rents, duties and demaunds of the 
said Sir Moroghe ne doe, Teige ne bullie, and their heires; and shall also have, holde, 
possesse, and injoye to them their heires and assignes, tenn other quarters of land 
subject to this composition, whereof they are said to be now seized as their inherit- 
ance, in Ballynehensie, Ballymongan, Ayrdmore, Ballymollen, Dwoughan, Mannyne- 
begge, Ballykinnalie, Ballynclare, Lehenaghe, Croghnett, the Killny and Fahikeraghe 
in the said barrony of Ballynehinsie; and that they and their heires shall hold all and 
singular the premisses of the Queen's Ma tie her heires and successours, by knights 
service, that is to saye the xx th part of a knight's fee, as of her said mannor or castle 
of Arkyne in the greate iland of Arran, with suite and service to the courte barron 
and lete of the said mannor. 

And that also Swyrveraghe Ffolane and his brother, in respect of the civill bring- 
ing upp of the said Swyrveraghe is sonne called Nehemias Ffolan, shall have, hold, 
possess, and injoy to them and to their heires and assignes, two q rs of land in Moyrusse 
and Leytterdohartee in the said barrony of Ballynehency, freelie exonerated and dis- 
chardged as well of and from this composition, as also of and from all rents and 
demaunds of the said Sir Moroghe and Teig ne bullie and their heires; and shall also 
hold the same of her Ma tie her heirs and successours by knights service, viz. by 
the xl th part of a knights fee, as of her said mannor or castle of Arkine, with suite 
and service to the courte barrone and lete of the said mannor. 

And that also Roger O'Flahertie of Moycullyne, for his better mayntenance of 
livinge, and in respect of his good and civil bringing up in Englande, shall have, 
receave, and take, by letters pattentes from her Ma ,ie , to him his heires and assignes, 
the castle and house of Moycullen and fower q rs of land with their appurtenances 
belonging thereunto, in the said Moycullen, and also fower other q rs of land in the 
townes adjoininge to the same in Gnobegge, whereof he is said to be now seized as of 
his inheritants, freelie exonerated and discharged, for ever, of and from this composi- 
tion ; and all other his landes in Gnobegge aforesaid, discharged of and from all the 
rents, duties, and demaundes of the said Sir Murrough and Teig ne bullie, and their 
heirs ; and that he and his heirs shall hold all and singular the premisses of the Queen's 
Ma" e her heirs and successours, by knight service, viz. by the xx th parte of a knight's 

2 S 2 fee 


fee, as of her said mannor or castle of Arkine, with suite and service to the courte 
barron and lete of the said mannor. 

" And that also MThomas in the barrony of Rosse gent, shall have, hold, 
and enjoy, to him his heires and assignes, one q r of land in Dowray freely acquitted, 
exonerated and dischardged as well of and from this composition, a~ also of and from 
all rents, duties, and demaunds of the said Sir Morough ne doe, or any other their 
heires and assignes, the same to be holden of her Ma'" her heires and ra by 

knight's service, that is to say, by the xl tb parte of a knight's fee, as of her said mannor 
of Arkine; and that after the decease of the said MThomas, all such rents, duties, and 
customs as are challendged to be belonginge to the name of MThomas, except he 
can prove by lawe the same to be due be reasone of holdinge their landes of him. shall 
from thence be utterlie determyned and extinct, for ever. 

" And where there remayneth in the barrony of Rosse, 57 q" of land subject to 
this composition, as the inheritance of the Joyes and other freeholders of that barrony, 
it is covenaunted, graunted, promised, and agreed as aforesaid, that the said Sir 
Moroghe ne doe and his heires, shall have to him and his heires one yearly rent 
chardge of 5* ster. goinge oute of every quarter of the said 57 quai t and 

besides the said composition, amountinge by the year to £14. 5' ster. not chardging 
the porcon of the wast land uppon the inhabitted, in lull recompenceof all duties, cut- 
tings and expenses by him challendged of the said freeholders, with all the goods and 
chattels of persons attainted of fellony that shall hap or chaunce to dwell and inha- 
bite within the said landes, and all other casualties and amercements thai 
growe from tyme to tyme within the same; and that they and every of them their heires 
and assignes, according to his and 1 heir porcon of land, shall hold the same of the said 
Sir Morough and his heires, by knight's service, viz. by the xl tt parte of a knight's 
fee, as of his castle or mannor of Bally-Innyn in the barrony ofB said, and 

shall also doe suite to his courte barron and lete of his said mannor. 

" And where there remayneth in the barony of Moycullen, 122 q" of laud su 
to this composition, it is also covenaunted, granted, promised, am: 
that the said Sir Moroughe shall have to him and hi? heirs, one yearly rentchardge of 
5 s ' ster. over and besides the said composition, goinge out of every quarter of tl. 
122 q rs , which amounteth yearly to the some of £30. 5' ster. not chardging the porcon 
of the wast land upon the inhabited, in full recompence of all duties, cuttings, and 
expenses by him challendged of the inheritors of the said quarters; and that thev and 
everie of them, their heires and assignes, for his and their porcons, shall hold the same 
of the Queene's Ma tie her heires and successors, by knight's ?erv ice, viz. by the xl* 


3 l 7 

parte of a knight's fee, as of her said castle or mannor of Arkyne in the greate iland 
of Arren, and shall doe suit to the courte barron and lete of the said mannor. 

" And where there remayneth in the barony of Ballynehinsie, 69 q rs subject to 
this composition, it is also covenaunted, graunted, promised, and agreed as aforesaid, 
that the said Sir Morough and his heires shall have to him and his heires one yearlie 
rentchardge of 5 s ' ster. over and besides the said composition, goinge out of every q r of 
the said 69 q rs , which amounteth yearly to the some of £17. 5 s ' ster. not chardging the 
porcon of the wast land uppon the inhabited, in full recompense of all duties, cuttings, 
and expenses by him challendged of the inheritors of the said q rs ; and that they and 
everie of them, their heires and assigns, for his and their porcons, shall hold the same 
of the Queene's Mat' 6 her heires and successors, by knight's service, viz. by the xl"' 
parte of a knight's fee, as of her said castle or mannor of Arkyne in the greate iland 
of Arren, and shall doe suit to the courte barron and lete of the said mannor. 

" And that also Wm. Marten of Gallway, gent, in respect of his office and service 
in the same, shall have, hold, possess, and enjoy, to him his heires and assignes, half 
a q r of land called Gortytleave, with all and singular their appurtenances belonginge 
to the same, freelie exonerated and dischardged of and from this composition; and 
shall also hold the same of her Mat' her heires and successours, by knight's service, viz. 
by the xl th part of a knight's fee, as of her castle or mannor of Arkine, in the greate 
iland of Arren, and shall doe suite to the courte barron and lete of the said mannor. 

" And the aforesaid cheiftaynes, gent, freeholders, and inhabitants, for them and 
either of them their heires and assignes, have and by theis presents doe give full 
power, consent and assent, that this present deed indented, and every word, clause, 
sentence, condicon, and article therein contayned, shalbe enroled in her Ma t,e high 
courte of Chauncery, there to remayne of record, for ever. 

" IN WYTNESE whereof, to this parte of this Indenture remayninge in the cus- 
todie of the said Right honorable the Lo. Deputie, for and in the behalfe of the Queen's 
most excellent Ma tie her heires and successors, the said cheiftaynes, gent, freeholders, 
ffermours, and the rest above named, have hereunto put their seales and subscribed 
their names, the second of September, anno Domini 1585, and in the xxvii th yeare of 
the reyng of our Soveraigne lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queene of England, 
Fraunce and Irelande, defender of the fayth, &c. Provyded that anie thing conteyned 
in this Indenture, shall not extend to prejudice anie manne's right or title to any lands 
contayned in the same. 

" Sr. Morrogh ne do O'Fflahertie Servreagh O'Folan. 

his -f- mark. Anthony Linche fitz-Thomas. 

Dominick Browne. William Martyne." 




" Many O'Kelle's Country:'' 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Eight Honorable Sir John Perrotte 
knt. lord Deputie generall of Irelande, for and on the behaulfe of the I moBt 

excellent Majestie, of the one parte, and the lords spiritual and temporall, cheiftaines 
gent. fFreeholders, fermors, and inhabyttants having lands or holding- in IMANY, 
called the O'KELLIES COUNTRY, on both sydes of the river of Suck in the pro- 
vince of Connaught: that is to say, the reverend father in God William, archbisl 
Twemme — Stephen, byshopp of Clonferte — John, byshope of Elphine — and Edinond, 
deane of Klonknoyse — Ullicke, erle of Clanrickard — Hugh O Kelly .Hone, 

otherwise called O'Kelly — Teige M c William O'Kelly of Mullaghmore, and Connor 
oge O'Kelly of Killiane, compettitors for the name of tan nnor 

ne Garroge O'Kelly of Gallaghe— Shane ne nun- O'Kelly of th( Criaghe, gen. — William 
O'Mannyne of Mynloghe, otherwise 'ailed O'Mannine — Mon 
Killtullaghe, otherwise called O'Concannon — Shane O'Naghten of Moynure, 
wise called O'Naghten — Edmond M c Keoghe of Awenaghe, otherwise called Mac 
Keoghe — Donogh O'Murry of Ballyinurry. otherwise called O'Mi —I ioghe 

O'Fallone of the Milltowne, otherwise called O'Fallone — Teig< M 1 Owen 
otherwise called M c Edmond — Collo M c Connore of the - I 

M c William Carragh of the same — Connor Mac Gerraght, otherwise called M c Gir- 
raghte — Edmond wony O'Concannone of Cawlre, freeholder — Sir Tl. 
of Athleague, knt. — Thomas Dillone of Curraghboy, esquire — Jol 
murry, gen. — Nathaniel Smith of Dromolgagh, gen. — Fraunces Shan 
gen. — Edward Mostine of the Graunge, gen. — Robert Join . — 

Richard Beetaghe of the Cregge, gen John Burke of the Turrocke, gen. — William 

Mostune of the Downe, gen. — John Moore of Clonebegnett. and Richard 1> a 
Ratharrowe, gen — Fimes Clave of Kyncklare, gen. — K 

gen — George Goodeman and Miles Cavanaghe, fTermores of S' J lem 

Sir Henry Wallope Knight, ffermor of S' Peters of Athlon — Domini k Lynch of 
Galway, termor of the abbey of Cnockmoy — and Ullick Derry Linch of Gurrandar- 
raghe, freeholder, of the other parte. 

" WTTNESSETH, that wheare the said country or territorie of Imanav. called 
the O'Kellie's Country, is derided into fyve principall baronies, that is to wytt, 
Athlone, Kilconnell, Teaquine, Killyane, and Moycarnane, which contaii • 
by auncient devysion, as by late Inquistion, 665! q rs of lande, everie q r containing I 
acres. — FIRSTE, in the barrony of Athlone. there is a quantity of land known 


name of O'Murrey, and Mac Edmond's eraght (oijpeaco, inheritance) called the 
Heyney, 46 q™ — Mac Keogli's eraght called Moyfinn, 55 q rs — O'Ffallone's eraght 
called Clonedaghe, 47 q" — Eraght Hugh, called Toahaleage (cuctr, country) i$\ 
q rs — Eraght M c Gerraght, 33 q rs — O'Noghten's eraght called the Ffaas, 35 q rs — the 
Slaightines, being dispersed within the former eraghts, 16 q rs ; which in the whole 
cometh to 2875 q rs . In the barrony of Kilconnelle there is a quantity of land called 
Eraght Carbry, 26 q rs — Toachalla, 30 q" — Toahbreny, 26 q rs , whereof belongeth to 
the earl of Ormond 24 q" — Pobble-Keowghe, 295 q rs ; which in the whole cometh to 
107 q rs . In the barony of Teaquin there is a quantity of land called Eraght O'Manyne, 
24 q rs — Killyboggy, 21 q rs — Eraght I. Dermoda, 23 q rs — Sleigt Teighe M'Donoghe, 
33 q rs — Teagh ne palice 15 q rs — in Killosallane, 4 q rs , which is conveied over by state 
of inheritance to the aforesaid Thomas Dillon of Curraghboy — also Corcomoy, 24 q rs ; 
which in the whole of that barony cometh to 140 q rs . In the barrony of Killian there 
is a quantity of land called Aghyarte, 12 q rs — Sleight Teige O'Kelly, 8 q rs — Eraght 
Dermott, 8 q rs — The Slewe 12 q rs ; which in the whole of that barony cometh to 40 
q rs . In the barony of Moy-carnane there is a quantity of land called Clonmacknoyne, 
otherwise Shane ne Moye's country, on both sides of the Succe, 89 q rs ; which in the 

whole of that barrony cometh to 89 q rs All which being drawn into one totall, cometh 

to the aforesaid number of 665^ quarters. 

" The aforesaid lords, chieftaines, &c. graunt to her Ma" e the Queene, a penny 
and one third of a penny out of every acre of the aforesaid 665 \ q rs , which amounteth 
in every year to 665 marks sterling ; and for lack of money to be paid, the Treasurer or 
general receiver shall receive kine to the value of the said rent, or so much thereof as 
shall remaine unpaid, at the rate of 1 3 s ' 4 d ' for every good and lauful beofe, or as kine 
shall be worthe and solde in the markett of Athlone, the tyme of payment. 

" The said lords, chieftayns, &c. acknowledging the manifold benefitts and easments 
they finde, &c. doe covenant to aunswere and beare, yearlie for ever, 30 good hable horse- 
men and 220 footmen well armed, to all hostings, roods and jurneyes within Connaught 
and Thomond; and 10 good hable horsemen, and 40 footmen well armed and furnished 
with arms, garrans and victuals, to all generall hostings proclaymed in this realme. 
And they shall further bear, yield and pay yearly, 300 sufficient labourers with their 
tooles and victuals, to work 4 daies every year where the chiefe officer or commis- 
sioner of the said province shall assigne. And that the sleight of the Naghtenes shall 
answeare and beare the accustomed duties and service, to her Majestie's house of 

" It is agreed by the lord Deputy, on behalf of the Queene, and the said Hugh 
O'Kelly, otherwise called O'Kelly, Teige and Connor O'Kelly, compettitors for the 
name and tanestshippe of O'Kellie, and others of the Irishry above named, that the 



captaineshippe & tanistshippe of the said country, called the O'Kellie's cuntry, which 
hath been hertofore used by the said O'Kellies, & all colleccon and Iri-h cu-tomary 
devision of lands used amongst them, shall from henceforthe be utterlye abolished, 
extinct, renounced, and put backe within the said country, for ever. — In ret 
whereof, and for that her Majesty doth graciously meane the maintaininge of such of 
the Irishry as willingly submitt, the lord Deputy doth, for the Queen, covenant and 
promise that the said Hughe O'Kelly, otherwise called O'Kelly, shall have and take 
by letters patent, the 4 quarters of land, now in his possession, in Eraght O'Murry 
in M c Edmond's country in the barony of Athlone, viz. Lisenuske, Ferrenbi 
Lyssdallon and Moydowe, with the moyety of all the goods of felons, & c . within the 
same ; to be holden by knight's service: And, for further augmentacon of his living, 
that he shall have, during his natural] life, £56 19s. 6d. out of the several lands fol- 
lowing, viz. upon the eraght of O'Murray and M c Edmond, one^ q r of Killeaghe, ^ q r 
of Corragarowe, \ q r of Carrowmader, Ferrenbreagye, Shanbally M c Conner. M<yly- 
terraghe, Lisseneponre, Killenreoghe, Fyermore, the erapht called ^k-ight 

Gillebert, and eraght Mac Hughe, the q r of Cloghane, Kewne, Funshenaghe, Clonlos- 
taghe, eraght M c Hughe 19 q", the eraght called Clonodaghe, the q r of Kilchele, 
Ardnecolenan, Carowkewle, Gortenduffe, Kilvane, tin- q' of Turr^ck. in era. 
Geraght, the q r of Aghgowre. Bunnynibber. Aghgadd, Clvnlergine, the eraght called 
the Feaies, the cartron of Tibraghane, Killaghane, a cartron _ < arnmewre, 

Carronderry, Moyvennan, Carronlaghane. CarronloL r lic. tlie -5- q r of Carronkewen, 
Drineka, Clonark, Clongawnaghe, Shanvally-nanty, in the eraght called Moynnne, 
the cartron of Carrowmore, Derndoly, the ^ quarter of Tawnaghe. Knocke-Cowle-ne 
Caldry, Carrige, Ardmolane, Cornegewre, Dondonyll. in the barony of Moycarnan, 
upon the whole country called Cloynvicknoyne, upon the eraght called the Slewe, in 
the eraght of Toavreny, the eraght of Aghoarte, and Crohonc Sleight Teige O'Kelly, 
upon the q r of Bealladryne, the q r called Moyvameon, ( rregarrowe, Clondalye, 
Carrownegapple, Cregane, Carrowganvy, Carrownefrevy, Carrow-blenirlasse, Carrow- 
morekillyane, the q* of Moynterdony, Moyrushe. Ballynecorre. Clonkure, E: . 
upon the eraght called Toecallae, tin- <i r of Lyssedoulane, the q r of Carrownienagh, 
Lisknedane, Barneboy, Loghanebreane, Carrownenagh. and in the barony of Teaquine, 
upon the septs of O'Manyne & O'Concanon, and the septs of the archbishope, which 
in the whole conieth to the sum of £56 lgs. Gil. 

" That the said Teige M c William O'Kelly shall have by letters patentts, soe many 
q rs of land as he is now justly seized of, in the barronies of Teaquine & Kilconnell, 
that is to say, the q r of Mullaghuiore, the q r of Farrenefahye, the q* of Cornegal- 
laghe, the q r of Carrownesire, and the q r of Carrowueboe. That the said Connor 

3 2I 

oge O' Kelly shall have the four q™ of land in and about the town of Killian; to hold 
by knights service. Upon this condition, that the said Hughe, Teige, and Connor 
oge and their heirs, shall henceforth behave themselves like good subjects; shall put 
no ymposition or chardge upon the inhaby tors of the said lands ; shall be obedyent to 
the Queen's laws ; shall not maintain or succour any of her enemies ; and shall bring 
uppe their children after the Englishe fashions, and in the use of the Englyshe tounge ; 
and that after the decease of the said Hughe O'Kelly, otherwise called O'Kelly, the 
lands aforesaid be discharged of the aforesaid rents. IN WYTNESSE whereof, the 
aforesaid lords, chieftains, &c. have hereunto put their seales and subscribed their 
names, the sixth day of August, Anno Domini 1585. 

" W. Tuamen S. Clonferten. — Joh. Elphine. — O'Kelly.— Connor 

Oge. — Con M c Garet. — M c Coffe. — Donoghe O'Miorry. — O'Nagh- 

tine Thom. le Strange. — Thom. Dillone John Crofton. — 

Francis Shane. — Rob t . Johnson John Birte. — W M . Mostin 

Miles Cavanaghe. — John Norris. — Nehemias Claye.. — Richard 
Dohorte. — Rob t . Semper. 

" J. Perrot. 

" Althoghe by this within written Indenture of Composition with the O'Kellies 
cuntry, they are charged to her Majesty after the rate of 13s. 40?, sterling upon every 
quarter of land, yet, forasmuche as they were the first that yealded to that Composi- 
tion in that province, and thereby occasioned others to do the lyke, and that also the 
rest of the whole province of Connaught doth beare by their Composition but 10s. 
sterling a quarter, having in some places farre better londe then the O'Kellies hath, 
and not borne heretofore soe greate a burden as they have done, I the Lo. Deputie 
think it very reasonable, and therefore doe covenant and agree, that the said O'Kellies 
country shall beare but as the rest of the said province doth, (that is to saye) 10s. 
sterling upon every quarter of lande chardgeable to Her Majesty, and soe to continue 
until her Majesties pleasure be knowne. 

" J. Perrot." 


" OP Madden 1 s Country. 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Perrotte 
kn'. lord Deputy, &c. of the one parte, and Stephen bishop of Clonfert — Donyll 
O'Madden of Longford, otherwise called O'Maddcn — Owen Balluff O'Madden of Lus- 

magh, gen — Cogh O'Madden of Killyan, gen Edmond M c Downy of Rathmore, gen. 

— Donyll M c Brasill of Dryowen, gen. — Cathall Carragh O'Madden of gen. — 

irish arch. soe. 1 5. 2 T and 

3 22 

and other the freeholders and inhabitants, having lands or holdings within the barony 
of Longford, otherwise called SYLLAXMUTGHIE in the county of Gal way, of the 
other parte. 

" WHEARE the said barony of Longforde contayneth in itself, as well by ancient 
division as by late Inquisition, 233 quarters of laude, everie quarter containing 120 
acres. FIESTE there is a quantity of land called Lusmoghe, 20 q™ — also the manor 
of Millicke, 4 q rs , belonging to the Queen — Lysmofadda, 3 q" — the parish of Borrish, 
7 q™ — Knockmoy darregge, 41 q", whereof 7 q™ as is said belong to her Map 
right of the abbey of Clonfert, and 5 q rs as is said beareth chiefly to the bishoprick 
of Clonfert — also Kilmacoaskeagh, 12 q™ — also Annaghe Carroll, 2 q r * — the parish of 
Moynteronan, 7 q rs — Kenaghan, Lessinmore and Bullinekille, 5 q™ — Glaster, 2 q" — 
Cloughenock Inisherke, 1 q r — Clonfertt, 2 q", which belongcth to the bishoprick of 
the same — also there is a quantity of land called Magher in Erllae, 20 q™ — Toh 
lemoy, 9 \ q" — Tirran, 4 q™ — Portomna, 6 q™ — Tohe M c Moroghe, 10 q" — Sleight 
Collow, 9 q rs — Tohe Bolloge, 14 q" — Tohe Raherrill, 10 q r \ whereof as is said 1 q r 
beareth chiefry to the bishoprick of Clonfert — Boylosky, 9 q" — .'. - q™ — 

Gort O'Madden, 2 q rs — the Sonagh, 2 q™ — tlie Lorggie and Cappaghe-na. 
2 q rs — Corbally, 4 q™ — Benigher, 1 q r — Ballybagge, 1 <( — Ballynebrannaghe, 
I q r — Killeran, 4 q r8 — Clonlaghan, 1 q r — Balleneclanty, 4 q" — Kflltormer, 1 q r — the 
Moy, 4 q rs — Leyssyreaghan, 2 q r " — Oghill bege, 1 q r — Aneghcallowe, 1 q r — Toll 
M c Sallagh, 1 q r — Rahen and Killdolisk, 1 q r — Clonemaskrye, 1 q r — Clonowlise, 
\ a q r — Clare, 1 q r — Ballemaghen, 1 q r — Androgowle, 2 q" — Clonfeaghan, 1 q r — 
Feabegge, 1 qj — all within the said barony ; and all which being drawn into one 
total cometh to the aforesaid number of 233 quarter-. 

" The aforesaid lords and chieftains, acknowledging the manifold benefitts and 
easements they finde, doe covenant to aunswere and beare 4 good horsemen and 12 
footmen, well armed with carriage and victualls, to all hostings, roods and journies 
within Connaught and Thomond ; and 2 good liable horsemen and 6 footme:. 
armed, to all generall hostings proclaimed in tins real: 

" It is agreed by the said lord deputy that the said Donell O'Madden, for his 
better mayntenance of lyvinge, shall have and take by letters patent. 8 quar: 
land as a demeasne to his castells of Longford and Clonfeaghan, free ; to be held as 
of the Queen's manor of Mylicke by knight's service; and aho 5,-'. ? ter. out 01 
quarter of 147 q rs of lande, in recompense of all rents, duties, spendings and demands 
claimed by the said O'Madden, of the freeholders of the said q™. 

" That the lord bishop of Clonfert shall have 6 q rs . free as a demayne to his house 
and manor of Clonfert. 

• That 

3 2 3 

" That Owen O'Madden shall have 4q rs free adjoining his house of Cloghan; and 
also 22 q rs subject to this composition, whereof he is said to be seized, as of his 
inheritance in Lusmagh. 

" That the earle of Clanrickard shall have the castle or manor of Portumny and 
4 q rs free, whereof he is said to be now saized as of his inheritance, fully discharged 
of all rents and demands of O'Madden. IN WITNESSE whereof the said Lords, 
Chieftains, &c, have hereunto put their seals, and subscribed their names, the second 
day of September, Anno Domini 1585. 

"Stephen Clonfert. — Owin O'Madden's marke. — Edmd. MacDowny's 

marke Donnell Mac Brass all's marke Cahall Carragh's 

marke Jno. Bourke." 


" That Part of Connavght called Clanrickard.'''' 

"THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Eight Honor ble Sir John Perrott, &c. of 
the one partye ; and Ulick earl of Clanrickarde — the rev. father in God William arch- 
bishop of Toeme — Stephen byshop of Clonferte — Thomas electe byshop of Kilmac- 
kaghe — The lord barron of Leitryme — Packard Bourke of Derry M c Laghny, es- 
quire — Sherone M c Khowge of Killenedyaine, otherwise M c Kowge — Ullick Car- 
raghe M c Hubbert of the Dissharte, otherwise called M c Hubberte — Hubbert 

M c Edmund of Gortnemackin, gen Robert Johnesone of Binmore, gen. — William 

Mostonne of the Downe, gen — Shannock M e William Roe of the Naile, otherwise 
called Mac William Roe — Walter Wall of Droghtye, chiefe of his name — Redmond 
Dolphine of Rarroddy, chiefe of his name — Hugh M c Swine of Cloghervanae — Oene 
M c Swine of Kiltullage, gen — Oene Mantagh O'Heine of Downgorye, otherwise 
called O'Heine — Connor Crone O'Heine, taneste to the said O'Heine — Hubbert boy 
Bourk M c Redmond, otherwise called M c Edmond— Dermod O'Shaghnes of Gort- 
ynchgory — Johne O'Shaghnes of Ardmollyvan, compettytors for the name of 
O'Shaghnes — Nehemias Follane of the Newtone, gen. — Edmond M c Ullick Bourke 
of Ballily, gen. — Rickaf d M c William of Rahale, gen. — Shane oge Bourke of Man- 
nyne, gen. — and Brien reoghe M c Killkelly of Cloghballymore, gen. — of the other parte. 
WYTNESSETH that wheare the whole country or territory of CLANRICKARD is 
divyded into six principall baronies, that is to wytt, Loughreaghe, Killetaraghe, 
Clare, Donkillin, Athenry, and Leitryme, which contain, as well by auncient devy- 
sion as by late Inquisicon, 958 quarters of lande, everie quarter 120 acres: — FIRSTE, 
in the baronye of Loughreaghe there is a quantity of land called Pobbill Clan-Henry 

2 T 2 of 


of the East, 28 q™ — Ballinekilly, 9 q r * — Ballynecreggy, 2 q™ — Raleine and Carrow- 
begge-Conoglior, 3 q rg — Ballwikearaghe, 4 q" — Graghewylle, 12 q™ — Balli: 
rane, 4 q rs — Pubbell M e . Hubert, 12 q™ — Pubbill Moyntirffiusi - — Eraghe 
M c Cowge, 17 q rs — Ballingarry, 3 q™ — The septe of Davie Roae his land, otherwise 
called Roae, 7 q rs — Killcarvanane, 2 q™ — The Bealane, 4 q", bel 
Mat y , as is said, in right of the nunry of Kilcrenadie — the mannor of Lough. 
12 q" adjoininge to the house, and in the parke, 4 q" — Bi me. 1 q' — 

inoyle, 2 q rs — Rayradae, 2 q™ — Carowemore, 1 q r — Cahairegealle, 1 q r — Be,, 
howly, 1 q r — and Downsander, 2 q™ — Ballyheine, 2 q" — Cahaireneinuck. 1 q r — all 
which in the whole within that barony cometh to 154 quartern In the bar' 
Kiltarraghe there is a quantitye of land called Eraght Redmond, 27 q™ — Ballylisa- 
brayne,4q rs — Ballycahalayne, 2q rs [various other quarters enun Killowvei 

otherwise called O'Heine's lands, 16 q" — all Keynnaley alias Sheaghnesconntrie, ici 
q" — also Termon Kill M r Kuogh, 6 q" — and several q™ belonging to the See of Kill- 
macoughe, &c, all which cometh to 185 quarters. In the barrony of Clare tfa 
a quantity of land called the half cowrine [corhpoinn. division, share], of C or r o e fy u ne, 
18 q rs — the half cowryne of Bealanae, 18 q rb — the halfcowri _ iiriiue 18 q" — 

Twoyeghellae, 17^ q rs — Leckaghebegge, 3 q" — Twoy-Castell-Crevie, 17 q" — the 
land of William M l Thomas his sept, 17 q™ — Moynter M' Hue. 31 q" — The land of 
Shane bwyes sept of Castell M c Haekett, 34 q" — the Hanele's lands. 14 q" — the 
lands of Edmond M c Redmond's sept, 14 q" — the lands of old Walter M Ri sdmondi 
sept, 10 q rs — the lands of William Granae M' Ramon's sept, 14 q r> — Killm' reamon, 
12 q™ — the Beahaghe, 4 q r " — Killnemannaghe, 2 q r ' — Prowtestowne,2 q™ — the man- 
nor of Clare, 14 q rs — Fairaghe, 4 q™ — Derry M° laghnie, 4 q" — the lands ofM 
terheine of Balliheylye, 4 q rs — which in the whole cometh to 287 .1 of which 

q rs belong to her Majestic In the barony of Donkillane there is a quantity of land 
called Ayte Corewally, 18 q" — Aytevallyline, 14 q" — Ayte Ballym* CraL. - — 

Kenalgory, 18 q™ — Rahin, 2 q™ — Ardrahen, 1 q r — Raivane, 2 q r ' — Killile. 3 q" I;..- 

hanlone, ^q* — Srue, 2 q rs — SheanganoiiL r h<'. 1 q r — Killcolgane, 7 q™ — Kinvarae, 1 q r — 
Drommikowe of Oilineady, 3 q™ — Donkelline, 3 q rs — Ayte M William D 
q™ — Killogilline, i q r — Clonisky, ^ q r — Ayte Sleight M Tibbot, 10 q™ — Oranbegse, 
Liseineknave, 4 q rs — Ronevile, 2 q rs — Erigeny, 4 q n — Cowlrae, 2 q" — Mearyemore. 3 q" 
— Mearyebegge, 2 q™ — Ballinemannaghe, 1 q r — DerrydonilL 2 q" — Ayte-Clan-W 
alias Crane more, 12 q rs — Kildroinderrigg, 13 q rs — Roscanie, 1 q r — 1. 

1 q r — Cloghearneshamone, 2 q" — Twelery, 1 q r — Rackoskrae. 2^ q" — Leavalirva, 

2 q" — Cahirmoyler, 1 q r — Kearowe Sheoing, 1 q r — Ynlaghe, i q r — BallymarishalL 
1 q r — which in the whole in that barony cometh to 176 quarters. In the bar 


3 2 5 

Atlienry there is a quantity of land called Eraght Dolphine, 27 q rs — Magheryfal- 
taghe otherwise called Magheryaltaghe, 24 q rs — Carnan, 2 q" — which in the whole 
in that barony cometh to 53 quarters. In the barony of Leitrim there is a quantity 
of land called Twey Kynallyhine, and Ay t Clan-Shane, 1 2 q rs — Ay te Clan-Edmond, 
12 q rs — Ayte Clan -Davie, 9 q rs — Crannagh M e Knavin, 4 q™ — Leyhayt M c Edmond, 
6 q rs — Dronkeary, 4 q rs — Tullagh, 2 q rs — Pobbell-ne-hally, 12 q™ — the castell of 
Leotrime, 7 q rs — Cloncaslane, 2 q rs — Clondagawe, 4 q rs — Killmuckray, 1 q r — Tin- 
naghe, 2 q rs — Annaghebrid, 1 q r — Balledowgane, 2 q rs — Ballynekilly, 2 q rs — Kill- 
cowly, 2 q rs — Bealananen and Bealafenton, 4 q rs — Ballynleylys, 1 q r — Dowry, 2 q rs 
— Carrowcroyne, 1 q r — Carrawowny, 1 q r — Killineane, 2 q rs — Sheangorry-ne- 
Mylodaghe, 1 q r — Shanvoy, 4 q rs — Ballenronan and Clonrashe, 2 q rs — which in the 
whole in that barony cometh to 1 03 quarters ; and all which being drawn into one 
totall cometh to the aforesaid number of 958 quarters. 

" The said chieftains, lords, &c. do covenant to aunsweare and beare 40 good hable 
horsemen & 200 footmen, well armed with carriage and victualls, to all hostings, roods 
and journeyes within Connaught and Thomond; and 20 good hable horsemen and 50 
fbotemen well armed and furnished with arms, garrans, and victuals, to all generall 
hostings proclaymed in this realme. 

" It is agreed by the lord deputy, on behaulfe of the Queen e, that the earl of 
Clanrickard shall have 34 q rs in the barony of Loughreagh free, as a demeane to his 
manor of Loughreagh. There belonge to the heires of Sir Dorby O Shaghnes, knight, 
1 01 q rs in the barony of Kiltarraghe; and to Nehemias Ffolane 2 q rs adjoining to 

the Newtowne That the s d earl shall have 10 s ster. out of every q r of 64 q rs within 

that barony. In the barony of Clare there are 287 q rs , whereof belong to the queen 
in right of Abbey-land 41 q rs ; and by the attainder of Tybbott Bourke 5 q rs & 
there belong to the archbishop of Tweame, 2 1 q rs . That Rickard Bourke of Derryma- 
claghny shall have 22 q rs , whereof he is now seized as of his inheritance. The manor 
of Clare are 7 q rs of land in the possession of Dominick Browne of Gallway, alderman, 
and James Darcy has 3 q™ in the towns of Collene, Cloncrye and Carrow-I-Cullan. That 
the said earl shall have 14 q rs free in the lordship of Clare, as a demesne to his house 
of Corryfinne ; and a rentcharge of 3 s1 out of every other q r of the residue. 

" In the barony of Donkellyn there are four q ls in Oranmore, in possession of 
Dominick Browne of Galway, merchant. William Martine of Galway gent, has 2 q rs 
adjoyning to the town of Cahirforvace. That the said earl of Clanrickard shall enjoy 
28 q rs free as a demeane to his castell of Kilcolgan; and have 13 s ' ^ out of every 
q r of 33 q rs in the barony of Atlienry. 

" That 


" That the baron of Leitrim and his heirs shall have 10 q n free, and 13' 4 1 oute 
of every other q r in the barony of Leitrim, the Queen's and Churchland- excepted. 

" That the archbishop of Tweame, and the bishop of Kill M'Keogfa shall have 
several q" all particularly named, free. 

" That Rickard Bourke shall have 8 q™ free, adjoyning his house of Derry 
M c laghnie and Ballinderry. 

" That the heirs of Sir Dorby O'Shoghnes shall have 8 q" free, ady \ 
manor house of Gortynchygorye. 

" That William Martene, in consideration of his services diveralydon 
shall have 2 q" in Cahirforvase in the barony of Donkell 

" That Nehemias Follaine, in respect of his travaile and pains taken for her 
Majesty, in the search of the quantity of land within the said Clanrickard, shall have 
2 q" in the Newtowne in the barony of Kiltaraghe, free, 

" That Dominick Browne, in respect of the like, shall have- 2 q" free adjoini:- 
the castle of Lyedegane and Cahirforvace, in the barony of Donkellyne, free. 

" That James Darcy, for the like consideration, shall have the three q™ before 
named in the barony of Clare free. 

" And for as much as divers of the meane freehoulders of the said territorie of 
Clanrickard, and the tenants dwellinge upon their lands, are and shall Iks greatlie 
burdened by this composition, if the petty lords and captain*- next above diem be 
allowed to take such rentes & customarye dutyes, as they pretend to belong to them; 
for remedy whereof it is condescended, concluded and agreed, thai the above named 
M c Kowghe, M c Hubert, M° William roe, the Ffealtaghe Dolphinaghe, « »" 1 1 
M c Redmond, M c Cremon, and all others of that sort of petty lords or capt.. 
have, hold, possess, and enjoy all their castles and lands, to descend from ech of thein 
to their heirs by course and order of the laws of England; and after the dec*. 1 
everie of them, now livinge, the aforesaid rents, duties, and all exaeeons shall, 
thenceforth be utterlie determyned and extinguished for ever. IX W ITNESSE whereof 
the said lords, chieftains, &c. have hereunto put their seales and subscribed their names 
the second day of September, Anno Domini, 1585. 

" Clanricarde. — S. Clonfert. — Tho. Dcacen. — William Mosten. — 
Richard Bourke. — Hu. M c Swine. — Redmond Dolphine. — Own 


James Dorcte." 


3 2 7 

" Mac Davye's Countreye." 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixt the Right Honorable Sir John Perrotte Knt. 
lord Deputy, & c . of the one parte, and William Archbishop of Tweame — Sir Hubert 
Bourke M c Davie of Glenske, knight — Davie M°Edmond of Kilcroan, gen. — Thomas 
M c Henrie of Ballymo, gen. — Richard Betaghe of the Cregg, gen — Hobbert bwy 
M e Edmond of the Moate, gen. — Shane M c Ullicke Bourke of Rahenille, otherwise 
called M c Walter, chiefe of his name — Shane M c Ullicke of Killmogher, gen. — and 
others the freeholders and inhabitants having lands or holdings within the barony of 
BELLAMOE, and M c DAVIE'S COUNTRY, by east the river of Succke in the 
countie of Roscommon, of the other parte 3 . 

WYTNESSETHE, that whereas the said baronie of Bellamo, and the lands by 
east the river of Suck, conteyneth, as well by ancient division as by late Inquisition, 
212^ q rs each containing 120 acres. — FIRSTE in the barronie of Bellamo there is a 
quantity of land called Loghlaunge, 8 q rs — Clafaghne, 1 q r — Cloncae, ^ q r — Rosemo- 
lan, 1 q r — Ballyne, i\ q rs ; all which are belonging and adjoining to M c Davie's howse 
or manor of Glinske — also Ballynekillie, ^ q r , belonginge to the bishoprick of El- 
phine — Cloncomyske, 4 q rs — Tonreggie, 4 q rs — Cornemucklaghe, Tossecreggan and 
Gylcaghe, 8 q rs , whereof \ a q r lyeth by east the ryver of Succke, — Dengenterragh, 
4 q rs — Dromenehea, z\ q rs — Garrowghe, 4 q rs , whereof 1 q r lyeth on the east side 
of the Succke — Downoman, 4 q rs , whereof 2 q rs lyeth on the same east side of the 


a Two Indentures of Composition appear to have \ q r — in Cortdrissy, J q r — in Liskea, 1 q r — in Kill- 
been entered into for Mac Davy's country. The se- nelag, 1 q r — in Kearoweroney M c Rist, 1 q r — in 
cond Indenture is that given above. The first was Croghill, 1 q r - — also in Glinske and Donemayne, 
entered into on 4th Sept., 1585, and in it the en- 8 q rs — also Tohe M c Walter, 27^ q rs — in Boker- 
tire territory is stated to contain only 192 q rs , viz. ran and Lisborly, 2 q rs — -which, in the whole, with- 

" There is in the said barrony of Bellamo a quantity in that barony of Bellamo cometh to 113 q rs Also 

of land called Tohe-Killebeggenet, 18 q rs — Tohe- th re is a quantity of lande by easte the Sucke, in 
rioghe, 15 q rs — Fferrynlynode, 4 q re — Tohetogher, Magher Connaght, within the countie of Roscom- 
39 q rs , viz. Sleight Shane garaf, and Sleight Ty- mon, belonging to M c Davy, and his kinsmen, con- 
bete, 2 q" — in the towne of Urriegher, 4 q rs — Lis- sistinge of 85 q rs ." Sir Hubert Bourke M c Davie, 
drissaghan, 2 q ,s — Kearoweneny, 1 q r — Kearowe- afterwards "came in," and made discovery of the 

roo, 1 q r in Letully, 2 q rs — in Tylbegge, 2 q rs — concealed lands, which occasioned the second inden- 

in Tome-Croymer, 2 q rs — in Kearowderry, 1 q r — in ture of composition given above; in which his " in- 

Derrymoy, 2 q rs — in Bonedober, 2 q rs — in the dustrie and dilligente search" appear to have been 

Shrede, 1 q r — in Ardclone, 1 q r — in Curraghebay, amply rewarded. 


said river— also Cornveagh-Shonen, \ q r — Farrontynod, 5 q™ — There are a. 
Toatogher within the said barrony, theis parcells of land following, viz. Killveg. 2 q" — 
Tomeghroyne, 2 q rs — Lyederry, 2 q" — Derrymod, 2 q r! — Mondobber, 2 q" — Car- 
rowderre, 1 q r — Carroweroe,', 1 q r — Ardclone, 4 q r — Killylegge, 1 q' — ~ 

Croghill, 1 q r — Carrowroe-ne-Dowclonaghe, 1 q r — Lyssedryssaghan, 2 'j r ' — D: 
4 q r " — Castelreoghe, 1^ q rs — Kylmore, 1 q r — Kyllmoghare, 1 q r — Laghill and Cran- 
tage, 1 q r — Carrowreoghe. 1 q r — Rysseruse, 1 q r — Kilmore-dromly, ^ qr. — Curra<rh- 
netnmyd, 1 q r — Calleriegh, 1 q r — Carrownvallie, 1 q r — Clonaghgarrowe and Gortnowe, 
1 q r — Gortnegier and Clondowill, 1 q r : also in Toa M' Walter within the said baronv, 
there are theis parcells of land following, viz. Attvmeghan. 4 q rt — Cladagh, 1 q r — 

Leavally, 1^ q r — Moylisse, 1^ q r 

-Carroweroe and Downbreane, 1 

I q r 


1 q r — Killevoher, 1 q r — Kinclaremore, 1 q r — Rissenuske, 1 'j r — the Parck. 1 q r — 
Lynelaghe and Tweamarde, 1 q r — Cappanaghe, 1 q r — Cloncon and Killteakle, 1 q r — 
allso Ballyneuleskaghe, 4 q"— Tskerrigan and Tobberneclogge, 1 q r — Clonmore and 
Gurtyne, 1 q r — Clonmarkan and Lamnro, \ q r — Lomanagi. jh, 1 q r — 

Loghiuelan and Trilie, 1 q r — Bokerran and Lisburlie, 2 q r \ the areh- 

bishoprick of Tweame — Killmurry, ^ q r belonging to the same, which in the whole 
within that barronie cometh to the number of 1 29 q". 

" In M c Davie's country, by east the river of Sucke, there is a quantity of land 
called Awflare, 4 q™ — Farrer, 4 q" — Skehenegan, 4 q" — Kiltultoge, 4 q" — Ballyna- 
kerell, 4 q" — Ardlaghen, 4 q r! — Rackinylie, 2 q r ' — Carroweduffe, 1 q r — Lysselun- 
sheghane, 1 qi — Ballynowe, 4 q" — Crive, 3 q™ — Runebackan, 1 q r — Ramene, 4 q" — 
Curresdowne, 2 q" — Killenredd, 2 q" — Carvally, 4 q n — Akagher, 4 q™ — Dondermod, 
|- q r — Clongalgan, 4 q" — Balleferran, 4 q" — Ballevorgan, 4 q™ — Ballegoll. 4 q" — 
Ballyturle, 2 q™ — Ymlaghvegge, 1 q r — Imlaghnegrie, 1 <\ — Woram alias VVarham. 
4 q rs , belonging to the archbishop of Tweame — Clonycormocan, 4 q", whereof 2 q™ 
belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of R -common — Ymlaghmore, 2 q" 
belonging to her Majesty in right of said abbey — Runemoate, 1 q r — Dromtample, 
1 q r — Leamore, 4 q rs . And so the whole, within that part of M c Davie's country br- 
east the river Suck in the countrey of Roscommon, cometh to the nomber of 88^ q™. 

" The said lords, chieftaines, gentlemen, freeholders, and the rot of the inhabi- 
tants, as well of the said barony of Ballamoe as M c Davie's countrey, by east die river 
of Suck aforesaid, acknowledginge the manifold benefits and easements they fit. 
doe covenant to aunswere & beare, yearlie for ever. 3 good hable horsemen and 8 foot- 
men well armed to all hostings, roods and jurneyes within Connaught and Thomond; 
and 2 good hable horsemen and 4 footmen well armed to all generall hostings pro- 
claymed in this realme. 

- It 

3 2 9 

"It is agreed by the lord deputy, on behalfe of the Queen, that the said Sir 
Hubert Burke M c Davy, knt. for the better supportacon and maintenance of the dig- 
nity of knighthood, whereunto it hath pleased her Majesty to call him, and in respect 
that by his industrie and dilligente search, there are a great number of quarters of 
land found out by presentment, which was like to be concealed; shall have, hold, 
possess, and enjoy to him and his heirs, not only such castles and lands as he doth now 
possess by the name and callinge of Mac Davye, but also such as he is now justlie 
seized of as of his proper inheritance, which are said to be in the whole the number 
of 104 q rs , whereof he shall hold 24^ q rs as a demayne next adjoining to his castles of 
Glinske and Downamore, and to such other of his howses as he shall make choice of, 
free; and that he shall hold by knight's service, viz. by one knights fee, as of the 
manor or house of Athlone ; and shall have chief rents out of the said other q rs in 
full recompense of all duties, exactions and customary spendings, by him claymed 
upon the freeholders of the same. 

" That Shane M L ' Ullicke Bourke, otherwise called Mac Walter, shall have 5 q" 
free, as a demayne next adjoyninge his howse or castle of Renaltaghe, in the baronie 
of Bellamoe. 

" That Shane M c Ullicke of Kymogher shall have 2 q rs free, as a demayne of Kyl- 

" That Hobert M c Edmond shall have 1 q r free, next adjoininge his house of 
Gortnedie in said barony. 

" That Richard Betaghe, in respecte of the good service he hath done to Her 
Majesty in tyme past, and intendeth to do in tyme to come, shall have 2 q rs free, as a 
demayne next adjoyninge to his house or towne of the Cregg. 

" That Davie M e Edmond shall have 2 q rs free, as a demayne next adjoyninge his 
house of Kylcroan, and Lyssedrisseghan. 

" That Thomas M c Henry shall have 3 q rs free, next adjoyninge his castell of 
Bellamoe. IN WYTNESSE whereof, the said lordes, chieftaines, &c, have hereunto 
put their seales, and subscribed their names, at Galway the 3 rd day of Feb y 1585. 

" Sir Hobart Bourk's marke. 
" Davy M 1 ' Edmonde's marke. 
" Shane M c Ullick's marke. 
" M c Walter's marke. 
" Brymeghani's Country, or Barony of Donemore. 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixt the Right Honorable Sir John Perrotte 
Knight, lord deputie generall of Irelande, for and on behalfe of the Queene's most 

irish arch. soc. 1 5. 2 U excellent 


excellent Majestie of the one partie, and Ullick earle of Clanrickard — William arch- 
bishoppe of Tweame — Edmond Brymidgham lord barron of Athenrie — Tibbotl 

M c Jonen of Tobberkeoghe, gen Donyll O'Higgin of Killclona, gen. — lames dutte 

Brymidgham of Feartemore, gen. — Robert Fowlle of Feartemore, gen. — Waltei 
midgham of Myltoun, gen., and others the freeholders and inhabitants, having lauds 
or holdings in the barony of DOWXMORE, within tin- county of Gain 
other parte. 

" WYTNESSETHE, that whereas the said baronie of Donm . an- 

cient division as by late inquisition, contains 183 q™, each q r containing 12c acres, viz. 
FIRSTE, there is a quantity of land called the third of Walter Brymighanv 
q rs ; whereof is said to belong to the bishoprick of Clonmacknoyse 4 ■ 
bishoprick of Tweame 6 q rs , to the dean and parish of Tweame 5 q", and to h< 1 
in right of the abbey of Killcrenade as is said, 1 1 q" — also 'l>>h<--Tirlagli-vau^han, 
43 1™» whereof belong to Her Majesty, in right of the Trynitye abbey 1 : 
as is said, 4q rs ; and also to Her Majesty in righl of the abb S ; bn of Tv. 

3 q rs — also Tohe-Downmore, 63 q rs ; all which, in the whole barony of 1 
aforesaid, cometh to the number of 183 quarters. 

" The aforesaid lords, &c. doe covenant to aunsweiv > : good ha' 

men and 4 footmen well armed, with carriage and victualls, t<> all hosti 
journyes within Connaught and Thomond: and 1 good liable horseman and 2 
men well armed, to all general 1 hostings proclaimed in this realm 

" It is agreed that the lord baron of Athenry shall have 59 
to his manors or castells of Downmore and Turlaghvaghan, and a 
of 5 s ster. out of everie q r of the residue of all said q™. 

" That the earle of Clanrickard shall have tin- abbej of K:l : 
thereto adjoyning, free. 

" And wheare the manor of Feartymore is said I 
Fowell, gen. shall have the said manor and 6 q rs fn 

" That Tybott bwy M° Johnyne shall have the castell •■: . 
adjoyning same, free. And that they shall all held of the Queen, a- of hei 
manor of Lyssekenanan within the aforesaid county of Galway. INWI TNESSK 
whereof, the aforesaid lordes and gentlemen have hereunto put their - - I sub- 
scribed their names, at Galway the fourth day of September, Anno Domini 15^5. 

•• W. Tiam — Clanrykard. 

•■ E. Athenry — Tibdott BOT, hi- ma: - 

•• Robert Fowle.'" 



" Countie ofMayoe." 

" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Perrot knight, 
lord deputie generall of Irelande, for and on the behalfe of the Queenes most excellent 
Mat ic of the one partye, and the reverend fathers in God, William archbyshop of Tweame 
— Owen ellecte byshopp ofKillalae — Sir Richard Bourke of the Newton knight, other- 
wise called M c William Eyghter — Walter Kettagh of Bealeck, gen. — William Bourke 
of Ardnery, gen. — Edmond Bourk M c Oliver of Ropa, gen. — Richard Barrett of Ross, 
otherwise called M c ' Padin, chief of his name — Pierce Barrett of Ballasseekery, gen. — 
Myly M c Evily of Kinturk, otherwise called M c Evily, chiefe of his name — Edmond 
Bourke of Castlebar, tanest to the said M c William Eyghter — William Bourke of Bal- 
lenecarrae, otherwyse called the blinde abbote — Moyller Bourke of Castle M c Kerra, 
gen. — Tybbott Reoghe Bourke of Boherfayne, gea. — Edmund Evagher M c Jordan of 
Bellalaheu, otherwise called M c Jordan — Moyler M c Jurdan of the Newcastell, gen. — 

Walter Leaghe M° Stevane of Corran M c Stephane, gen Jordan M c Thomas of Bal- 

lahaghe, gen. — Richard M c Moryse of the Bryse, otherwise called M c Moryshe chiefe 
of his name — Davy M c Moryshe of Castell M c Geralte, gen. — Walter M c Erydry of 
castell-Reoghe, gen. — William Bourke of Shrowell, gen. — Edmond Bourke of Conge, 
gen. — Riccard oge Bourke of Cloynecashell, gen. — Molaghlyne O'Mayle of Belclare, 
otherwise called O'Mayle chiefe of his name — Teige roe O'Mayle of Cahairenemart, 
gen. — Ouan O'Mayle of the same, gen. — Dermot M c Arte of Clare, gen. — Gilleduffe 
M c Gibbon of Ballynekillye, gen. — Ricard oge M c Gibbon of Glankyne, gen. — Sher- 
rone M c Gibbon of Lackane, gen. — Nicholas fitz-Symons of Dunmacknynye, gen — 
Walter M c Phillipyne of Brehe, otherwise called M° Phillypyne chiefe of his name — 
Ferraghe M c Tirrlage roe of Carrickmadye, gen. — Edmond oge M c Gibbon of Derry- 
macgornan — William Bourke of Torrane, gen. — Riccard oge M c Tomyne of Ballicroen, 

gen Edmond Barret of Dowlaghe, gen. — John Browne of the Neyle, gen. — Richard 

Barret of Kyrenan, gen. — and John Caree of Downmacknyny, gen. of the other partie. 

"WYTNESSETH, that wheare the whole country or terrytory of MAYOE ys 
devyded into nyne principall barronies, that ys to wy tte, the barrony of Crosbohine alias 
Clanmorys, the barronies of Kilmean, Muryske, Burreshowle, Envyremore alias Irrish, 
Moyne alias Tyrrawly, Burreskerra alias Kerra, Bellalahen alias Gallene, & Clane- 
Costellae ; which (omyttinge Clan-Costelloe) contain, as well by auncient devy- 
syon as by late inquisition, 14485 q r \ each q r containing 120 acres a . — FIRSTE, in the 


3 The "Boundaries of Mayo" have been found as Conge, the 22nd xlugust 1607, before Sir Anthony 
follows, by an Inquisition taken at the abbye of St. Leger, Master of the Rolls, &c. " The countie 

2 U 2 

barronie of Crosbohine alias Clanrnorys, there is a quantity of laud called tb 
consisting of 7 q rs — alsoe Derowle, 14 q™— the Morning. 12 q"— Ballycowle ft ( 
gare, 9 q rs — Caslane Enlagh-Karowe, 13 q r '— Ballekenknavy, 12 q rs — Castc-llkeyle, 3 
q" — Castell M c Gerralt, 4 q rs — Down m c nynye and Caetellreaghe, 22 q"— I 

4 •{" 

of Mayo consisteth of ten baronies, vi/.. Kill- 
mean, Eosse, Murske, Borcsowle, Irrus, Ty rawly. 

Galleng, Costello, Clanmorrice, and Kerra That 

the same county is hounded with the county of Gal- 
waye on the sowthe and sowthe west Firete the 
barony of Kilmean doth bound with the lord Bir- 
mingham countrye at A th. soil us. in the east of 
Ballycheraghe, from thence to the forde of Ardower, 
and from thence the bogg called < ilayssebrydd to tin- 
river of Shrower, and from thence to Cloghane Col 
rigg in the east of Kynlagh, from thence to the 
ford of Athleaagh, and from thence tin- rh 
Moyne to Loghcorbe, which logh doth bonnde the 
said county to the river of I-'allmer : and from th 
to the mountayne of Mamenne, and them 
great mountayne to the river of Loghtaf... 
which river doth extend to the sea called K. U 
and from thence to the rocke called Carrigi-olna on 
the sowthe side of the black rocke calk-d Inish bo 
fine: and so the mayne ocean sea on the west, north- 
weast, and north, boundinge thence the baronii ■- of 
Murske, Borresowle, Irrus, and Tyrawly, to the 
river of Move, and from that river to the river of 
Bonryowe right agaynste Belleeke. which river i- 
011 the northe of Ardnerie, and from that river to 
bogg of Lahagh in Tyowe on the sowth of Ball] 
cotle, and from thence, the west and of the moun- 
tayne of Lynedanc, to Mullycowes in Belclare in 
O'llirareogh's coimtrie, in the county of Sligo: from 
thence to Bellahy mealing between the counties of 
Mayo and Sligo, from thence to Srowan-even-lode, 
in the north side of Ballmilen, and from them 
Bellanefohy on the north side of Killcohnan in Cos- 
tallo, from thence to Clownagonain neer Bungare 
in the county of Rosscommon : from thence to Bella - 
meuda on the easte of the monastery of I'llare in 
Costello, from thence to Curragh M c Eneanta nier 

neigh in the county mon. from 

thence to the Legan, Killtullagh in J>illero»n in the 
county of Roscommon aforesaid, from fence to the 
forde of Cowlenedrcnv in Sillerown, in the com 
Roscommon aforesaid, from thence to the pass of 
& ]l.>:ih-ne-leeklen in Ermylton in the* 
ham liis country, from Ath*-- 

sollus, v hi ;<- i!. ..foresaid mearin- dyd U-gynn. 

•' Tliesare the uttenii 
Mayo ..11 all Bides. And whatMM vned 

within the aforesaid boi 
wee tinde that the barrony ..f Kiln 

81 q •. lie :- -- 

Rosse 1 ut ]),,« it i» inha 

we know not. Th.- barony of Burres-owle consisteth 
of 131 q™, when of 32 are inhabitted of the chardge- 
able land, the rest free and waste. The ban.ny of 
Mur-k.- consisteth - 86 are inha- 

bited, til. ! ponj of Iri-~ o I 

eth 40 .| r ". whereof of the .harp:. 1 tted 4. 

the rest Era and waste. The barony of Gallen con- 
teyneth 183 <\'\ whereof are of the chardgat i 
habitted 40 q™, t! The barooy 

of Tyerauly consisteth < f are inha- 

bit ted 52 q™, tin- rest free and waste. The bai 
of Clanmonshe consisteth ■ : . ■-. hereof are 

inhabitte.l ofthi chardgeable Ian 
free and waste. By an In. nil- 
there are of quarter.- in the ban.: 
.| r -: yet wee fynde that it is commonly heald tocoa- 
teyne 83 q™, whereof of the chardgeable q™ are 
inhabitted 4 7. the rest waste. The barony of Kerra 
consisteth of 281 q", whereof are inhabitted of the 
chargeable lands 04 q B , the rest free and was: 
Grig. InqtCU. Rolls Off. Dublin. 


4 q rs — Keankylly, 14 q rs — Alieana, 6 q rs — Clogher, 2 q rs — Barreila, 4 q" — Knockan- 
coyle, 1 q r — Ballenstrangforde, 3 q rs — Balle m c adame, 4 q rs — the cepte of Rickard 
fynn, 8 q rs — the cept of Moyntercullenan, 4 q rs — Clonbane, 4 q™ — Bally m c Rickarde, 
2 q" — Kilenhene, 2 q rs — Rouske, 2 q rs — Cowleroe, 2 q rs — Clondyver, 1 q r — Carrolagh- 
emore, 1 q r — Ballechrunan, 4 q rs — Termon, 24 q rs , belonging to the archbishop ricke ol 
Tweame — alsoe the abbey of Ballynsmalle, x q r , belonging to her Majesty — Killvon- 
dane, 2 q rs , belonging to the Queen in right of the abbay of Mayoe — Crosbohine, 
1 q r — Kylcowle, 4 q rs , belonging to her Mat y in right of the abbey of Mayoe — Kep- 
paghe and Derradae, 2 q rs — Knockdorchy and Ballynester, 1 q r , belonging to her Mat y 
in right of the abbey of Mayo— Glaneghelrine and Skrykene, 1 q r — Lyannaghe and 
Purte, 1 q r — Ballyhumillane and Singanaghe, 1 q r — Ballymalavalle and Ballymago- 
rane, 1 q r — and Ballyclanristarde, 1 q r , in all 200 q rs . In the barronie of Kilmeane 
there is a quantity of land called Connyckenecowlye, 128 q ls , whereof belongeth to 
William Bourke M° Shane and his freeholders, 80 q rs , and to Edmond Bourke 
M c Thomas Evagherye and his followers, 48 q rs — alsoe Moynter-Creaghane, 22 q rs — 
Eyghterhyre, 80 q rs — Loughmaske, 1 2 q rs — Ballynrobae, 4 q rs — Ballynclontye, 4 q rs — 
Kenlaghe, 10 q rs — also belonging to the archbishopricke of Tweame, 22 q rs — to the 
Queen in right of the abbey of Conge, 1 6 q rs — also 1 q r in right of the abbey of Ballyn- 
robae — also Moyne, 2 q rs — Lackfynne, 2 q rs — also 2 q rs belonging to her Mat y in right 
of the nunrye of Innyshmeane and Ballyncaloe — also Dowrishe, 2 q". The whole in 
that barony cometh to 321 q rs . In the barronie of Muryske, in the Owles, there is a 
quantity of land called Lorge owle O'Mayle, 36 q rs — Ilane-ne Moghea, 36 q rs — also 
belonging to the archbishoprick of Tweame, 7 q rs — and 1 q r belonging to her Ma ty in 
right of the abbey of Muryske, in all 80 q rs . In the barronie of Burreshowle there is 
a quantity of land called the sept of Clanphillypins, consisting of 24 q rs — the cepte of 
M c Tybbot 16 q ,s — Termonaghegowre 24 q rs , belonging to the archbishoppe of 
Tweame — 4 q rs belonging to her Ma ty in right of the abbey of Ballyntober — alsoe these 
parcells of land followinge, belonging as is said to the erle of Ormonde, viz. Ackeall, 
4 q rs — Tyrenare and Boireshowle, 1 2 q rs — Balleveaghan, 6 q rs , whereof 2 q rs belong to 
the archbishoprick of Tweame — also Baleagowre, 4 q rs — Kennarde, 4 q rs — Lecarrobo- 
her, 4 q rs — Clogher, 4 q rs — Ballyhallynan, 4 q rs — Roslea and Rosnebrare, 6 q rs , belong- 
ing to the archbishoprick of Tweame — also Money, 2 q rs — Ferrentyre, 2 q rs — Kellma- 
glasse, 2 q rs , belonging to the archbishoprick of Tweame — also Cagall, 2 q rs — which in 
the whole cometh to 124 q rs within that barronie. — In the barronie of Enviremore 
alias Irrysh, there is a quantity of land called the Came, 4 q rs — Eyre-Irryshe, 4 q rs — 
Leame, 4 q rs — Toeskerte, 2 q rs — Ymlevegger, 2 q rs — Ballecroye, 4 q rs , belonging as is 
said to the earle of Ormonde — also Glankoa-lehinskey, 4 q rs — Dowghekeaghane, 4 

q rs — 


q» — Carrownenowghyne, 2 q rs — Ballymonyll. 1 q r — Glanmoy and Dawnecart;. 
q r — Innvre and great Innyskey, 2 q" — Letereghe, 1 q r — Kilteyny, 1 q r , bd 
her Ma' y in right of the abby of Ballintober — the Crosse, 3 q™, belong] 
in right of the abbey of Crosse — Termon-kilhi.. 

1 q r belongs to the Bishopricke of Killalae — Termon-kerraghi , 1 q" B .1 ^ 

belonging to same — Ballecroye, 1 q r , belonging to same — the whole in that barronie 
432 <T- In tlie barony of Moyne alias Tyrawly, there is a quantity of land called the 

cowrine of Ballynewe, alias the Newtowne, 40 q r " — cowryne ne 1: .• . 23 q™ 

cowryne Bealicke, 48 q rs — Barred's cowryne, 18 q" — T< fi if—Tbt 

Laggan and the Clandonyles, 36 q™— Toe Keherrenan, 18 q" — Toae Boawynym 
Glanhosty, 27 q rs — Ardenery, 44". whereof 2 q r - belong to the bishoprick of Kil- 
lalae — In the said barony belong to the bishopricke of Killalae 39 q"_ 
Grange of the Newtowne, 4 q r \ belonging to her Ma ,J in right of the abbey of 

moy — also belonging as is said to the dean and chaunter of Killalae. 2 q n also be- 
longing to the Queen in right of the abbey of RaYrana, 2 q™— which in the whole 
within that barony cometh to 287 q' . In the barronie of Burreskarre alii 
there is a q r of land called cowryne Downmonye, 21 q" — cowryne Ball;. 
q«_ cowryne Moyonylie, 2 1 q™— cowryne Kentorl 1 - — 
Castellkerrane, 22 q rs — the hall' cowryne ofClonyne, io£ q" — the half a 
Lortane, io£ q rs — Sleight Dlicke Bourke, and Sleighl Davy duff Bourke. 
of 21 q™— the cowryne ofTorlaghe, 21 q™ — the cowryn 1-Barrye. 21 q"— 
Slewoney, 24 q rs — Drom and Ball 8 q R — Balliutobber, 8 q", h 
Queen in right of the abbey of Ballyntobber— Levally i 8 q"— Clnndowane. 

2 q ra — Kearoweenny, 4 q"— Ballyovey, 4 q", belo . 

Tweame, which in the whole in that barronie cometh to 253 q". In the bam.: 
Bellalahin alias Gallen, there is a quarter of land called ( -S , i( a" — Clan- 

manny, 16 q rs — Toa? Boycolloe, 16 q rs — Toe Newcastell, 16 q n — Cawlekearnye and 
Toaj Bellaghaghe, 64 q" — Keanaufe and Killedane. 6 q™, belonging to the bishoprick 
ofAchonry — also Bellalahen, 16 q rs — also belonging to the Queen in right <>f the 
abbey of Strade, 4 q™ — which in the whole of that barronie cometh to 1S0 q". All 
which, being drawn into one totall, cometh to the aforesaid number of 1448^ q"; 
whereof belong to the Queen 58 q rs , to the lords spiritual icii q» and to the earl 
of Ormond 40 q rs . 

The said lords chieftains & c acknowledging the manifold benefits and 1. 
they find in possessing of their lands and goods, since the peaceable government of the 
said lord Deputie, and the just dealings of Sir Richard Binghame. Km. do gran 
the Queenes most excellent Majesty her heires and successors for ever, one yearlie 



rent-chardge of tenn shillings good and lawful current money of England, goinge out 
of everie quarter, which in the whole amounteth yearly to the some of £600 ster. 
and for lacke of money, the thresurer or generall receiver to receive kyne to the 
value of the said rent: and further, they doe covenaunt to aunswere and beare yearlie 
for ever, to all hostings, roods and journies within the said province of Connaughtand 
Thomond, 40 good liable horsemen and 200 footemen well armed, and furnished with 
arms, garrans and victuals; and 15 good liable horsemen and 50 footmen to all gene- 
ral hostings proclaymed in this realme. 

The s d lo. Deputie for and in the behalfe of the Queens Majestie, and also the 
aforesaid lordes, chieftaynes, & c ' doe covenant, promise, grant and agree, that the 
said Sir Richard Bourke, otherwise called Mac William Eughter, in respecte of the 
auncientie of his name, and for the better supportacon and mayntenaunce of the de- 
gree of knight-hood whereunto it hath pleased the Queens mo. excellent Majestie to 
call him, shall have by letters patten ts, to him his heirs and assigns, the castells or 
mannors of Ballyloughmaske, Kinlaghe and Ballynrobae, and 34 q rs of land belonging 
to same — alsoe a yearlie rent-chardge of 3 s ' 4 a " out of every q r of 66 townes in said 
barony of Kilmean, of the freeholder's lands, viz. the Bourkes, Jonynes, Clanmoylers, 
and Sleight vick Tybbott, in recompence for all rents, beoves, spendings and cus- 
tomary exaccons, who all shall hold of him by knight's service — alsoe 3 s ' 4 d ' out of 
every q r of 26 towns in the barony of Kerrae, viz. the lands of the Bourkes in Toss- 
troyme, Klyncowane and M° Ivyles — also 3 s ' 4 d ' out of every q r of 10 townes in 
Burresowle, viz. the lands of Sleught Walter bouy, Sleight M c Kaage boy, the Clan- 
donyles and the Bourkes — also 27 s ' 6 d ' upon 6 q rs of M c Phillipine and his kinsmens 
lands — also 15 s ' ster. divided upon 3 q rs of s d M c Phillipines lands in Dromrany — also 
5 s ' out of every q r of 160 q rs of freeholders lands in the barrony of Moyne, viz. the Bar- 
retts, Bourkes, Lynots, Clanpaidyne, Cusaks, Carowes and Clandonylls— also the castle 
of Newtowne in the barronie of Moyn, and 10 q rs about the same free. And that he 
and his heirs shall hold the same of the Queene, by the 20" 1 part of a knights fee, as 
of her manor or bowse of Strade in the said county ; and one fayre chiefe horse, yearlye 
to be presented in her Ma' JS name to the lord Deputie, with these words engraven 
with gold " unde veni redeo." 

That the archbishop of Tweame shall have such mansion places as he possesseth 
in the townes of Mayo, Conge, and Aghagower, with 12 q rs in the barony of Kilmean 
and Clanmores, free. 

That Thomas earl of Ormond and Ossory, said to be seised of 40 q rs belonging to 
the manor of Boresowle, shall have the same free. 


33 6 

That Ulicke earl of Clanrickard shall have the castle and towne of Moyne in the 
barrony of Kilmeane, and 6 q" free, whereof 2 q rs lyeth in Ballymar? • 

That Owen electe byshop of Killalae shall have the towne of Killalae in the bar- 
rony of Moyne, and 6 q r " free. 

That Edmond Bourke of Castlebarr shall have the towne and castell of CasteUbarr 
in the barrony of Borreskarrae, and io q" free: and also 22 q™ Bubject to this compo- 
sition, whereof he and his kinsmen are now said to be seized in the said ban 

That William Bourke of Srowle, shall have the towne and castle of Cloghan in the 
barony of Kilmean, and 8 q rs free: and also other 18 q" in the said baron v. wi 
he is said to be seized as of his inheritance, subject to this composition. 

That William Bourke the blind abbott, shall have the castle of Ballynakear: 
the barony of Burriscarra, and 8 q™, G 

That Edmond Bourke ofEoppogh Bhall have the castle and towne of Bo] 
the barony of Moyne, and 4 q™, 1 1 

That Davyd Bourke of Castle-reoghe in the baron; oi 
of Carragenoisse and 6 <j r ' free; and the moiety of Cm nd 6 q" subject to 

this composition, lying in Castlereoghe, Corane and Carrowgai 

That Walter kittaghe Bourke shall have the castles of Beallycke and 1 
in the barony of Moyne, and 8 q" free: and also other 12 q n subja I to thil 
tion, whereof he is said to be now seized as of his inheritance. 

That William Bourke of Ardnery shall have the castle and towne of Ardnery and 
4 q rs free; and also Castleleccane & 4 q™ free; and othei nvposition 

in Ballycashell and Ballaghe-adallae, in the said barony. 

That Edmund Bourke of Congae, who is said to be seized of 20 q" a> his inheritance 
in the barony of Kihuaine, shall have 6 q ri adjoining to his casl airke and 

Ballycurryne, free. 

That Rickard oge Bourke of Clovnagashell, who is said to I k k used of 20 
inheritance, in the barony of Kilmeane. shall have 8 q n adjo] _ is said b< 
Cloynagashell, free. 

That Mac Morys, otherwise surnamed Fitzgerrald en- Pre, . chiefe lord of 

the said barrony of Crossbohinc, for the better maintenance of his living, shall have 
the castle or manor of the Barrye and 4 q™ free; and 4 q" in the Tarinon whereof he 
is said to be now seized as in right of the name and lordshippe of M Moryshe, free; 
and also the castle or manor of Mornyne, and 5 q ri . subject, whei - -aid to be 

now seized as of his owne and his kinsmen's inheritance: and also a rent-charge of 
5 s - ster. out of every other q r in that barrony, amounting in the year to £35 15'. 



That Edmond Vaghery otherwise called Jordan De Exeter, chief lord of the bar- 
rony of Bellalaghen otherwise Gallen, shall have the castle of Bellalahane and 8 q rs , 
whereof he is now seized in right of the name of M° Jordane, free ; together with other 
i o q rs in Tohe Bellahaghe and Cowlekearine, and shall have 5 s out of every q r of 1 1 8 
q", in full recompence of all rents, dutyes, & exaccons. 

That John Brown of the Neile in the barony of Kilmeane, who is said to be seized 
of [ ] q rs in his inhery tance in sundry baronies within said county, shall have 1 2 
q rs , free. 

That Nicholas Fitzsymons of Downmacknynye in barrony of Clanmoryshe, who is 
said to be nowe seized of 22 q rs in the said barony as his inheritance, shall have 8 q rs 
adjoininge to his said castles of DoAvnmacknynye and Castellreoghe, free, whereof 2 
q rs lyeth in the town or village of Ballycullane. 

That Peires Barrett of Ballyasykeary, shall have the said castle and towne of 
Ballyasykeary in Moyne barrony, & 4 q rs , free. 

That Moyler and Tybbot Eeoghe Bourke, sonnes to Walter Foda Bourke, shall 
have 5 q rs each, to be joyned to such of their castells as they shall make choyce of, 

That Shane M c Hubberte of Downenemony, otherwise called the Parsone of 
Downemony, with respect that the town and land is greatly incumbered in holding 
of the Cessyons there, shall have 4 q" adjoining thereto in the barony of Burreskarra, 

That Farragh M e Donill of the Clonyne, in respect of his good service done on 
her Ma ,ics side at the meeting of Srowle, shall have 4 q" adjoining to said castle, or to 
anyother of his houses in the said barrony of Burriskarra, free. 

That Kichard Barrett of Kyherrenan, in consideracon of his service done at the 
said meeting of Srowle, shall have 2 q rs adjoininge, in the said barrony of Moyne, 

That Thomas Nollane of the Crevaghe in the barrony of Kilmeane, in respecte 
of his sufficiencie to serve as a clerke in the said countrey, shall have the castle of 
Crevaghe and 3 q rs , free. 

That Moyler Bourke fitz-Thomas of Clowneduffe in the barrony of Kerrowe, shall 
have 2 q rs in said towne, free. 

That Jordan fltz- Thomas of Bellahaghe in the barrony of Bellalahin, shall have 
4 q rs , free. 

And for as much as divers of the meane freehoulders of the sayd county of Mayoe, 
and the tenaunts dwelling upon their lands, are and shall be greatlie burdened by 
this composition, if the petty lords and the Captaines next above them, be allowed 

IRISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2 X to 


to take such rents and customarye dutyes as they pretend to belong to the sayd petty 
captainshippes, which had their beginning but by compulsary means, agreeable to 
the disorder of the time: for remedy whereof it is condescended, concluded and 
agreed, that the above named M c Evilie, M c Paddyne, M c Phillippyne, O'Maile, and all 
others of that sort and calling, and every of them, shall have, hold, possess and enjoy, 
to them their heirs and assigns, not only such castles and lands as belongeth to the 
name and callinge of M c Evilie, M c Paddyne, M c Phillippyne and O'Mayle, but also 
such castells and lands as they or any of them be now justlye seized of as their inheri- 
tance, the same to descend from ech of them to their heires by course and order at 
the laws of England ; and in respect of confirming unto them the same, that after the 
decease of everie of the said petty lords or captaines, nowe livinge, the aforesaid rents 
and duties shall, from thenceforth, be utterlie determyned and extinguished for ever. 

Provyded, also, where there appeareth certain emulacon or envy betwixt the above 
named M c William Eyghter and his kinsmen, whereof there are some competfv I 
that by reason of their byrth, being descended of M c Williams of greater fame and 
rejtutacon than the said Sir Richard Bourke, thinke themselves more worthy of the 
English successyone now devysed by this composicon; and others, standinge up^n 
their expectancye of succeedinge his place, wisheth the continuance of that customary 
name, that it shall rest in the consyderacon of the lord deputie for the tyme beinge, 
howe and in what sorte the above named castles, manors, lands, rents and signorys, 
belonging to the name of M c William, shall be disposed or lymited to the said M' Wil- 
liam and his said kynsmen. IN WITNESSE whereof the aforesaid lords, chieftaines 
and others have hereunto put their seales, and subscribed ther names the 1 3'* day of 
September, Anno Domini 1585. 

Provyded always that all such lands as John Browne aforesaid hath, of his proper 
inheritance, within the barronies of Gallen and Clanmorysh, being 30 q" and 3 
carrows, shall be discharged from all rents, sendees and demands of M M - 
M c Jordan, other than a yearly rentchardge of I2 d out of every quarter. 

" W. Tweam. — Owin Electe, Killala Richard BorRKE. — Walter 


marke. — Peeter Barrett M c Paddine — William Bocrke alias the 
Blind Abbott. — M c Jordan's marke. — Walter Leaghe Mac 
Stephen.— Rickard Oge Bocrke. — Walter Mac Ercddery. — 

M°Morrtshe Davuj M c Morryshe. — William Bocrke of Srowle. — 

Jordane M° Thomas Edmond Barrett — One O'Mayle — 

O'Mayle. — Nicholas Fitz-Simons. — Rickard If Gibbon. — Teig 

Roe O'Mayle Richard oge M c Jonyne. — Shane If Gibbone. — 

Richard Barrett William Garvey of the Leyhing." 

" BeUahavrnet 


" Bellahawnes Barony e, commonly called Mac Costilo his Country. 

" WHEARE the province of Connaughte and Thomonde, through the continuall 
dissention of the lords and chieftaines within the same, eche whereof challenging to 
themselves auctorities, cuttings and cesings, uncertain, unlawful and unprofitable, 
under pretence of defending of the people under their several rules, have run into all 
errors of forgetting of their duties to her Majestie — and contemning the ways of justice : 
We the lord Deputie directed a commission to Sir R. Bingham & others dated the 
15th July in the 27 th year of her Majesties reign, who accordingly executed the same. 
But we found that the barony of Bellahawnesse in the co. of Mayo, commonly called 
Mac Costilo his country, was omytted, for that the commissioners could not, as they 
alleged, conveniently take view thereof, through the hard passage and travel thither, 
by means of the great bogges, woodes, mores and mountaines, and other evill waies in 
and to the said baronie, so as no composition was taken thereof. Albeit Sir Theobald 
Dillon, who inhabiteth the said lande by himselfe and his tenants, made suite unto the 
said commissioners to take view thereof, to thend that he and the contre there, might 
compound and yeilde a yearly compensation unto her Majestie, both for the better 
reducinge of the people there to sevilitie, and that they might yeilde obedience, and 
knowe their dutie unto her Highnes, which before were vere uncivell and barbarous, 
and the countrye there a verie resceptacle of Scotts, and a harbour of other lowse and 
evill people, through the strenghth and fastnesse thereof: wherefore he humbly desired, 
that a commission might be graunted for the viewing and estimating the said baronie, 
which commission did accordinglie issue, and Sir Tho s Lestrange knt. then chief com- 
missioner of Connaught and Thomond, and others commissioners therin, took Inquisi- 
tion by jury of said barony, which founde upon their oaths, that yt contained 247 or 
252 porcons or small q rs , whereof in respecte of the unfruitfulnes, barranes and badness 
of the soile, and the small quantity of arable land within the same, being for the 
most parte woods, mores, mountaines and unprofitable bogge, they have put 4 of 
the said q rs to one ordenarie q r of 1 20 acres, and so did find in their consciences that 
the said barony or countrie contained no more than 63 q" meete to be charged, as by 
the said Inquisition may appeare. 

Upon return of which Inquisition letters were addressed unto us the Lord Deputie, 
from the said Sir Thomas Lestrange, concerninge the premises, the tenor whereof 
ensueth — 

" May it please y b honour 

" We have been aboute and over-viewed Mac Castilloe his countrie ; and now, at 
the gent's requeste fore whose cause we tooke the paines, these are to certefie your 

2X2 Lordship, 


Lordship, how we have found it, that it is barren amongst the most barren ; which 
thing beinge so, and yet standing in so discomodious a place, yet can be hardlie brought 
aboute to be peopled with civill inhabitaunts, excepte a respect of some extraordinarie 
freedoms or Immunitye drawe them thither. In this cause I have neither auctaritie 
nor discertion from your honnor to deale, and therefore do whollie refer the determi- 
nation thereof to your Lordship's consideration, which wyll I doubt not [ie] both wyse 
& juste; wyse in alluringe the inhabitaunts to a place which by want thereof might 
rayse a greate discomoditie to her Majestie's subjects, and just by ymposing no greater 
rent on the gent, then the barrones of the soyle will beare ; whereof I desire your lord- 
ship most earnestlie, a gentle and favrable consideration, in respect myne eyes are 
wytnes how lytle it is worthe in regard of the quantitie of grounde that it contains. 
Thus with mjr humble commendations, I committ your lordship to the Almightie, 
from Athleage the io tb of Sept. 1587. 

" Whereof the said Theobald Dillon, in behaulfe of himselfe and his tenaunts, and 
rest of the inhabitants of the said baronie, made humble suite that the said Inquisition 
might from henceforth stande and conteynied. Whereupon entering into the consi- 
deration of the same, and that the said Theobalde Dillon inhabiteth the said barronie, 
and hath by his industrie brought the people there to obedience and subjection : We 
have therefore concluded and agreed that the said countrie shall only be charged after 
the rate of fower skore and three quarters, at 10 s sterling the quarter, and so to con- 
tinew until her Majesty's pleasure therin be known. Given under Her Ma 
privie seale, the I s ' Dec. 1587. 

•' J. Pekrot." 

" Sligo. 
" THIS INDENTURE made betwixt the Eight Honorable Sir John Perron 
knight, Lord Deputy Generall of Ireland for and on the behaulfe of the Queene'e most 
excellent Mat y of the one party e, and the rev' 1 fathers in God John Bishop of Elphine — 
Owyn bishop of Aconry — Owine electe bishop of Killalae — Sir Donyll O'Connor of 
Sligo, knight — Pheolyme O'Harte of Ardtarmon otherwise called O'Hart. chief of hie 
name — Owine O'Connor of the Grawndge, gen. — Edmond O'Dowey (0 Dotrda) of 
Killglasse, otherwise called O'Dowey chief of his name — Hubbert Albenaghe of Rathly. 
gen. — Breene M c Swyne of Ardneglas, gen. — Davy Dowdy o\ Castle-Connor, gt-n. — 
Cormocke O'Harry (0 Hara) of Cowlany otherwise called O'Harey buy. chief of his 
name — Ferrall O'Harry of Ballinefennock otherwise called O'Harry reogh, chief of his 

name — Breene O'Harry of Tulwy, gen Owene O'Harey of Cowlany. gen. — Ferrdor- 

raghe M c Donoghe of Cowleae, otherwise called M c Donoughe Tyrreryll, chief of his 

name — 


name — Mellaghlyne M c Donogh of Ballyndowne, gen. — Melaghlyne M° Donogh of 
Cowlwonye, gen. — Morryshe M° Donoghe of Clonemahyne, gen. — Cene M° Hughe of 

Bryckleawe, gen. — John Croftone of Ballyrnote, gen George Goodman of Tagh- 

tample, gen. — Manus Reoghe of Rathmollyne, gen. — Manus M c Teig bwy of Lyscon- 
nowe, gen. — Alexander Mac Swyne of Loughtnevynaghe, gen. — Urryell Garry of 
Moye, otherwise called O'Garry, chiefe of his name — Rory O'Garry of Kearowercoghe, 
gen. — & Manus M c Bryene Reoghe of Levally, gen. — of the other partie. 

" WYTNESSETH that wheare the whole Country or terrytory of Slego ys 
divided into 5 principall barronies, that is to wytte, the barronies of Carbry, Tire- 
eragh, Maghery-layny, Tire-erryell, Corryn, and the half barrony of Cowlovyne, which 
contain as well by auncient devysion as by late Inquistion, 909 q rs of land, each 1 20 
acres.* — FIRST, in the barronie of Carbry, there is a quantity of land called Cowrine 


a The " Boundaries of Slygo" have been found as 
follows : 

An Inquisition taken at Slygo the 25 th July, 
1607, before Sir Anthony St. Leger Knight, mas- 
ter of the rolls, &c. the Jury find ' That the said 
county of Slygo is in length from the leape of Gow- 
regallen in the sowthe parte of Assaroe, where the 
ryver of Thanry doeth enter into the sea on the north 
syde, conteynuing in length forty myles, and in 
breadth from Beallafernan joyninge with Brena 
O Roirke on the easte, to the Belahye meareinge 
with the county of Mayo on the west, and conteyn- 
inge in breadthe other fortye myles. Item the 
boundes of the saide county eastwarde, begyneth at 
Mully I node at the Corlewes, and soe in compasse 
to the leape of Gowregollen, and forwarde towards 
the sowthe to Belahedirge, and to Belagarry at 
Bealaghe, and to Shroan, Killassirre, and forwarde 
to Bealanany, and to the river of the Moye, and to 
Trayohill on the west border of the barony of Tyre- 
raghe, whereof the seven towns of Cowlekeearny is 
forceably healde from the said barony, since the 
making of the composition by the county of Mayo : 
and that wee finde by office, and by a decree given 
by Sir Richard Bingham, and the prooffes of dy vers 
other suffitient men, that the said seaven towns hath 
beane in antient tyme, and ought to be parcell of the 
saide county of Slygo : and from the said Trayhohill, 

the sea on the northe side doethe bounde the said 
comity of Slygo to Assaroy aforesaid ; and from 
thence to the castle of Camlyn, and to Callkinvoher 
betwixt Farmanaghe and Carbery on the easte parte, 
and soetoSroan Carry wonny betwixte the barony of 
Carbery and the Breany, and forward to Garromore 
glandallen, and Cnockevockedy, and Farren nefe- 
nyha, and soe forwarde to Shrohe ne Coillemore on 
the sowthe part of Loghgill, betwixt the barony of 
Tyre-Irrill and the said Breny, and to Keane ne 
Rahabane, and to Keanne ne-hargyny, and soe to the 
easte end of Shroe Kedycoman, and to Altconra 
throug Bradlewe, and to Belafernan, and to Ebber- 
ne-howngyre, and to Bomnonyn-Aghwoghell, en- 
tringe in the easte end of Logharowghe, and soe to 
Shuanbuy, and to the said Molly I node, where firste 
wee began at Corrlewe. There is twentie quarters 
betwixte Bondroyes and Assaroe, which by dyvers 
good proffes beside, some of the Jury have fownde to 
be parcell of the saide county of Sligo, yett it is 
in the possession of O'Donnell. There is twenty 
quarters of the barony of Tyre-Irrell in the posses- 
sion of the countie of Leytrym, since the making of 
the Composition, which they finde by office, warrant, 
and other good prooffes, to be of right parcell of the 
saide county of Slygo. 

That the said county doth consist of five baronies 
and a halfe, viz. the baronies of Tire-Irrill, Corren, 


Sleight Owyne O'Connor, consisting of 28 \ q rs — Cowrine Sleight Moryertaghe back- 
aghe O'Connor of Downaly, 27^ q™ — Cowrine Moygleny now in the possession of 
O'Donyll, 20 q™ — whereof belong to the Queen in right of the abbey of Assharroy, 4 
q™ — Cowrine Sleight Briene O'Connor of Knocknerty, 26^ q™ and j- parts — Cowrine 
Sleight Tirrellagh Carraghe O'Connor of Askelly, 30 q" — whereof belong to her Mat ! 
in right of the abbey of Sligo, ^ q r — Carowe-Rohablern, 1 q r — BaUyl^eolane, 1^ q' — 
Bally Connor, 2 q rs — Ballekilegane, 1^ q r — Bradkyllyne, ^ q r — Bally M c Inyrrleyne, 
i£ q r — Rossyveolane, 1^ q r — Killaspickbrony, 1 q r , said 9^ q" belonging to the Bishop- 
rick of Elphin — the Benan, 4 q rs , belonging to her Majesty in right of the abby of 
Agrosse — Carrowe-Iheffenan, 1 q r — Carrowe M c Idewan, 1 q' — and 1 q r belong* to her 
Majesty in right of the abbay of Kilcrenaude — which in the whole of that barony 

cometh to 150 q rs In the barronie of Tyreragh there is a quantity of land called 

Cowryne Sleight Cosney of Ardglasse, 32 q" — Cowrine Sleight Rorye O'Dowde of Dow- 
neall, 42 q™ — Cowrine Sleight Teige O'Dowde of Isker-Owen, 40 q" — Cowryne Sleight 
Donogh O'Dowde of Castleconnor, 40 q™ — alsoe belonging to her Majesty in bkarmore 
as in right of the abbey of Ardnaree, 1 q r — alsoe adjoininge to the said abbeye, ^ q r — 
Killanly \ q r , belonging to the bishoprick of Killalae — Kilglasse, 1 q' belonginge to 
same — Altyferrenan, 1 q r belonging to her Mat 5 in right of the abbey of Boyle — 
Grandgemore, 3 q rs also belonging to her Mat 5 in right of said abbey — Grandgeboegg, 
4 q™ also belonginge to her Mat 5 in right of same — Skryne, 4 q™ belonging to the 
bishopricke of Killalae — Dromarde, ^ q r belong* to same — Carrow I harry 1 q r h 
as is said, to same — The Barigge, ^ q r belong*, as is said, to same, which in the whole 
within that barony cometh to 170^ q" — In the barrony of Magheryiayny there is a 
quantity of land called Eaden-Sleane, 3 q™ — Leytryme, 4 q" — Lyssenehy, 1 q r — Car- 
rowmore, 1 q r — Carrownelicke, 1 q r — Sleight M' Manus, 6^" — Tht- Loughane, 1 q r — 
Carowene crive, 1 q r — Dromcon, 1 q r — Knocktotan, 1 q r — Conggall, 2 q" — 

Leyna, Carbery, Tyreraghe, and the halfe barony of 

Tho barony of Leyna consisteth of 205 J q" ; inha 
bite.d 35£, whereof free 22£, waste 105. 

The barony of Carbery consist ethe of 150 q re ; 
inhabited 45, free 32i, waste 105. 

The barony of Corran consisteth of 158 q re ; inha- 
bited 42 q 1 ^, whereof free 34 q re , waste 116 q re . 

Tlie barony of Tyreraghe consisteth of 170 q™; 
inhabited 36 q rs , whereof free 12 q rs , waste 134 q™. 

The barony of Tyre-Irrill doeth consiste of 205 

q", inhabited 41 q^, whereof free 18 q", was:. 


The halfe barony of Cowlovyn doeth consiste of 

20 q^; inhabited 7 q™, whereof free Sq". wmt 

q r * — soe they finde the whole county to conteyne the 

number of 90£i q". inhabited in all 267, whereof 

free in all 142 q". waste in all 712 q". 

Note. — The 205$ in Loyna should be but 1 4 
Also an error in the total — viz. . - 7 inh. 

712 waste, 979 Orig. Inquis. Mull* Offict. 


of Clare, 3 q rs — Ballynecary, 4 q rs — Kilteyleyny, 4 q rs — the town of Cawlanii, 4 q rs — 
Rabarryne, 1 q r — The Leauie, Shancoghe and Carowe ne Ganvy 3 q rs — Remore, 3 
q rs — and various other lands — also Cawrine Inaspicke of Ballyary, 1 8 q rs — Cowryne 
Sleight Shane oge, 34 q rs — Cowryne Sleight Arte M c Rory of Bally klare, 9 q rs — Sleight 
alty Roe of the Claddaghe, 7 q rs — Dowgher, 7 q rs — Moynecrannaghe, 2 q™ — Carrow 
M c Ellaroe, 1 q r — clonyne Iarry, ^ q r — in the whole barony 205 q". — In the barony of 
Tyrrcryell, there is a quantity of land called Cowryne Sleight Cormyck of Cowlwony, 
26 q rs — Cowryne Sleight Tomultaghe M c Bryene of Clonmahine, 10 q rs , whereof 
belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Boyle, 3 q rs — Cowryne Sleight 
Donyle came of Tollemoylle, and Cashell Loghe Dreggan, 22 q rs — also the five townes 
and a half called Clanarvy, 22 q rs — Cowrine Sleight Rory M c Donoghe of Cowlea, 17 
q rs — Cowrine Sleight Teig M c Briene of Ballyndowne, 29 q rs — also Cowrine Sleight 
Cormock Ballagh, 1 1 q", whereof 1 q r belongeth to the Queene in right of the abbey 
of Inchy vickerinne — also Cowrine Sleight Hughe M e Mulronye of Brickleave, 14 q rs , 
whereof 3 q rs belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Boyle — also Barr- 
corryne, 12 q rs also belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Inchy vickerinne, 
3§ 9l° — Killrashe, 2 q rs — belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Lough- 
kee — also Dromdowan, 4 q rs , belong 15 to the Bishoprick of Elphine — also Dromcollyn, 
1 q r , belong 8 to same — Taunaghe, 2 q rs , belong 8 to same — Kill m c callane, 4 q rs , belong 5 
to same — Rosse, 2 q rs , belong 8 to same — Killmoydownyed, £ q r , and Shancoghe \ q', 
belong 8 to Her Majesty in right of the Trinity abbey aforesaid — Kilvicken-Iram, 4 
q rs belong 8 to Her Majesty in right of the said abbey — Ballyagheshennaghe, 4 q rs 
belong 8 as is said to the Archbishoprick of Tweame, which in the whole of that bar- 
rony cometh to 205 q rs . — In the barrony of Corrine, there is a quantity of land called 
Cowrine Sleight Dermott M c Donoghe, 1 9 q™ — Banyneddane, 1 3 q rs , belong 8 to Sleight 
Dermod M c Donoghi aforesaid — Cowrine Sleight Cahall M c Donoghe of Ballyncloghe, 
10 q rs — Cawrine Sleight Teige M c Donoghe of Raamollyne, 32 q rs — also Ballynedowie 
6 q rs , belong 8 to said Teige M e Donoghe — Cowrine Sleight Brian Keaghe of Bally- 
onaghan, 4 q rs — Cowrine Sleight Morissh M c Donoghe of Rossrife, 16 q rs — Cowrine 
Clayne Kowanehy, in Ballyedderawen, 4 q rs — Cawryne Sleight Tourult M c Donoghe 
of Ballymote, 22^ q rs , belonging to her Majesty as in right of the Castell of Bally- 
mote — also Portynch, 3 q rs — Bally neleasse, 2 q rs — Imlaughe Naghton, 1 q r , all which 
6 q rs belong to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Boyle — the Grandg, 4 q rs , belong 8 
to Her Ma ty in the same right — Cowlenemannagh, 1 q r , belong 8 to Her Ma ty in the same 
right — Dromratty, 5 q rs , belong 8 to the bishoprick of Achonry — Imlaghfaddae, 2 q rs — 
Kylvoryne, q r — Clonoghyll, 2 q rs — Killosalwy, 1 q r — Kiltoran, 1 q r — Tampall-Man- 
nagh, 2 q rs — all which belong to the said Bishoprick of Achonry. — Also there is 

belong 8 


belong 8 to Her Majesty in right of the abbey of Ballymote, i^ q r — also Clonyvybane, 
i q r , belonging to Her Ma ,y in the same right ; which in the whole of that Barrony 
cometh to 158 q". — Alsoe the halfe Barony of Cawlovyn consisting of 20 q™, all which 
being drawn into one totall cometh to the aforesaid nomber of 909 q". 

" The said lords, chiefl'taynes, & Ci acknowledging the manifold benefits & easements 
they finde, do graunt to the Queen's most excellent Majestie her heirs and succes- 
sors for ever one yearly rent-charge of term shillings ster. out of everie quarter of land 
aforesaid; and covenaunt to answere and bear yearlie for ever 20 good hable ho: 
& 60 footemen well armed, to all hostings roods and journies within the s a province of 
Connaght and Thomond; & 10 good hable horsemen and 30 footemen well armed, to 
all generall hostings proclaymed in this realme. 

" That the said Sir Donill O'Conor*, in respecte of his loyaltie & faithfulnesse to 
the Queene, shall have by letters patents to him his heirs and assigns the castells or 
manors of Slego in the barony of Carbry, and Meynlaghe in the barony of Ma. 
lenye, and all the lands, appertayninge as well to the name and calli;._ Conor 

Sligoe, as also which belong or appertayneth to Sleight Owine O'Conor, from whom the 
said Sir Doniell is said to be descended, or by his owne purchase or otherwise, &*" 
which are accounted to be 32 q rs , freed ; and shall also have a yearly rentcharge of 1 3: 4" 
going out of every q r of the residue of the said q", being 80 q" of the land of Sleight 
Muryertaghe, Sleight Briene, and Sleight Tirlaghe O'Connor, and those of Cawrine 
Moygany, in full recompence, & c - and tbat he and the heirs of ln- father shall bold the 
aforesaid Castles, & c - by the service of 2 knight's fees, as of ber Majesties castle of 
Ballymote, and he is to give one fayre chief horse yearly, to the Lord Deputy, with 

» Sir Henry Sydney describes his proceedings with 
O'Conor and O'Donnell as follows: — " loth June, 
1576 I founde Odonnell verie humble and tract- 
able. And whereas he, and his Auncestors, have had 
a rent of iii. c Markes Yerelye out of Occhonnor Sli- 
gaglis Countrie, fabulouslye chalenged to have bene 
paied, ever since St. Patrick's Daves, but probablye 
averred on both sides, if half bene taken for theise 
fower or fyve Discents by the Odonnells (but never 
without Vyolence alleagedOcAonnor)and so Ithinke 
Odonnell agreed, in the Ende, to stay Exactinge of 
it, until] I had sente Commissioners to examyne his 
Clayme, and the others Deniall ; and upon their Cer- 
tificate I to take Order and this to be done in August 

next ; which Order will I hope fall out to be seche. 
as the Quenes Majestie shall be entituled to the Bent 
and Service from tlu-im bothe. Occhonnor com- 
pounded in Englande to geve an hundered Markes 
Yerelye, to be dischardged of Odonnell, and so hath 
liis Countrey _-r.ninted hvm. under the Great Stale 
of England; but. if I can derive di^hards? hym 
from Odonnell. he shall pay better. He desien-d me 
to constitute a Sheriff in his Countrie wishinge rather 
a Forriner, then any of the Soyles Brede. which I 
graunted, and sent one with Commission. I have 
great Confidence that this Ochonnor, who is the 
same that 1 brought into England, will prove .. e 
Subiecte." — Letter*, xc, voL Lp. 114 


these words graven in gold, quo vici vincor: and he shall also have 8 B out of every q r of 
154 quarters in the barony of Tirreraghe ; 10 s out of every q r of 20 q™ in the barony 
of Cowlovine; 6 s io' 1 out of every q r of 156 q rs in the barony of Magheryleynye ; 6 s 6 d 
out of every q r of 1 66 q r8 in the barony of Tirreryelle ; and 9 s 3 d out of every q r of 
1 1 o q rs in the barony of Corren. 

" That the lord Bishop of Aghconry shall have 4 q rs adjoining his house or town of 
Skrine in the barony of Tireraghe, free ; and 6 q rs as a demesne to his house or towne 
of Achonry, in the barony of Magheryleyny, free. 

" In the barrony of Corran, that Cormocke O'Hary bwy shall have 3 q rs free, 
adjoining his castle of Co wlany: — that Ferraghe Carraghe O'Hary reoghe shall have 
3 q rs free as a demesne to his castle of Ballinefenocke otherwise called Ballyhary — and 
that Hugh M c Donoghe, in respecte of his adge and removing from Ballimote, shall 
have 4 q rs free, in the barony of Corrane. 

" In the barrony of Tirrerel, that Ferdorroghe M c Donoghe of Cowlea shall have 
3 q rs adjoining his towne of Cowlea, free. 

" In the Barrony of Tirrereagh, that Edmond O'Dowd shall have 3 q rs as a demaine 
to his castle of Kylglasse, free — and that his cousin and heir apparent, Davy of Dowda, 
shall have 2 q rs free, adjoining his house of Castle- Connor. 

" That Urrell O'Gary of Moggary shall have 3 q rs free, adjoining his castle of 
Moygarry in Cowlovine. 

" That Magaghline M° Donoghe shall have 2 q rs free, adjoining his castle of Cowl- 
wony in the barony of Tirrarell. 

" That John O'Creane shall have 3 q rs free, adjoining his house or towne of Bally- 
negare in the barony of Carbry. 

" And for as much as the meaner sort of freeholders of the said county of Sligo, and 
the tenants dwellinge upon their lands, are and shall be greatlie burdened by this com- 
position, if the petty lords and captains next above them be permitted to take such 
rents and customarye dutyes as they pretend to belong to the said petty captaine- 
shipps, for remedy whereof, it is condescended and agreed that the above-named 
O'Harry bwy, O'Harry reoghe, M c Donoghe of Tirerell, O'Gary, O'Dowd, and all 
others of that sort and calling, shall have by letters patent, not only such castells and 
lands as belongeth to the name and callinge of O'Harry buy, Harry reoghe, 
M° Donoghe, O'Gary, & O'Dowd, but also all such castles and lands as they or any of 
them be nowe justlie seized of as their inheritance, the same to descend from ech of 
them to their heirs, by course and order of the lawes of England: and in respect of 
confirming unto them the same, that after the decease of everie of them the aforesaid 
rents and duties shall from thenceforth be utterlie determyned and extinguished for 



ever. In wittnesse whereof the aforesaid lords chieftains and others have hereunto put 
their seales, and subscribed their names this 23 rd day of Sept. Anno Domini 1585. 

" Sir Donell O'Connor, Slegoe. — Eugenics Achaden. Epa — Eugk.nius 
Electds Aladen. — Owin O'Connor. — O'Dowde. — Beien M Swine. — 
Hubert Albanaghe. — Molaghline Mac Donoghe. — Coraocs 

O'Harrye. — Molaghlin M c Donoghe, junior. — D. Doowda Fer- 

doraghe M c Donoghe. — Ferrall O'Haery. — Morrishe MDon <ghe. 
— Manus M'Teige bwy. — Alexander M' Swine. — Manus Keoghe. — 
Urrill O'Harry — Rory oge — Manus M Briene."' 

" O'Royrk's Country 3 -. 
" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Perron 
knight, lord Deputy Generall of Ireland, for and on the behaulfe of the Que 


a " The county of Leitrim limitted and ap- 
pointed." A. D. 1583. 

" The country called O'Rowrke's country, con- 
teyneth the Breny O'Rowrke, both Moynter Olys, 
Dartery, Lorigain, with other small territories, toge- 
ther with M c Gwyre his lands by sowthe the Lough 
Erne, joyned together and made and appointed to 
be called the countie of Letrym, being limitted and 
bounded as followeth, viz EASTE, with the coun- 
try called Breny O'Reighly (now the comity Cavan) 

as the dereth on M c Gawran's lands (which 

are included within this countye) and the ... . now 
the county of Lougforde, till it come to the P.yver of 
Shenan SOUTHE, with the ryver of Sheanan, 

and so to the water northwards which cometh out of 
the great Logh-Eme. — XORTHE. with th«r 
which cometh from the said greath Logh. and the 
Logh Enie itself, into the land of M c Gawran, and 
then M' Gawran's lands as they joyne to the Breny 
1 CReighly. — The county is devyded into vii several 
hundrds or UarunyB , wherein these territories (• 
ing are conteyned. liaving witliin them the number 
of quarters of land under mentioned, everie q' 
teyning 120 acres of land, viz. — 1. LETRYM. The 
territorie called Moynter 0\ aliru 

Moyenishe, conteyning Sk-i g -1 GranneD, 

_M Connor, and Sleuight Cahill M c Grann*U, 
co ntey ni n g 15 H q" of land. Also Anaghduf. Kyl- 

which divideth the same from O'Hanlye's tahurk. Kyliobrid, Fynagh, and Kylif. wr<- 1 

Roe and O'Bryn's countryes, and a part of Moylorge, 
aud so passing to the northern edge of the territorie 
called Tyrehoyle parcel! of Moylorge aforesaid, to the 
mountayne called Slewe Corke, extending to Logh- 

kyll WEST, with the Logh called Logh Kyll. as 

it crosseth from the mountayne aforesaid, to a small 
water or spring on the north syde called Ffauran 
M c ffenoll, and so directly a lytic by west the Newton 
up to the mountayne called Slewmore ; and so as the 
same Slewmore runneth betwixt the barony of Car- 
bry in the county of Slygo to the lands of Bundroyes, 

ing 27 q" of land, making in the whole 1 78A q" 

2. MOYLE. The territory called \. 
Bwtragh, ulias Clan Melaghlyn, which conteyneth 
110 q". — 3. DROMAHEB3E. The territory called 
Carryn Dromahyre, cuuteyueUi 22 q™. also Carryn 
Cleyn-Logh, 21 q rs . also M c Kagan"s lands in Clan- 
arwy 2 1 q rs , also Urlare 1 6 q n . also Ballyneglog 
the lands of Sleuight Owen ORourk. 4 q". the land 
of Sleuight Donogfa M« G< •irran, 12 q n . and the land 
of Sleuight Cormack M c Gawran 12 q"\ amounting 
together to 135 q" of land — 4, R< 'SSECLi tGBEM 


excellent Majesty of the one partye, and John, bishop of Kilmore — Lysaghe, bishop 
of Ardaghe — Sir Briane O'Royrke of Dromahire knt. — Cahall M c Connor Carragh 
Magrannyll of Inishmurryne, otherwise called Magrannell of Moynishe, chiefe of his 
name — Tirlaghe M c Molaghline oge Magrannylle of Dromarde, otherwise called Ma- 
grannyle of Clonmologhlyne, chief of his name — Teige oge Maglanchie of Rossclogher, 
chief of his name — Tyrelaghe Magawryne of the Largine, chief of his name — Owyne 
M c Phellime O'Royrke of the Garre, gen. — Rory M c Enawe of Inyshimylerye, chiefe 
of his name — Melaghlyn M c Owyne M c Murrye of Loghmoyltagher, gen. — Farrell 
M c Ternan of Cloyloghe, gen. — Bryan M c Loghlyne of the Fayhee, gen. — Phelyme 
Glasse of Cloncorycke, gen. — Wonye Mac Sheane O'Royrke of Loghnecouhye, gen. — 
and Tyernane O'Royrke of Dromahyre, gen. of the other parte. 

" WYTNESSETH, that wheare the whole territory called 0*Royrk's country, 
comprehending Breny O'Royrke, both the Moynterolyes, the Largane, Cowleovlyne, 
Kinaloghane and the Dartry, which contain in themselves, as well by auncient devysyon 
as by late Inquisicion, the number of 801 q", every q* 120 acres b . FIRSTE in Breny 


The territory called Carryn Ewill-Wylegh con- 
teyneth 18 q rs , also Ballagh I mean 8 q rs , Eosse 
Iaver 8 q», Clonlogher 2 q rs , Kyllargy 4 q rs , Kyl- 
len Umery 2 q rs , Drom Leyse 4 q rs , Moynter 
Kenny alias M c Kemiy's lands 14 q r8 , and M c Ker- 
non's lands 4 q rs , making together 60 q rs . — 5. 
CAERE. The territory called Moyelys 18 q rs , the 
territory called the Carre 30 q rs , and the territory 
called the Dartery 20 q rs , amounting in all to 68 
q" — 6. CO WLO VLYN. The territory called Kyn- 
nacloghan conteyneth Sleuight Teg ne Geyrr, 
Sleuight Hugh M c Arte, and Sleuight Keogh, Bally- 
necuny, Dromervella, and Oughter Aghwe, con- 
teyneth 37 q rs , also Cowlovelyn contayning 28 q rs , 
and Tullageaghe 44 q rs , -which doth amount toge- 
ther to 109 q rs 7. LYSSEGOWLE. The terri- 
tory called Toe Rahe 30 q rs , Moynter Ffeodegan's 
land 30 q rs , Clonowly 30 q rs , Clanredmond 15 q", 
Knock-nyn 15 q rs , and Maghery-boy 15 q rs , which 
make in all 135 q rs . 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed, hav- 
ing viewed and surveyed the territories and lands 
above mentioned, by virtue of the Queen's Majesties 

letters patents to us or any three of us addressed, 
bearing date the 8 th July in the 37 th year of her 
reign, have limitted and appointed the said territo- 
ries to be one shyre or county, and to be nominated 
the comity of Letrym ; and have divided the same 
into 7 severall barronyes or hundreds as above is sett 
foorth, which our doying we doe certify unto your 
Lordship, according to the purport of the said com- 
mission to be returned of record. In Witness whereof 
we have hereunto put our seals, and subscribed our 
names, the 25 th of September, 1583." — Orig. Return 
in Rolls Off. 

b The " Boundaries of Leitrim" have been found 
as follows : 

" An Inquisition taken at Dromahare, the 22 nd of 
Jul}', 1607, before Sir Anthony St. Leger Master 

of the Bolls, &c The jury find ' That the county of 

Leytrim extended in breadth from Douffcoulofflyn, 
mearynge upon Tayllagh-Donoghoy in the county 
of Cavan, unto Bundoyse butting upon the barrony 
of Carbry in the county of Sligo, are 37 miles, 
whereof the sixte parte is scarse arrable lande, but all 
mountayne, bogg, and wood, and in breadth from 

Y 2 


I Royrke, there is a quantity of land called the Dartry, 20 q rs — Karrhy, 30 q", 
whereof 1 q r belongs to the bishoprick of Killmore — Cowryne Moylyshe, J 8 q", 


the ryver of Shankryne in M c Gawran's country, to 
Carradroymroyske at the Sheanan, being the broad- 
est parte of the county are ten myles. They finde 
that the said county is bounded in manner and forme 
followinge, viz. beginninge at the ryver of Dowffe 
Cowlloffluyn, yt extendeth forward to the ford or 
passage of the Nybber, from thence to Ahanfadda, 
and so forwarde to Beallamowdyne mearinge upon 
the county of Longforde, from thence through the 
bogge of Moyne-Cappoll butting forward to Skrairh- 
bunyunshine, including 8 cartrons of the county of 
Longforde, and so into the river of Sheanon, and 
contynuinge the same to Beallakillesrenan, and for- 
ward to Carradromroyske, from thence to Leyetrim, 
and as the course of the ryver runneth from Logh- 
ayle against the stream into that Lough, then to 
Srowhane nynled, and Lurgane Caylly, mearinge to 
the Dworyny, from thence to Cleynemockery and 
Lognegyhe, and so to Kilsallogh, and then holdinge 
the meare to Skehyenaguna adjoyninge Cayshe-logh- 
dargane, and so crosse the mounteyne unto Loghgill, 
and going oute of the said Logh at ... . harkillerod- 
dane yt extendeth forward to Aylteclaydy, including 
3 q rs and 3 cartrons of the county of Slygo, called 
the q r of Clogherbegg, the q r of Cloghermore, Car- 
rowmaghery, Coyaroish, and 3 cartrons of Killefod- 
der ; from thence to the meare of the Mullin, and so 
to Laighnehilline, and then dyrectlie to Srownehowl- 
lagha, then buttinge forwarde to the streame of 
Nrowhanesowne, and so as the meare extendeth 
betweene Clownekyne and the Clowaty, and from 
thence to Boynedoyne, and unto the ocean sea, and 
so aboute to Bowndroite, from thence agaynste the 
streame of that river of Droysse, and going oute of 
the ryver on the north side yt includeth a q r of lande 
called Carrowneboyhane, and into the river of Owyn 
nefaerand, and then as the streame runneth into 
Lough Melvin, and so along the logh to Abbernelehe, 
and then includinge all the islands, yt extendeth 

eastwarde to Bunowyn Leiglehidd, and so mearing 
forward to Srahareogh near the river of K 
from thence to Killtarsnye, and so followinge the 
streame of Killtarsnie. which boundeth Killtvcownga 
and Moyntertloddaghane. from thence to Beallamul- 
lanegeyre, then to Beallenemialagh, then unto Logh 
vackneane, and so alonge the said logh between the 
islands of Rosscorky on the north, and h.. 
ragh on the sowthe, and so to Beallacownga 
and then to BeaUucowngabegg, from thence it 
tendeth to Buncley Aghaarly, and so to Laigebun- 
shanny, then forward to Carrycknecranmoy, buttinge 
directly to Corrylvskey and Codaeky: and - 
Tonowsse, then to the Srowhanee, and mean; _ 
Beallanelowree, yt reached] to Loghamuovnter- 
hollyh, on the east side of Slii-wnyerin : from thence 
lowiccomyrke, then to HayskeenagappulL 
boundinge to Beallanelaghmore on the east*-, mear- 
inge forwarde to Beallah Radreynan. and forward at 
.... haysker Srahabowghane, including A q r of 
M c Gawran's country called Leth Carrowely8se- 
roughty : then yt runnitli to Carroghbowlii. from 
thence to Beallne shancryne and so aloi _ 
of Swawnenagh and to Beallaneneane. 1 
dadowtl'e Laygbyn, and then to LKjwffe Cowll I 
including the A quarter of Sassagh. wher. 

•• Item they tinde that the said county is divided 
into 5 principal] barroj :,. saie — Lvttrim 

OIJ q™, -whereof inhabitted 41, free 12,1 
1. Moyhill 69 q rs . whereof inhabitted 24 q™. free nihil, 
waste 45 q™ — 3. Carryckallen 4U q™ 1 cartron. 
whereof inhabitted 12 q™, free nihil, waste 28 and 1 
cartron. — 4 Droruahearv 12oq" 3 cartrons, whereof 

inhabited 1 8$ q R . free . - .'.4 q" 5. Ross- 

clogher 39 q re . whereof inhabited 6i q" free nihil. 
waste 32 A : the whole 360} q™. That Sir Donnogh 
O'Connor Slygo doth clayme 20 q" of Twobollin- 
bogher to be parcel] of the - a 


belonging to the Newtowne — Also Cowryne Eylwaye, 18 q rs , whereof belong to the 
bishoprick of Killmore, 4 q rs — the Bellaghe, 8 q rs belong to the said bishoprick — Ross- 
ynver, 8 q" belonging to the same — Also Clonlogher, 2 q rs , Kilardgye, 4 q rs , Killenur- 
nerye, 2 q rs , Dromenleyssee, 4 q rs , Ballynegleroaghe and Inyshe M c Roe, 8 q rs all 
belonging to the bishoprick of Killmore — Cowryne of Dromahire, 22 q rs — Cowryne 
Cloynloghe, 2 1 q r " — M c Caggan's land in Clanarwy, 2 1 q rs — Cowryne Balyntogher by 
west the said Ballyntogher 22 q rs , whereof 2 belong to the bishop ricke of Ardaghe in 
Killeyree (which 22 q rs are already chardged in the composition of Slegoe, and there- 
fore hear not to be accompted). — Alsoethe Orlare, 16 q rs — Cowryne M c Kearnan, 4 q" — 
Cowryne Sleight Owyn CTRoyrke, 3 q rs — M c Enawe's land called Moynterkenny, 14 
q rs — Sleight Donoghe M c Gawrene, 12 q rs — Cowryne Sleight Cormack M c Gawrene 
1 2 q rs — In Moynterolyshe-eghtraghe, otherwise called Clayne Moylaghlyne, there is a 
quantity of land called Coveryn Claine Melaghline M e Granell, no q rs , whereof belong- 
eth to her Majestie in right of the abbey of Mohill, 6 q rs , and to the bishoprick of 
Ardaghe, 20 q rs — alsoe in Moynterolyshe oghteraghe, otherwise called Moynyshe, 
there is a quantitye of land called Coveryn Sleighte-Eyre M c Granill, and Sleight 
O'Muliney, 50J q rs . — Alsoe Sleight Connor M c Granyll and other cepts or nasyons 
depending on them, 50^ q rs , whereof belongeth to the Queen in right of the abbey of 
Boyle, 8 q rs — alsoe Annaghduffe, 2 q rs — Kiltawhourke, 3 q rs — Killtubred, 4 q" — 
Ffyenaghe, 9 q rs — and Killfover, 8 q rs , all belonginge to the bishoprick of Ardagh — 
alsoe in Sleight Teig ne Gier O'Royrke, there is a quantity of land called Sleight 
Cahall Ballaghe, 9 q rs — in Sleight Hugh M c Arte in Kenell-lohan, 8 q rs — Sleight 
Keoghe, 2 q™ — Sleight Shane, ^ q* — Ballinecorry, 8 q rs — Droumorvella, 4 q rs , belonging 
to the bishoprick of Killmore — also Oaghter Aghow, 5 q rs belonging to the same — 
in Kenell-lohan, 8 q rs — also Cowlevlvoyne, Clane Cahall Ryoghe, and M'Kygan's 
lands, 28 q rs — also Telaghe-Kaheghe, parcell of the county of Leytrime, which is said 
to belong to the O'Reylye, 44 q rs — also Toarahae on the south side of Lough Earne 30 
q rs , belonging as is said to Maguyre — also Tae Moynter Feodeghane on the same side 
of the lough, consisting of 30 q rs — also Toe Clan-Awley, 30 q rs — the chief Toce of Clan- 
q rs and one cartron in Carbry to be likewise parcell have been likewise beyond man's memory reputed as 
of said county of Slygo, but find that these lands, time part of said county of Lyetrim; until about four 
beyond the memory of man, are in the possession of years past, and that the O'Royrks, from tyme to 
the O'Royrks, and founde and presented by several tyme, have had and received yearly achiefry of £12 
jurors to be within the limits and bounds of the or 12 cows per annum, which M c Gowran himself 
county of Letrim. That 44 q rs of Tyrlaghagh called with this rysinge oute at all tymes did willingly 
Magawran's countiy, and not included within the paye, until about fower years last past, as aforesaid. - ' 
circuit of this county as herein is already bownded, — Orig. Inquis. Rolls Off. 


Redmond, 1 5 q rs — the half Toce of Knock-Inye, 1 5 q™ — all on the same south side of 
the lough-Earne, and belonginge, as is said, to Maguyre — also the half Tooe of 
Magherbwy, 15 q rs , belonging, as is said, to the same, — and all which being drawn into 
one totall, cometh to the aforesaid nomber of 801 q" — whereof there belong"- to the 
Queen, 14 q rs , and to the lords spirituall, 89 q". 

" The said lords and cheiftaynes, acknowledging the manifold benefits and 1 
ments they finde, do graunt to the Queenes most excellent Majestye her heirs and 
successors for ever, one yearlye rent charge of tenn shillings oute of everie quai I 
the s d lands; and covenant to aunswere and beare yearlie 15 good hable horsmen, 
footemen well armed, and furnishede with armes, garrans, and victuals to all hosl 
roods, and journies within Connaught and Thomond; and 8 good hable horsmen and 40 
footemen well armed and furnished, to all general! hostings proclaymed in this realme. 

" The said Lo. Deputie for and in the behalfe of the Queen's Ma j. -tie doth i 
nant and promise that the s d Sir Brien O'Rourke , in respecte of his submission and 


c Sir Henry Sydney, in A.D. 1574, gave the 
Lords of the Council the following account of his pro- 
ceedings with O'Rourke. Sir Brian, the above con- 
tracting party, was executed at Tyburn for high 
treason on the 3rd November, 1592, for which see 
Stow's Chronicle, p. 762, fol. Lond. 1631: 

" 16th June, 1576, there came unto me thether, 
(Dvblin,) shortly after Easter, Owrycke, O'Donnell, 
Con Odonnell, his nephew and Enemye, Chonnor 
Sligagh, of the principall of the Okellies; and all 
these for Matter of great Consequence to be ordered 
between the State and theim, and lykewise betwixt 
one an other of theimselves. And first of Owrycke, 
I found hym the proudest Man that ever I dealt with 
in Irelande, and usinge him thereafter told hym, 
that, as he was the Quenes Subjecte and ought to 
hold his Lande of her, so he should behave hymselfe 
in Obedience as a Subiecte, and for his Land yeald 
both Rent and Service, or els I wold place an other 
in the same : He saied he wold be a good Subiecte, 
as alwayes his Auncestors had bene, and spake vary 
moch Goode of theim and hymselfe, and wold pay 
soch Rent and Service for Ms Countre as was agreed 
upon betwene the Governor and his Father, and 
alleadged, that he had a Patent at his Howse for his 

Lande ; I answered hym (as in dede it vie true) 
that I was ignoraunt thereof, but, up<>! - 
found the same entred in tin 
that ever was ma I the xxxiiith y. 1 

KJnge Hetirie the Eight ; Sir Anthony? Stntlegrr 
beinge then Deputie by which he ' 1 selfe 

to pay to the Kinge xx/. Irish yerelye. with bit 
vice of some Horsemen and Footemen. as by the 
same apearethe ; of which nether bu r he, 

ever paied any Thinge, and tliat he confessed 
inge to compounde Fi <r the Arrerag con- 

teyne that Bent and S. rvice, which I made Light of. 
and lighter of the former Composition, and w. i 

■ ?f yerelye. 
Besides Service, and Finding Warre, he 

offered sixeskore Poondes sterling* ; all which I re- 
fuzed, lest, he being! 90 great a man, as 
reputed to be, an overlyht Comp og kaon with hym 
might be a President of greal Hendraunce to the 
Quene. and compoundinge witli others as well in 
Connaught as Vhttr. Finally e he humblye desiered 
that there might Ih? sent mt -.reate 

and indifferent Gommiss jitrie, 

and to eertitie trewlj -: and Barrannes 

thereof, and thereupon In take (_»rder, and not be- 

35 l 

profession of loyaltie and truth, shall have and take by letters patents, to him and the 
heirs males of his father Bryan O'Rourke, for the better supportation and mainten- 
aunceof his present state of knighthood, as also of any further degree or title of honor 
yt shall please her Majestie to call him, the castells or manors of Dromahire, Lewtrime 
and the Newtowne in the said O'Royrke's country, which are accounted to be in the 
whole the number of 186 q rs , whereof 60 q rs to be a free demeane to the said castles or 
manors; and he shall also have one yearly rent charge of 13 s ' ^ out of every q r of 445 
q rs of freeholder's lands, viz. the lands of Maglanchy, Owen O'Royrke of Carr, Tirre- 
lagh Mac Owen of Dearegyll, Eory M° Enawe of Moynterkeny, Magranyll of Moyinsh 
Magranull of Cammolaghane, Phellyme glasse O'Royrke of Coulovloyne, Owen 
M c Shane O'Royrke of Kincoyll-loughane, M c Murry, M c Loghline, M c Tiernane, and 
M° Kelly, amountinge to £296 8 s - 4 a - sterling. And that they and every of them shall 
hold the aforesaid 445 q rs of the said Sir Brian, and the heirs males of the body of his 
father, by knight's service and the rent aforesaid, viz. by the 40 th part of a knight's 
fee, as of his said castells of Dromahire and Lewtrime. And the said Sir Brian shall 
hold the said castles, manors, and lands of the Queen by knight's service, viz. by three 
knight's fees, as of her house or manor of Moychill in said O'Royrke's country ; and 
one fayre chief horse yearly to be presented and given, in her Majesties name, ta the 
Lord Deputy on Mydsomer day, with this word graven in gold serviendo guberno. 
And for as muche as the meaner sorte of the freeholders of the said countrye are and 
shall be greatlye burdened by this composition, if the petty lords and captains next 
above them be permitted to take such rents and customarye dutyes as they pretend to 
belong to the said petty captaineshipps, for remedy whereof it is condyscended and 
agreed, that the above named Maglanchie, Magrannel of Moynishe, M c Granell of Clann- 
malaghline, M c Murry, M c Loghhline, M c Tirnan, M c Kelly, and all others of that sorte 
and callinge, shall have and hold to them their heirs and assigns, by letters patents, 
not only all castles and lands which belongeth to the names and calling of Maglanchie, 
Magrannel of Moynishe, M e Grannell of Clanmalaghline, M c Murry, M c Loghline, 
M c Tiernan, M° Kelly, but also all such other castles and lands of which they are now 
justly seized; and after the decease of every of them, the aforesaid rents and duties 


fore. Hereupon we agreed, and that to be donne in Cahelreive, Obirne, Mac Ternan and Mac Amur- 
August next, saveinge that he requyred to have cer- roive. But I would not graunte theim hym, and 
teine pettie Lordes, dwellinge under or mere hym (of yet he departed satisfied, and since hath both wryt- 
Duetie his Tributaries sayeth he, vniustlye oppressed ten and sent to me, verye humblye, that I shall finde 
by hym say they) to yeeld hym his accustomed ex- hym more obedient in his owne Countrey, then I did 
actions, namelye, the twoe Mac Granells, Omolin- in this Cittie; and thus moche for Owricke." Let- 
dye, Mac Glaugh, Keneloghan, Collofiuyn, Mac ters, Sfc, vol. i. p. 114. 

35 2 

belonging to the names of their petty captainshipps, shall from thenceforth be utterly 
determined and extinguished, for ever. — IN WYTNESSE whereof the aforesaid lords 
& chieftaines have hereunto put their seales, and subscribed their names, this 2 7^ day 
of September, Anno Domini 1585. 

" Bryen O'Royrk — M c Murky Brien M c Loghlyne Ferrall 


" Memorand, that albeit there are 135 q™ of Mag-wire's lands, lying on the south 
syd of Logherne, and 44 q™ of O'Riellie's land on the same syd, comprized in this 
booke ; yet they be not heare charged with any composition, but drawn in to be made 
parcell of the intended county of Ley trym." 


" Moylurge alias Mac Dermotfs Countrye, O'Connor Roe's Countrye, and O'Connor 
Dune's Countrye. — \_Roscojnmon"\.'' 1 
" THIS INDENTURE made betwixte the Right Honorable Sir John Per: 
Knt. Lord Deputie generall of Ireland for and on behalfe of the Queen's mo-t Excellent 
Majesty of the one parte, and the Lords, chieftains, &c. of Moylurge alia- 11 
countrye, O'Connor Roe's countrye and O'Connor Dunes countrye. viz. William 
archbishoppe of Tweame — John bishop of Elphine — Hugh O'Konnor of Ballintobber 
otherwise called O'Konnor Dune, chiefe of his name — Fergonanym (/Hanley of 
Knockensheigh, chief of his name — Sir Thomas le Strange knight of Alleage — Cuba 
O'Birne of the Dyngon, chief of his name — Teige M c Towmultaghe of Croghan, gen. — 
Towmultagh oge of Ballinkillen, gen. — Towmultagh M' Hughe of Dromeharlagh, 
gen. — Oene Ernney of — Ferrall Mac Dermonde Roe. chief of his name — Con- 
nor oge M c Dermod of the Taneste — Cahall oge M' Mulmory of the Eaden. 

gen, — Mulmory M c Dermod, gald, chief of his name — Duwaltagh M Toolie O'Connor 
of Bracklone, gen.— Cahall M c Toolie of CastlereaL'h. gen. — Feagh O'FtWne <A Sleav- 
lyne, chief of his name— Calloe O'Floyn of the Cladaghe, gen. — Turrek;igh K 
M c Swiny of Cnocknetaghty, gen.— Teig O'Connor Roe, chief of his name — I 
M c Tirrelagh Roe of Clonj-birne, gen.— Breene O'FUanegan of Ballaoghter. chief of his 

name— John Crofton of Canvoe, gen. — of Balliugilly, gen.— and Edward V 

of Ballinderry, gen. of the other parte. 

" WITNESSETH that wheare the said contries and territories be devided into thre 
barronies, viz. Boyle otherwise Moylurge, Ballintobber, and Roscommon: which con- 
tain, as well by auncient devysion as by late Inquisition, 905 quarters of land, each 
containing 1 20 acres. — FIRSTE, in the barronie of Ballintobber there is a quantitye 
of land called Tyrevrune-eaghtragh, 48 q rs whereof belong to Her Majestie in r:_ 



the abbey of Kilmor, 4 q rs , and to the Bishoprick of Elphine, 4 q ra — Leaggan I Anlie, 
35 q rs , whereof belong to the Queen in right of the abbey of St. Peters Athlone, 2 q", 
and to the Bishopricke of Elphine, 4 q rs — Knock ne Shie, 42 q rs , whereof belong to 
Her Majesty in right of the abbey of S*' Johns, 2 q rs , in right of the abbey of Knock- 
moye, 2 q rs , and in right of the abbey of Clontoyskert, 8 q rs — In Moynter Eaa are these 
parcells following, viz. Ballyglasse, 10 q rs — Ley trim, 6^ q rs — Caggall, 3^ q rs — Kilteig> 
4 q rs — Ballineboavin, 4 — Cashelleneghan, 2 — Dromdawe, 1 — the Kriagh, 4 q rs — 
Mollemuckte, 4 q rs — Raconnogher, 4 q rs — Ballenrie, 4 q rs — Carran, 1 q r — Lisnecrohie, 
1 q r — Ballynbogher, q r — Clonybirne, 2 q rs — Ardsallaghe, 2 q rs , whereof belongeth to 
the Bishoprick of Elphin, 1 q r — Ballenovmerie, 4 q rs — the Clonyne, 2 q", whereof 1 
q r belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Derran — also Carrowe Roe, 1 q 
belongeth to her Majesty in right of the Abbey of Roscommon — Kilbrid, 4 q rs ' 
belong 8 to the Bishoprick of Elphin — Also there belongeth to Her Majesty, over and 
besides the lands aforesaid, in the said Moynter Raae's lands, in right of the said 
abbey of Roscommon, 18 q rs — also Shelleronne, 44 q rs , whereof belongeth to the Arch- 
bishoprick of Tweame, 4 q rs — Clayne Kearne, 44 q rs , whereof belongeth to the bishop- 
rick of Elphin in Termon Kellyne, 4 q™ — also Cowryne Clane Connor, 42 q rs , whereof 
belongeth to her Majesty in right of the abbey of Roscommon, 3 q"; and belongeth to 
the Bishoprick of Elphin, 8 q rs — Ballen Rossemyn, 4 q rs — Beaghe, 1 q r — Sleight Grany 
ne Kellies land in Clain-Connor & Maghery Shiell Tirrelaghe, 22 q" — whereof be- 
longeth to the Queen in right of the abbey of Roscommon, 1 q r ; and to the Bishop- 
rick of Elphin, 1 q r — which in the whole within that barronie of Ballintober cometh 
to 372 q rsa . — In the barronie of Roscommon, there is a quantity of land called the 


a The "Boundaries of Roscommon" have been and so to Raghra where the river of Sucke going 

found as follows : into the river of Sheanan, and so along the said river 

" An Inquisition taken at Roscommon the 16th of Sucke to Carhyne, and from thence through the 

of July, 1607, before Sir Anthony St. Leger master middle arche of the new bridge in the town of Bal- 

of the Rolls, &c. — The Jury find ' That the county lanesloy, including the howse or castle of Ballane- 

of Roscommon extendeth in length from Athlone to sloy, and a small island between the howse and the 

Lahaghnelahareebane, near and on this side Beallana- middle streame which runneth under the saide bridge, 

fadd, 33 miles, and in breadth from Beallaleige at and so to Bealaga, including the lands of Aghagad 

the river of Sheanon to Owen-more near Coystullath and Aghagowre, beyond the said river of Sucke, 

(being the broadest place of the county) 16 miles. bounding on the county of Galwaye, extending for- 

They find the true mears and bounds of the said ward to the brooke or streame of Owynbegg, and so 

county to begin eastward, at the middest of the forward, as the course of the stream runneth, to 

bridge of Athlone, at the monument of Sir Henry Downoman, where the streame. . .which mearefalleth 

Sydney, and so extendeth, southward as the river into the river of Sucke, agayn from thence alonge the 

runneth to Clowneburren or Clowne M c Knoyse, said river to the bridge of Beallamoe, so to Bealla- 

IKISH ARCH. SOC. 1 5. 2 Z 


Clonties of O'Connor Roe, otherwise called Cowrme M'Brenan, 72 if: whereof belon? 
to the Queen as of the abbey of Boyle, 4 q", as of the abbey of Conge, 4 q", and to the 


earn, and forwarde to Ahalahanlare, from thence 
boundinge to Pollnemoynge, where it includeth the 
said river of Sucke, and then, reteynninge the meare, 
extendinge westwarde to the wood of Dowfle Deny, 
boundinge forwarde to Lahagheoggry between the 
towe woodes of Bocalagh, on the sowthe in tlie 
county of Gallway, and Clowfilliffe on the northe, 
and so extendeth through Lahagh Corboghill. be- 
tweene Slyewe I boyn and Twovmacroym, and for- 
warde through the middeste of a greate bogge called 
Moanemore, and so alonge to the streame of Clown - 
Irr on the northe, from thence it runneth through the 
middest of Iskermore, and forwarde to Leanieneshen- 
nagh, and to Cloysassann. Then contynueth the 

meare to Leantagh Moynter bounding the 

next parte of my Lo. Bermingham's couutrcv, and 
so forward to the edge of Clonmorrishe, on the south 
side of Scarrvenemoe, from thence to the river of 
Owyn-more on the northe, and so to the edge of 
Coystellagh, and from thence, through a brooke or 
streame called Owynbegg, extending forwarde to 
Aha-Inellanleh, buttinge west and north west to 
Grallagh-Uurtyne Ruyncoalla, and soe forwarde 
along the meare runningc betweene Cnock brack and 
Leighballuroe, from thence to Ahetwoakerl on the 
northe northe west of the same, and so dyrecth to 
Lyegane Killtullagh, from thence to the mean 
called Cleyahagerran and to Mannaghe-Attyflj 1 _ 
then holdinge the meare to Cnockanbane, and for- 
warde to Bunshuckyn, and so along the meare of La- 
haghgarraneenyehen, and to Lahagh Learner* 1 
and Pulliagh, and Lahagh-ne-trye gvery, and from 
thence to Cley Tomultagh, and still west north- 
west to Tullagh, from thence to Portnetrynaspoycke, 
which in English signetieth the meeting place of 
three bushopps, for that the bounds of the archbu- 
shopricke of Tweame, the buishopprick of Elphinn, 
and the buishopprick of Aghconry doe tneete in one, 
and from Portnetryenayspoyck along the river be- 

tweene Turlagbganyne and L'rrye, and so to 

and from thence to the river of Beallament, and so 
through Kyelmoana, and southward of Go . . . fan 

thence through the CoylL and to the f • 

Killmayue. and from thence as the streame runneth 
to lieallacrannan, and conteynninge the said . 
on to Illane Enehbrack. from thence to the pa 
Ballohfearna, and so through the bogg to the meare 

betweene and Annackallamore, and t: 

the mayne bogg called Cryeragh- lane, and 
Lj --iane on the- easte, ajid boundinge forward 

to Beallamota. and through the bogg 

raggmore. and from thence through the 
ward to Kahatra. and so includinge the i e 
liotra to the meare of Slewroe. and froi 
Claysh Cloynogoynan, and so northward to I. 
gara, and oomeinge oute of the said 
that boundeth the fwv townes of the Kami, 
parte of the county of Sligo, and b 
meare still runneth to Munhiniewoghter. a 
through the bogg to Loghanbuy, from then 
Srowh -purtloycke, and - Yrlbmn, 

and to Boher I.v-- lUn b. 

willa. and crossing over the river !• . 

be and Owyn-roe-barabiislagh, a:. 
ingethemountayneofCorlewegoeth to Ltnogli . . . 
and from thenee to the streame which & 
boundeth the towne of liallvmullai. 
tie-, whereof oni ) ..hi. is included in the said oMHtt 
of Roscommon and the other parte in tl> 
Slygoe, and so to Srowhane-Kill _ in- 

cluding Killieketreanna. buttinge to Beall 
alonge one meare to \ylle Cony and to Tttl 
begg, and from theno 

ricke on the .... Ballyiicglearath. and then in( 
midest of LoghayUen, and from thence into tin river 
of Sheanon. boundeth the county of Ltotrym from the 
county of Roscommon, and so alonge the said river 
into Loghry, wheare it includeth and Clay 


Bishoprick of Elphine, 2 q rs — also in Cowerine Tuilske, there is a quantity of land 
called Sleight Phelyme Cleary, 26 q rs ; whereof belongeth to the Queene in right of 
the abbey of Tuilsk, 2 q'\ and to the Bishoprick of Elphin, 4 q™ — also Clanartie, 
28 q rs , whereof belongeth to the Queen in right of the abbey of Tuilsk, 1 q r , in right 
of the abbey of Knockmoy, 4 q rs , and of Trinity abbey in Loughkee, 1 q r ; also there 
belongeth thereof to the deanery of Elphine, 2 J q rs — also Coverine Hanegan, 43 q rs ; 
whereof belongeth to the archbishop of Tweame, 2 q rs ; to the Bishoprick of Elphin, 
10 q rs , and to the deanery of same, 1 q r — Tyrevrune-oghtraghe 31 q rs , whereof 
belongeth to the Queen in right of the abbey of Boyle, 2 q rs , to the Archbishoprick 
of Tweame, 2 q rs , to the Bishoprick of Elphin, 1 q r — also Cowerine sleight O'Conor 
Koe, 10 q rs — Sleight Phelim Ffenn, 6 q rs , Sleight Cahall duffe, \\ q rs ; which in the 
whole within that Barronie cometh to 2 1 6 q rs . — In the Barony of Boylle otherwise 
Moylurge, there is a quantity of land called Ardagh, 68 q rs , whereof belongeth to the 
Queen in right of the Abbey of Clonshanville, 2 q rs , to the Bishoprick of Elphin, as is 
said, 6 q rs , and to Theobald Dillon, 28 q" — also the abbey of Boyle, 27 q rs , which 
belongeth to her Majesty in right of the said abbey — also the Trinytie abbey, 6 q rs , 
belonging to her Majestie in right of the same — also the abbey of Inshevickrynie, 3 
q rs , belong* to her Majestie in right of the said Abbey — also Cowrine Bryan M c Dyer- 
mod, 68 q rs — Claynecahill, 36 q rs — Tyrehovill and Kilty Connogher, 32 q rs — also 
Kilbrenan, 4 q rs , belong* to Her Majestie in right of the Trynitye abbey aforesaid — 
Ballyneheale, 4 q rs , belong* to the Bishoprick of Elphine — Cowerine ne tasce, 44 q rs , 
whereof 4 q rs belongeth to the Bishoprick of Elphin — also Ifertnawe, 1 q r , belonging 
to the Queen in right of the Trinitie abbey — also Kilnemannagh, 2 q rs , belong 8 to the 
Bishoprick of Elphin — Lisseogivoge, \ q r — Creavollan ^ q r — which in the whole 
within that barronie cometh to 296 q rs . — Also in the same Baronie there is a quantity 
of land called the Kannae, 1 5 q rs — also there is a quantity of land in the above named 


Inch, and from thence fallcth into the river of Shea- whereof inhabited 90 q rs , free 45 q rs , waste 301 

non agayne — and soe to the said bridge of ... . q rs The barrony of Boyle alias Movlagh (Moy- 

" Item, they findealsoe, that the said county con- larg) consisteth of 344 q™, whereof inhabitted 89£ 

sisteth of fower barronyes andanhalfe, viz. Athlone q rs , free 44 q rs , waste 210A q rs The half barony of 

consisteth of 270£ q rs , whereof are inhabited 124, .... consisteth of 28 q™, whereof inhabited 9£ q rs , 

free by the composition 12, waste 134A The bar- free 13 q rs , waste .... The number of q rs in the 

rony of Rosscommon consisteth of 271 q rs , whereof said comity, inhabyted, free, and waste, are 1400 q rs 

inhabited 115, free 8, waste 148J The lordship of whereof inhabitted at this instant 427£ q rs , free in 

Roscommon consisteth of 50£ q rs , whereof inhabited, all 145 q rs , waste in all 827A q rs ." — Orig. Inquis. 

save the freedom, nihil, free 23 q rs , waste 27A q rs — Rolls Off. 
The barony of Ballyntobber consisteth of 436 q rs , 

2 Z 2 

35 6 

barronie of Ballentobber, called Karraw Reogh, Carrow Entaloghan, Carrowentobber, 
Carrow-Beallagh Kylly, and \ a q r in Killester, consisting in the whole of \\ q"; 
whereof belongeth to the deanery of Elphine \ q r ; all which being drawne into one 
total, cometh to the aforesaid number of 905 q r> . 

" The said lords, chieftains, & c acknowledging the manifold benefits and ea 
they finde in possessinge of their lands and goods, since the peaceable government of 
the said Lord Deputie, and the just dealinges of Sir Richard Binghame Knt. doe 
grant to the Queens most excellent Majestic, her heirs and successors for ever, one yearlie 
rent-charge of tenn shillings, good and lawful money of England goinge out of every 
q r , and for lacke of money the thresurer or generall Receiver to receive kyne to the 
value of the said rente. And further do covenant to aunswere & beare 30 good hable 
horsemen, and 30 footmen well armed, with carriage and victualls, to all ho~ 
roodes and journies within the said province of Connaugbt and Thomond; and ic _ 
hable horsemen and 4.0 footmen well armed, to all general host irigs proclaimed in this 

" The said Lo. Deputie for & in the behalfe of the Queene's Majesty doth covenant, 
promise, grant and agree that the above named Hugh O'Connor dune, for his 
maintenance, and in recompence of such customarie duties, exactions and cutting 
he pretended to have of O'Birne, O'Hanlie, O'Fflynne, and other freeholders of the 
said barronie of Ballintobber, shall have, by letters patent, to him and his heii- 
only the castle of Ballintobber, and all other eustle- and landes a-> belonge to the name 
and callinge of O'Connor dune, but also such lands and castles as he i? now justlie 
seized of as his inheritance, to run in succession to him and his heirs by coarse and 
order of the laws of England; and also shall haw 7 q" of land fre . as ;i demayne 
said castle of Ballyntobber. 

" That Teige oge O'Connor, for his better maintenance of living, and also in re 
pense of such customarie duties, exaccons and spendings as he pretended to ha 1 
O'Flanegan, M c Brenan, and other freeholders of said barronie of Roscommon, shall 
have by letters patent to him and his heirs, not only the castle of Bellnemnlly, and all 
such other castles and lands as belong to the name and calling of O'Connor roe. and as 
he is now seised of his inheritance; and also 4 <\ r> free, as a demayne i 

" That Bryen M c Dermod for his better maintiiiance of living, and also in re- 
compence of such customarie duties, exaccons and spendings as he pretended to have 
of M c Dermod roe, and other freeholders in the barronie of Boyle, shall have by I 
patents, not only the castles of Carrick M c Dermod, and all such other castles and lands 
as belong to the name and calling of M c Dermod ; but also all such as he is now entitled 


as his inheritance, to run in succession from him to his heirs, by course and order of the 
laws of England ; and also 4 q rs free, as a demayne to his castle of Carrick M Dermod. 

" That Hu. M c Tirrelagh roe of Clonybirne shall have and take by letters patents, 
not only all such castles and lands as belong to the name and calling of Tanestship of 
O'Conor roe, but also all such as he is now seized of as his inheritance; and also 4 q rS 
free as a demayne to his castle of Clonibirne. 

" That Carbrie O'Birne of the Dingine shall have, by letters patents, all such 
lands as belong to the name of O'Birn, for life, with remainder to Dawghe O'Birne of 
Do wen. 

" That Doualtaghe O'Conor of Bracklowne shall have 2 quarters free, adjoining his 
castle of Brakelowne in the baronie of Ballintobber. 

" That Connor oge M c Dermod shall have 2 q rs free, as a demayne to his house or 
towne of Incheaghochar. 

" That the house or manor of Roscommon shall have 23 q rs of land free; whereof 4 
q rs of Greene O'Molloye's farme to be parcell. And that the house or manor of Boyle 
shall have 20 q rs free. 

" That Sir Tho s le Strange shall have 6 q rs free, as a demayne to his house or towne 
of Derran in the baronie of Roscommon. 

" That John Crofton shall have 6 q rs free, as a demayne to his house and castle of 
Castlebragade, alias Canvoe in the barronie of Boyle. 

" That Edward White shall have 4 q rs free, as a demayne to his castle or house of 
Ballenderie, in the barronie of Ballintobber. 

" That William Clifford shall have 4 q rs free, as a demayne to his house or town of 
the calae, in the barronie of Boyle. 

" That Theobald Dillon shall have 6 q rs free, viz. Carrowe-Ryogh, 1 q r in the 
barony of Ballintobber, and 4 q rs in Bally M c Moroghe and Bally-ne Shie in the baronie 
of Boyle, as a demayne to his castle and mannor of Bynfaddae in the county of Mayo. 

" That Mylles Cavanaghe shall have 2 q rs free, as a demayne to his castle of New- 
towne in the baronie of Roscommon. 

" That Patrick Morgan of Artaghe shall have 4 q rs free, as a demayne to his house 
or towne of Ballyneaden in the Barronie of Boyle. 

" And, for as much as the meaner sorte of the freeholders, viz. of M c Dermode, 
O'Conor Roe, and O'Conor Done's countries, shall be greatlie burdened by this com- 
position, if the petty lords and captains next above them be allowed to take such 
rents and duties, as they pretend to belong to the sayd petty captainshipps ; for 
remedy whereof it is condescended, concluded, and agreed, that the above named 
O'Berne, O'Hanlie, O'Fflanagan, O'Ffiinne, M c Breanan and M c Dermod Roe, and all 



others of that callinge, shall have by letters patents, all such castles and lands as 
belongeth to the name and callinge of O'Birne, O'Hanlie, O'Fflanagan, O'Fflinne, 
M c Breanan and M c Dermod Roe, and after the decease of every of them now living, 
the aforesaid rents shall from thenceforth be utterlie determined & extinguished for 
ever. — IN WITNESSE whereof the aforesaid Lords, chieftains &f have hereunto put 
their seales, and subscribed their names this 3 rd day of October, Anno Domini I 

" W. Tuamen. — Connor oge O'Connor Roe. — Collo O'Ffloyne. — 

John Crafton Rob t . Nugent. — Teig M' Dermott. — Cahall oge 

M c Mulrony. — Ferrall M c Dermod. — O'Hanly. — Owen Graxe 

Mulrony M c Dermott Tho. Dillon. — Bryan O'Fflanigan. — 

W M . Clifford — John Birtshall Turlagh M' Swine — Car. 

O'Birn. — Bryan M c Diarmod. — Hu. O'Connor M' Tirlagh Roe.'' 

" Com, Clare § Thomond. 
" Indenture made betwixt the Right Honorable Sir John Perron Knight, & 
the one partie, and the Lords spirituall and temporall, chieftaii 1 that 

part of the province of Connaught called Thomond. that i- .rle of 

Thomond — Murrough lord baron of Inchiequin — The Reverend fathers in God. Mau- 
ricius Bishopp of Kyllalowe — Daniell elect bishop of Kyllffynnoraghi — 1 
OTIorane, dean of Kyllalow — Daniell Sh.nnaghe, deane of KyllfinoragL. — I '■ nig, arch- 
deacon of the same — Sir Edward Waterhouse of Downa>-ee. knt. — Sir Tyrrelagh 
O'Brien of Ennestyvey, knt. — John M c nemara of Knappock, otherwise called M' Ne- 
marra of Westcloncullun — Donell Reagh M' Nenmrragh of Gari .-wist- 

called M c Nemarraghe of Easte Clonculluu — Teige M c Mahoune of Clonderralae. other- 
wise called M c Mahoun of Castle Corkowaskin — Tyrrelagh. M Mahoune ofMoyurtye, 
chief of his name in Weste Corkowaskin — Moriertagh O'Brien of Dr. : gen. — 

Mahowne Brien of Clondewan, gen. — Owny O'Laughleine of the Gragans. otherwise 
called O'Laughlene — Rosse O'Laughhn of Glancolluni-Kvllie. tanest to the 
O'Laghlen — Mahone and Dermott O'Dae of Tullaghadae, chieffe el' their na: — 
Connor Mac Gilreoghe of Cragbreane, chieffe of his name — Tyrrelaghe Mac Teig 
O'Brien of Beallacorege, gen. — Luke Bradey sonne and heire of the late bishopp of 
Meath — Edward White of the Crattelagh, gen. — George I • :' Dromoylen, gen. — 

Boetius Clanchie of Knockfynney, gen. — John M' Neman of the Moetullen. gen. — 
Henry O'Grady of the Hand of Inchecronan, gen. — Donnogh M' Clanchie of the Urlion, 
chieffe of his name — Donnogh Garraghe O'Brien of Balk. - 2 n. — Conner ('"Brien 
of Curharcorcae, gen. — and George Fanninge of Limerick, merchant, of the other parte." 



This Indenture bears date the 17 th August, 1585. For its contents, the reader is 
referred to the original record. The following letter of Queen Eliz. in favour of 
Connor earl of Thomond, A.D. 1577, taken from the original roll, maybe found 
useful by the future topographer of this interesting district : 

" Elizabeth R. By the Queen. 

" Eight trusty and right well beloved Counsellor, we grete you well. And 
whereas, our right trusty and right welbeloved Cousin, Connoher, Earl of Thomond, 
hath here of late, made humble suit unto us, as well for our confirmation of all such 
letters patents, as he either passed from the king our father of famous memory, or from 
our dear brother king Edw. vi., or from us, that might concern his father's creation or 
state of his earldom, or himself and his succession, or for assurance of any lands to him 
in possession, reversion or remainder, in which part he hath also besought us, that his 
son Donnoghe, now Baron of Ibrackan, and brought up here in our Court might be 
nominated by us in the remainder of his Earldom, altho' the same be not needful 
if he be his lawful and eldest son. We have, in consideration of the dutiful mind 
the said earl pretends to bear to us and our said service, not only consented that, for 
his better contentation, such a confirmation shall pass under our great seall of this 
our Realm of England, including all the benefits of his other particularities concerning 
such petitions as he hath exhibitted here to us and our Council, wherein albeit we 
declare our opinion or disposition unto you upon every of his said suits, yet we refer 
to your consideration the manner of our grants, to pass under our seale there, and to 
be limitted as you shall think convenient for our service and his reasonable relief. 
Further, where our said Cousin hath desired, for the better maintenance of his estate, 
to have freedom from cesse on all his own lands within the county of Thomond, which 
he saies are comprised in eight baronies, besides the barony of Ibreckan, and pretend- 
ing an ancient freedom in the said whole barony of Ibreckan, desires the like in the 
rest, or at the least in some of the other baronies, and hath shewed forth here an 
exemption or freedom for certain plowlands, granted unto him from Sir W m Drury 
knt. now president in Munster, in certain of his said baronies. We have thought 
good, for the respect before named, to agree that he shou'd take, during his life, the 
freedom of the plowlands so set down by our president, with such commodities in the 
same grant made by our said President, and in like manner the freedom of Ibreckan 
with like conditions, if it shall be by you thought meet ; and for the rest, do refer to 
you to be considered of as you shall think most convenient of, for the estate of the 
country and our services. 

" Secondly, where the said earl pretends an ancient government, by way of com- 
mandment, over the freeholders within Thomonde, especially in making of surnames, 


3 6 ° 

and after the decease of the chief of every name, to allow the next captain or 
which he saies hath been heretofore benefi